Structural Organization in Animals

Category : UPSC

Structural Organization in Animals

 

1.           Epithelial Tissue

 

  • The covering or protective tissues in the animal body are epithelial tissues. Epithelium covers most organs and cavities within the body. It also forms a barrier to keep different body systems separate.
  • The skin, the lining of the mouth, the lining of blood vessels, lung alveoli and kidney tubules are all made of epithelial tissue.
  • Epithelial tissue cells are tightly packed and form a continuous sheet. They have only a small amount of cementing material between them and almost no intercellular spaces. Obviously, anything entering or leaving the body must cross at least one layer of epithelium.

 

2.           Connective Tissue

 

  • Connective tissues are most abundant and widely distributed in the body of complex animals. They are named connective tissues because of their special function of linking and supporting other tissues/organs of the body.
  • They range from soft connective tissues to specialised types, which include cartilage, bone, adipose, and blood.
  • In all connective tissues except blood, the cells secrete fibres of structural proteins called collagen or elastin. The fibres provide strength, elasticity and flexibility to the tissue.
  • These cells also secrete modified polysaccharides, which accumulate between cells and fibres and act as matrix (ground substance).
  • Blood has a fluid (liquid) matrix called plasma, in which red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets are suspended. The plasma contains proteins, salts and hormones. Blood flows and transports gases, digested food, hormones and waste materials to different parts of the body.
  • Bone is another example of a connective tissue. It forms the framework that supports the body. It also anchors the muscles and supports the main organs of the body. It is a strong and nonflexible tissue. Bone cells are embedded in a hard matrix that is composed of calcium and phosphorus compounds.
  • Two bones can be connected to each other by another type of connective tissue called the ligament.
  • Tendons connect muscles to bones and are another type of connective tissue. Tendons are fibrous tissue with great strength but limited flexibility.
  • Another type of connective tissue, cartilage, has widely spaced cells. The solid matrix is composed of proteins and sugars. Cartilage smoothens bone surfaces at joints and is also present in the nose, ear, trachea and larynx. We can fold the cartilage of the ears, but we cannot bend the bones in our arms.
  • Areolar connective tissue is found between the skin and muscles, around blood vessels and nerves and in the bone marrow. It fills the space inside the organs, supports internal organs and helps in repair of tissues.
  • Fatstoring adipose tissue is found below the skin and between internal organs. The cells of this tissue are filled with fat globules. Storage of fats also lets it act as an insulator.

 

3.           Muscular Tissue

 

  • Muscular tissue consists of elongated cells, also called muscle fibres. This tissue is responsible for movement in our body. Muscles contain special proteins called contractile proteins, which contract and relax to cause movement.
  • We can move some muscles by conscious will. Muscles present in our limbs move when we want them to, and stop when we so decide. Such muscles arc called voluntary muscles. These muscles are also called skeletal muscles as they are mostly attached to bones and help in body movement.
  • The movement of food in the alimentary canal or the contraction and relaxation of blood vessels are involuntary movements. We cannot really start them or stop them simply by wanting to do so. Smooth muscles or involuntary muscles control such movements. They are also found in the iris of the eye, in ureters and in the bronchi of the lungs.
  • The muscles of the heart show rhythmic contraction and relaxation throughout life. These involuntary muscles are called cardiac muscles. Heart muscle cells are cylindrical, branched and uninucleate.

 

4.           Nervous Tissue

 

  • All cells possess the ability to respond to stimuli. However, cells of the nervous tissue are highly specialised for being stimulated and then transmitting the stimulus very rapidly from one place to another within the body.
  • The brain, spinal cord and nerves are all composed of the nervous tissue.
  • The cells of this tissue are called nerve cells or neurons. A neuron consists of a cell body with a nucleus and cytoplasm, from which long thin hair-like parts arise. Usually each neuron has a single long part, called the axon, and many short, branched parts called dendrites.
  • An individual nerve cell may be up to a metre long. Many nerve fibres bound together by connective tissue make up a nerve.

 

5.           Organ System of Animal

 

  • Earthworm is a reddish brown terrestrial invertebrate that inhabits the upper layer of the moist soil. During day time, they live in burrows made by boring and swallowing the soil. In the gardens, they can be traced by their faecal deposits known as worm castings. The common Indian earthworms are Pheretima and Lumbricus.
  • Pheretima exhibits a closed type of blood vascular system, consisting of blood vessels, capillaries and heart.
  • Earthworm is hermaphrodite (bisexual), i.e., testes and ovaries are present in the same individual. Earthworms are known as "friends of farmers' because they make burrows in the soil and make it porous which helps in respiration and penetration of the developing plant roots. The process of increasing fertility of soil by the earthworms is called vermicomposting. They are also used as bait in game fishing.
  • Cockroaches are brown or black bodied animals that are included in class Insecta of Phylum Arthropoda. They are nocturnal omnivores that live in damp places throughout the world. They have become residents of human homes and thus are serious pests and vectors of several diseases.
  • The body of the cockroach is segmented and divisible into three distinct regions - head, thorax and abdomen. The entire body is covered by a hard chitinous exoskeleton (brown in colour).
  • Blood vascular system of cockroach is an open type.
  • Excretion is performed by Malpighian tubules. The nervous system of cockroach is spread throughout the body. The head holds a bit of a nervous system while the rest is situated along the ventral (belly-side) part of its body. The head of a cockroach is cut off, it will still live for as long as one week.
  • With the help of several ommatidia, a cockroach can receive several images of an object. This kind of vision is known as mosaic vision with more sensitivity but less resolution, being common during night (hence called nocturnal vision).
  • Cockroaches are dioecious and both sexes have well developed reproductive organs.
  • Many species of cockroaches are wild and are of no economic importance. A few species thrive in and around human habitat. They are pests because they destroy food and contaminate it with their smelly excreta. They can transmit a variety of bacterial diseases by contaminating food material.
  • Frogs can live both on land and in freshwater and belong to class Amphibia of phylum Chordata. The most common species of frog found in India is Rana tigrina. They do not have constant body temperature i.e., their body temperature varies with the temperature of the environment. Such animals are called cold blooded or poikilotherms.
  • They have the ability to change the colour to hide them from their enemies (camouflage). This protective coloration is called mimicry.
  • The frogs are not seen during peak summer and winter. During this period they take shelter in deep burrows to protect them from extreme heat and cold. This is called as summer sleep (aestivation) and winter sleep (hibernation).
  • The skin is smooth and slippery due to the presence of mucus. The skin is always maintained in a moist condition. The frog never drinks water but absorb it through the skin.
  • Food is captured by the bilobed tongue.
  • Frogs respire on land and in the water by two different methods. In water, skin acts as aquatic respiratory organ (cutaneous respiration). Dissolved oxygen in the water is exchanged through the skin by diffusion. On land, the buccal cavity, skin and lungs act as the respiratory organs.
  • The vascular system of frog is well-developed closed type.
  • External ear is absent in frogs and only tympanum can be seen externally. The ear is an organ of hearing as well as balancing (equilibrium).
  • Frogs are beneficial for mankind because they eat insects and protect the crop. Frogs maintain ecological balance because these serve as an important link of food chain and food web in the ecosystem. In some countries the muscular legs of frog are used as food by man.

 

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