12th Class Mental Ability Logical Venn Diagram Notes - Statement and Conclusion

Notes - Statement and Conclusion

Category : 12th Class

Statement and Conclusion


Conclusion: Conclusions are inferences that can be drawn on the basis of the information given in the statement.


In these type of questions, a candidate is asked to decide whether a given inference follows or not in the light of the given statement or passage. For example,

           Shravan – Let’s go to a restaurant.

           Prakash – I have only Rs. 100.


What is your conclusion? – Shravan and Prakash cannot go to a restaurant. But why? Because nothing comes in Rs. 100 in a restaurant. But how do you know this? You don’t. You should keep in mind that never bring outside information into your reading of a decision making problem. Let’s understand how should we reach a conclusion. For this, follow the simple rules given below:


Rule 1

           Don’t assume information, facts unless it is a universal truth.


Example 1:

           Statement: People should not give false information to an officer of law.

           Conclusion: They should be honest.

           Explanation: The conclusion here is based on universal accepted fact that “honesty is the best policy’. So, it follows the statement.


Rule 2

           A probably true conclusion has no place and you should treat that as ‘does not follow’.


Example 2:

           Statement: If we bring black money back from abroad, it will lead to country’s development.

           Conclusion: Black money will help in funding our ongoing development projects.

           Explanation: Here, the conclusion may be true and may not be true. So, it is a case of “probable true’ conclusions.

Hence, it does not follow the statement.


Rule 3

           Make sure you are not bringing outside information into your questions.


Example 3:

           Statement: A player should have the capacity to deal with pressure and control aggression.

           Conclusion: Mary Kom, who is a great boxer, has all the above qualities.

           Explanation: In the above conclusion, the author is bringing outside information (about Mary Kom), so it does not follow the statement.


Rule 4

           Pay attention to the keywords such as - ‘only’, ‘any’ ‘if and only if, ‘either’, ‘neither’, ‘all’, ‘must’, ‘never’, ‘always’ etc.


Example 4:

           Statement: Parents are ready to pay any price for admission in a good public school for their children.

           Conclusion: All the parents are well-off these days.

           Explanation: Since all parents are not very well off, so the conclusion is not true / use of all makes it invalid. If ‘some’ would have been used, instead of ‘all’ then it might have been true.


Rule 5

           For any new scheme, policy, even for an organisation which has been newly introduced, it can be concluded that there is a need for that scheme, or policy or an organisation. It can also be concluded that people will welcome it and there are all the essential resources available for its execution and also the people for whom it is intended, they know about. It and will be benefitted by it.


Example 5:

           Statement: Under the Food For All’ policy, Government of India has decided to give free food to all BPL families.



  1. Government has the surplus storage of food grains.
  2. Poor people will no longer remain hungry.

Explanation: Clearly both can be deduced from the statement as both I and II is fulfilling the purpose of the scheme. Government can start any scheme only after it has all the available resources. So, conclusion I can be clearly concluded. The purpose of government to start the scheme can only be fulfilled if people get benefit from it.


Rule 6

Generally, optimistic and positive conclusions are associated with the schemes, policies, programme etc. introduced by the head of any organization, department, country etc.


Example 6:

           Statement: Midday meal programme for all school going students was introduced.



  1. The drop out percentages in the schools will decrease.
  2. The literacy rate among the poor section will improve.

           Explanation: Both the conclusions are optimistic and positive which are associated with the statement. Hence, both can be deduced.


Rule 7

           If any conclusion drawn is contradicting the statement or the objective of the statement, then that cannot be the conclusion of the statement.


Example 7:

           Statement: Production of tea is declining in India due to huge loss associated with it.



  1. Tea is a profitable crop and hence is grown on large scale.
  2. Price of tea is soaring due to decline in production.

           Explanation: Clearly, I is contradicting the statement and hence it is not a right conclusion. Also nothing about the price of tea is mentioned in the statement. So, II also cannot be deduced.


Rule 8

           Analyze the given statement, understand their direct and indirect implication and then decide which of the given conclusion follows.


Example 8:

           Statement: Now-a-days people prefer to catch news on television than reading it in newspapers.


  1. Method of increasing the readership of newspapers should be devised.
  2. A team of experts should be sent to other countries to study the impact of TV on the readership of newspapers.

           (a) Only conclusion I follows            (b) Only conclusion II follows

           (c) Either I or II follows                        (d) Neither I nor II follows

           (e) Both I and II follow

Ans.    (d)

Explanation: The statement concentrates on the increasing viewership of TV and does not stress either on increasing the readership of newspapers or making studies regarding the same. So, neither I nor It follows.


Rule 9

           Any conclusion, which is a negative reaction, is always invalid.

Example 9:

           Statement: To control class bunking in schools, Government will introduce military law in all the schools.

           Conclusion: School authorities will not follow this policy and will go on indefinite strike.

           Explanation: Above conclusion does not follow the statement as it is a kind of negative reaction.


Rule 10

Conclusions based on examples and comparisons, are always invalid.

Example 10:

           Statement: In America, teachers allow help books during examination.

           Conclusion: Same practice should be allowed in India.

            Explanation: The conclusion is derived on the basis of the comparison between India and America, so it is an invalid conclusion.





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Notes - Statement and Conclusion

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