5th Class Science Plants Plant life

Plant life

Category : 5th Class

PLANT LIFE

 

 

FUNDAMENTAL

  • Paddy, wheat and maize are monocot plants, belong to grass family.
  • Pea, gram and other pulses are dicot plants and belong to leguminous family.
  • Monocot plants have one cotyledon whereas dicot plants have two cotyledons in their seeds.
  • Gymnosperms are group of plants bear which naked seeds, e.g., Pinus, Cycas
  • Angiosperm plants are highly developed flowering plants, e.g., Mango, Neem.
  • Mushrooms are grown in dark places; it doesn't undergo photosynthesis rather it feeds on dead and decayed organic matter.

 

Types of plant on basis of habitat

  1. Terrestrial
  2. Aquatic plant
  3. Epiphytes (Air plants)
  4. Marshy plant

 

Types of Plants on the basis of habitat

A.

Terrestrial Plants grow on the land

e.g. mango, pine, coconut

1. Desert Plants: Leaves reduced into spine, swollen stem to store water, long roots etc. e.g. Cactus

2. Plants in hot and damp places remain evergreen and never shed leaves e.g. coconut, neem.

3. Plants of plains: They have branches and leaves shed leaves in autumn e.g. maple tree

4. Platns of hilly areas: Tall plants with lots of branches of flowers e.g. pine, cycas

B.

Aquatic Platns grow in water e.g. Lotus, vallisneria

1. Floating Plants: Floats Plants: Floats on the surface of pond, lake etc. e.g. water hyacinth, duckweed

2. Submerged Plants: Breathe through the body surface. Have no pores on the leaves e.g. Hydrilla vallisneria etc.

C.

Epiphytes (Air Plants) those live on trees e.g. mosses, orchids

1. Not permanently rooted in soil

2. Developed root system

3. Stem not extensively develop

4. Reduction in leaf number

D.

Marshy Plants has breathing roots to take air from atmosphere e.g. mangroves

1. Marshy plants are characterized by luxuriant growth and often have large leaves.

2. Close to the water?s edge, there is no shortage of water for growth.

3. Plants in this region can therefore afford to have large leaves since excessive loss of moisture from the foliage is not a problem.

 

Adaptation in Different Plants

Valisneria

Water

Hyacinth

Desert

Plants

Drosera

Lotus

Plants growing in hilly area

Marshy plant

Submerged plants have pores on the leaf surface to breathe

Floating plants have long stem and broad leaves that are buoyant

Desert plants  have leaves reduced to spines to prevent water loss through transpiration Long roots to go up to under- ground water sources

Insectivorous plants are attractive and colorful to attract insect and birds

Fixed plants have long hollow stem to provide support and broad leaves to provide buoyancy

Plants growing in hilly area have leaves reduced to needle shaped to allow snow to slip off the leaf surface

Marshy plants have air breathing roots to absorb nutrients from the air

 

  • A seed is a part of the fruit which gives birth to a new plant. It is surrounded and protected by seed coat. A seed requires water, oxygen and the optimum temperature to germinate.

 

  • Seed dispersal is the phenomenon of carrying the fruits or seeds to distant area in order to spread them.
  • Fruits and seeds are dispersed so that young plants can get sufficient space, light, water and nutrients to grow well.

 

                                                                                       

Method of seed dispersal

By Wind

By Water

By Animals

By Explosion

Characteristics

The fruits or seeds are usually small and light or have large surface area so that they can be carried easily by the wind e.g., Cotton, poppy, maple, drumsticks

The fruits or seeds usually have a fibrous structure that to float on water. E.g., coconut, lotus, water lily and hydrilla

The fruits which are sweet and juicy are eaten by animals. The seeds are usually not digested are dropped out e.g., Guava, Mango, Berries

The fruits dry up and split open or release or scatter the seeds inside. E.g., Balsam, Pea, Geranium

Examples

 

REPRODUCTION IN PLANT

  • Sexual Reproduction - Flower is the main reproductive organ
  • Asexual Reproduction - Vegetative propagation

 

  1. Vegetative reproduction by Stem
  • Runner- In strawberries their stems run horizontally parallel to the ground. New roots emerge from the nodes and gives rise to new plants.
  • Suckers - Similar to runners but have shorter internodes. e.g., Mint, Chrysanthemum.
  • Rhizome - It has underground node and internodes. e.g., Ginger
  • Tuber - Vegetative production through bud eyes. e.g., Potato
  • Corm - Is condensed rhizome which is formed vertically in the ground, e.g., Choco, rice.
  • Bulbs - In non-favorable situation, bulb in the plants grows into plants, e.g., Onion.

 

  1. Vegetative propagation by Leaf
  • Buds present on the margin of leaves develops into the new plants on getting the favorable conditions.

 

  1. Vegetative propagation by Root
  • Tuberous roots of sweet potato and dahlia when get detached from the plant, grows into new plant.

 

Artificial means of Vegetative propagation

  1. Cutting:- Cutting in rose, bougainvillea, sugarcane etc. can grow into new plants when put in soil.
  2. Grafting:- It is the technique in which stem of one desired plant is inserted on the root of other desired plants, e.g., Rose, mango, apple, etc. (only applicable for dicot plants).
  3. Layering:- When bark, removed from a branch of a plant, is bent down and touches moist soil growing upright, e.g. Jasmine, Strawberries and Grapevine.

 

CROPS

Plants of one kind grown in a particular area or region during a particular period are called crops.

 

Kharif crops:- (Rice, maize, jowar and bajra) grown in summer season.

Rabi crops:- (Wheat, barley, gram) grown in winter season.

Oil producing crops:- Sunflower, Groundnut, Coconut, Mustard and Peanuts.

Fiber producing crops:- Cotton, Jute

Cash crops:- Which are raw materials for industries. (Rubber, Tea, Coffee, Sugarcane)

Food crops:- For food materials (Paddy, wheat)

Medicinal Plants:- Uses for herbal medicine. (Aloevera, Ashwagandha, Margosa, Wood apple)

Other Topics

Notes - Plant life
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