UPSC History Expansion Company and Bengal Nawabs Short Notes - Arrival of Europeans in India

Short Notes - Arrival of Europeans in India

Category : UPSC


Arrival of Europeans in India



  • On 17"' May 1498, Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese navigator, came to Calicut.
  • He found new trade route from Europe to Asia via Cape of Good Hope.
  • He became the first European to re- establish trade relations with India.
  • He was welcomed with honour by the Zamorin of Calicut.
  • He returned back to Portugal in AD 1499.
  • His second visit in 1502 established Portuguese Trading Centres at Calicut, Cannanore and Cochin.
  • Cochin was the first capital of the Portuguese in India which was shifted to Goa later on.



  • Dutch arrived in India as a beginning of Portuguese decline in 1605.
  • The Dutch East India Company of Netherlands was formed in 1592 to trade with East Indies.
  • Cornelis Houtman was the first Dutch who came to India.
  • The Dutch established trading centres at Nagapatnam in Tamil Nadu; Machlipatnam in Andhra Pradesh, Chinsora in Bengal & at Mahe on the Malabar coast.
  • Their headquarter in India was at Nagapatnam.
  • They could not compete with Portuguese & English and so left India.



  • In AD 1664 French came to India as a last European Community.
  • The French East India Company was founded by Jean Baptiste Colbert.
  • In 1667, the first French Factory was established at Surat.
  • The second Factory was established at Masulipatnam in 1669.
  • Franco Martin was the well-known French Viceroy in India.
  • Joseph-Francois Duplex was the most powerful French Governor, appointed in 1742.
  • The Anglo-French rivalry can be acknowledged by the three Carnatic wars fought between French & English during 1745 & 1763.


  • In 1616 the Danes came to India.
  • They established at Tranquebar (Tamil Nadu) in 1620 and Serampore [Bengal) in 1676.
  • They made Serampore as their headquarters.
  • In 1854 they were pressured to sell their establishment to the British.

You need to login to perform this action.
You will be redirected in 3 sec spinner