UPSC History The Rise of Maratha Short Notes - Maratha State (1674-1818)

Short Notes - Maratha State (1674-1818)

Category : UPSC


Maratha State (1674-1818)


  • Shivaji was born at Shivner, Poona and died on April 3, 1680 in Rajgarh.
  • He was founder of the Maratha kingdom of India.
  • Shahji Bhonsle was the father and Jija Bai was the mother of Shivaji.
  • Shivaji inherited the Jagir of Poona from his father in 1637.
  • After the death of his guardian Dadaji Kondadev Shivaji took over full charge of his Jagir.
  • In 1659, Shivaji killed Afzal Khan who was deputed by Adil Shah to suppress him.
  • Ashta Pradhan Mandal was the Cabinet of Eight Ministers in the court of Shivaji.
  • Ashta Pradhan-  Peshwa  [Prime Minister],    Muzumdar   [Finance Minister],   Surnis   (Minister   for  Land Revenue, Vaknis (Minister for  Internal and External Intelligence). Dabir (Minster for External Affairs], Sarnaubat    (Commander-in-Chief),Nyayadhish (Chief Justice).


Sikh Gurus


  • Nanak (1469-1539) founded Sikh religion.
  • Angad (1538-52) invented Gurmukhi.
  • Amardas (1552-74) struggled against sati system and purdah system and established 22 Gadiyans to propagate religion.
  • Ramdas (1574-81) founded Amritsar in 1577. Akbar granted the land.
  • Arjun (1581-1606) founded Swam Mandir (Golden Temple) and composed Adi Granth.
  • Hargobind Singh    (1606-45) established Akal Takht and fortified Amritsar.
  • Har Rai (1645-66)
  • Harkishan (1661-64)
  • Tegh Bahadur (1664-75)
  • Gobind Singh (1675-1708) was the last Guru who founded the Khalsa. After him Sikh guruship ended.


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