10th Class English Grammar (All Topics) Verb

Verb

Category : 10th Class

*         Verb

 

Introduction: A Verb is a word which affirms or predicts something of some person or thing, or a part of speech expressing being, action or the suffering of action.

Verbs are divided into two main classes

(i) Principal

(ii) Auxiliary

(i) When a verb is used independently, it is called a Principal Verb.  

 

 

 

Call, go, work, etc.

(ii) When a verb is used only to help some other verb to form voices, moods and tenses, it is called an Auxiliary Verb. [Auxiliary means helping. The only verbs that can be so used are - can, be, have, shall, will, may, do.  

 

*            Principal Verbs (or Main Verbs)  

Principal Verbs are divided into two classes: Transitive Verbs and Intransitive Verbs.  

(A)  Transitive Verbs are those verbs that require an object to make the sense clear.  

 

 

He did this.

I love her.

Who made it?

Note that, some transitive verbs like: Tell, teach, ask, show, give, send, etc. take two objects, Direct and Indirect.    

 

 

He gave me a book. (Indirect Object Direct Object)

I told him this. (Indirect Object Direct Object)  

(B)   Intransitive Verbs are those that do not require any object to make the sense clear.    

 

 

He sleeps.

I run.

Birds fly.

Here are some of the Principal Verbs along with their different forms.  

                                                     

(i)            Bear                       Bore                      Borne                                                                                

                                                                              Born

Remember that, 'born' is only used in Passive Voice, like - He was born in 1982.

(ii)           Find                       Found                   Found

(iii)          Found                   Founded              Founded

(iv)         Hang                      Hung                     Hung

(v)          Hang                      Hanged                Hanged

(vi)         Lie                          Lay                         Lain

(vii)        Lay                         Laid                        Laid

(viii)       Lie                          Lied                        Lied

(ix)         Rise                        Rose                      Rose

(x)          Rise                        Raised                   Raised  

 

*            Auxiliary Verbs

There are some Primary Auxiliaries:

(i) To be - is / are / am / was / were (be, being, been)

(ii) Have - have / has / had (having)

(iii) Do - do / does / did (doing, done)    

Modal Verbs

Like: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, need, dare, used (to), out (to), etc.  

Here are a few rules related to the usage of Modal Verbs.

1.       After 'to be' there is always the usage of  i.e., (Verb + ing).  

 

 

 

The man is trying to speak with us. (to be )  

2.        is used with any form of 'have' and it indicates the completion of a work,  

 

 

Priti has reached the station. ()  

3.        is used with any of the form of 'do'.  

 

 

She does not talk to me. ()  

4.       Modal Auxiliaries:  

(A)  is always used after Modal Auxiliaries.  

 

 

 

They can win the competition. (Modal )  

(B) Except 'ought' and 'used', no Modal Auxiliaries take 'to' after them. That means, no Infinitive 'to' is used after Modal, while by using 'to' problems are generally created.  

 

 

She will to complete the work. In the sentence above, the usage of 'to' is wrong.  

(C) Two Modal Auxiliaries are never used simultaneously.  

 

 

 

He should must do it. In this sentence, the usage of 'should' and 'must' simultaneously is wrong. You have to use either 'should' or 'must'.  

(D) The usage of two Modal Auxiliaries are made in a sentence by adding a Conjunction.  

 

 

She should and must go now. (Modal Conjunction Modal)  

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