Current Affairs 4th Class

Our Body and Health   Interesting Facts
  •             Your mouth produces about one litre of saliva each day!
  •             A cell takes 24 hours to form and then divide to form new cells.
  ORGANS OF OUR BODY Our body is made up of cells. Cells are the smallest unit of life. Cells, which are similar in structure and function, group together and perform a common function. These group of cells are called tissues. Accordingly, many similar tissues combine together and perform a common function called organ. Eyes, nose, heart, brain, lungs, skin etc., are different organs of the body.     1. Digestive system Our body needs food to provide it with energy, vitamins, and minerals. The food is first broken down by the digestive system so nutrients can be released and used by our body for energy.   Do you know?
  •           The small intestine is the longest section of digestive tract
  •            Lungs are the only human organ that can float in water.
  •            Woman and children breathe at a faster rate than men.
  •           The small intestine is about 22 feet long. And about an inch in diameter.
2. Respiratory system We take in air mostly through our nose, and then passes through the wind pipe into the lungs. The air we take in is called inhaled air. It is rich in oxygen. And the air, which is expelled from the lungs outside our body is called exhaled air, which is rich in carbon dioxide. This whole process of inhaling and exhaling of air is called respiration and the organs involved in the process are called respiratory organs. Breathing system can be simply represented as:   3. Skeletal system All the bones together form the skeletal system. Bones protect the soft organs of the body. Skeletal system is the framework of the bones. It gives proper shape strength and rigidity to the body. Femur bone is the longest more...

India and the World   We live in a diverse world. There are about 195 countries out of which India is the seventh-largest country in the world. Let us know more about India and the world around us.   Interesting Fact
  •            La Tomatina is festival that is held in spain in which participants throw tomatoes and get involved in the tomato fight purely for fun.
    1.            Snow and Ice festival. China - The Harbin festival is the largest snow and ice festival in the world, and it features ice carvings over 20 feet in height and full-size buildings made from gigantic blocks of ice.   2.            Holi India - Holi also known as the festival of colours is celebrated at the end of winter and the beginning of spring.   3.            Songkren Water Festival. Thailand - Songkran is Thailand's most famous festival. This water festival marks the beginning of the traditional Thai New Year.   4.            Diwali, India - Diwali or the festival of lights is usually celebrated in October or November. It is a five-day Hindu festival that celebrates the victory of good over evil.   5.            Lantern festival. Taiwan - Lantern Festival is a Chinese festival celebrated on the fifteenth day of the first month in the Chinese calendar. It marks the final day of the traditional Chinese New Year celebrations.   6.            Rio Carnival. Brazil - Carnival is an annual festival in Brazil. It is held four days before Ash Wednesday, the day of fasting and repentance that marks the beginning of Lent.   7.            Tomorrow land, Belgium ? Tomorrow land is c electronic dance music festival held in Boom, Belgium Tomorrow and was first held in 2005 and since then has become one of the world's largest and moi notable music festivals.   8.            Carnival of Venice, Italy - The Carnival of Venice an annual festival held in Venice, Italy. The festival world-famous for its elaborated masks.   9.            Coachella. California - The Coachella Valley Music an Arts Festival is an annual music and arts festival heat the Empire Polo Club in Indio, California.   10.          White Nights festival, Russia - It consists of series of classical ballet, opera and music events and includes performances by Russian dancers, singe. Musicians and actors, as well as famous international guest stars.   Do you know
  •             In China Christmas is more...

Plants and Animals   Plants and animals are found practically everywhere. Some live on land, some under water and some in air. The surroundings where organisms live is called their HABITAT.   Interesting Fact
  •            If the spine of barrel cactus accidentally pricks , one may need to take antibiotics to combat its effects
  Do know 
  •           There are seven families of conifers. The largest is the pine family
    ADAPTATIONS Adaptations are special features in plants and animals which help them to survive in the habitats they live in. Over a long period, plants in a specific environment have developed special features which help them to live and grow in that particular habitat.     1. Terrestrial Plants [Plants Living on Land] Plants that grow on land are called terrestrial plants. There are various kinds of terrestrial plants depending on different habitats.                  (i)      Plants on mountains (cold hilly areas): In hilly areas like Ooty, Kashmir, Darjeeling, and the Himalayan ranges including Himachal Pradesh, the weather is cold in winter. Heavy snowfall can also be seen in these places. The plants that grow in these areas are tall and have a conical shape. They are flowerless. Instead of flowers, they have cones with seeds inside them. Leaves of these plants are needle-like. They have a wax coating to prevent any damage from snow. They have a triangular or conical crown. The sloping, shape of the trees makes the snow fall off easily.                  Coniferous trees: The trees that have straight and tall trunks to protect them from winter are called coniferous trees. They have needle- like leaves. The main plants of these areas are pine, spruce, cedar (deodar), and fir trees.                    (ii)     Plants in the plains: In plains, the weather is hot summers and cold in winters. The trees and plants us the plains mostly have many branches and lush green crowns. Teak, babul, shisham , palash, etc., are some of the common trees in the plains.   Do you know
  •             Approximately 75% of the species of trees found in the eastern deciduous forest of North America are deciduous trees.
  Teak                         Babul                      Shisham   (a) Evergreen trees:  Trees that remain green throughout the year are called evergreen trees. The trees shed their more...

Our Earth and Universe   The universe is everything we can touch, feel, sense, measure or detect. It includes living things, plants, star, galaxies, dust clouds, light and even time.   SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun and the eight planets with their moons make up the solar systems. The Sun is at the center of the solar system. All the planets and the smaller objects like comets, asteroids, meteorites, etc., revolve around the Sun. SUN The Sun is a star that emits heat and light. It is the largest member in the solar system. It gives sunlight. Plants need this sunlight to make their food using carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll and minerals.   Interesting Fact
  •           One million Earth could fit inside the sun.
  •           The Sun Contains 99.86% of the mass in the solar system
  PLANETS   1.              MERCURY Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar system. It looks like our Moon. The surface of mercury is covered with craters. Though it is nearest to the Sun, it is less hotter than Venus. The reason is that the Mercury has no atmosphere to retain Sun's heat on it. 2.            VENUS Venus is a very beautiful object in the sky. It is called the evening star. Venus is also the brightest and hotter planet because it has atmosphere containing more amount of carbon dioxide. 3.            Earth This is the only planet in the solar system that has life it. Earth looks blue from the space because water cover about 3/4th of the planet's surface. This is the only planet with an atmosphere containing oxygen.    Do you know
  •           In 1632, Galileo Galilei discovered that the Earth revolves around the sun.
  4.            MARS Mars is the fourth inner planet. Mars is blood red colour due to presence of iron oxides on it. There is sign of water and life on this planet.   5. more...

Environmental Conservation                  Natural Resources: Nature gives us many things. For example, forest, sun, wind, water, minerals, land, etc. The things that we get from nature is coiled natural resources.   TYPES OF NATURAL RESOURCES 1.            RENEWABLE RESOURES Renewable resources are the resources that are replenished by the environment over relatively short periods of time. Think of this like the ice cube maker in your refrigerator. As you take some ice out. More ice is formed. If you take a lot of ice out. it takes a little more time to refill the tray but not a very long time at all. Even if you completely emptied the ice cube tray, it would probably take only a few hours to refill that ice tray. Renewable resources in the natural environment work the same way. Solar energy Solar power from the sun is renewable as we won't "use up" all the sunlight from the sun.   Do you know
  •             Biogas is produced by breaking down the organic material in an oxygen free environment with the help of enzymes. 
  Wind   Wind is also a renewable source of energy. It cannot stopped or blocked by humans. Geothermal energy It is a renewable resource that provides heat from the earth.   Intersecting Facts
  •            Geothermal energy makes a minimal environmental impact.
  •            Human have enjoyed geothermal energy in the form of not springs for thousands of years
  Plants   Plants grown for food and manufactured products area renewable resources. Trees used for timber; cotton use for clothes; and food crops, such as corn and wheat, can be replanted and regrown after the harvest is collect. Animals  Animals are also considered a renewable resource beer like plants, you can breed them to make more. Livestock like cows, pigs and chickens all fall into this category.   2.          NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES   Any natural resource from the earth that exists in life supply and cannot be replaced, if it is completely used is called a non-renewable resource, most fossil fuels, such as oil, natural gas, and coal are considered non-renewable resources. Their formation takes billions of years.   Non-renewable fuels like oil, coal, and natural gas more...

Science and Technology   Today, we cannot expect our life without science and technology. Science and technology are extremely essential in our everyday life as they have made things more simple, fast and secured. Science and technologies are not only subjects. Rather, they means us ways and objects that help us live a better life!   Interesting Fact
  •             The average person walks the equivalent of five time around the world in a lifetime
  MATTER Matter is all around us. Matter is the air you are breathing. Matter is the computer you are reading from now. hotter is the stuff you touch and see. Matter is defined as anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter is found in 3 major states; solid, liquid and gas. All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are the smallest particles of matter.   Interesting Fact
  •             Matter has two types of properties; physical & chemical
  •            Most of the elements on the periodic table are made of slid matters
  •            Humans are made of all the three main states of matter.
  STATES OF MATTER The three states of waiter are solids liquids and gases.   Solid are objects that keep their own shape and do not flow in a given temperature. Ice is a solid but when it melts it becomes a liquid. Other examples of solids are cars, books and clothes. Solids can be of different colours and textures, and they can be turned into different shapes. For example, clay. Solids are made up of molecules which group together and don't move around. Solids hold their shape at room temperature. The pencil that you left in the desk at school will still be the same shape when you return tomorrow.   SOLIDS Solid are objects that keep their own shape but can take the shape of the container they are in and they can flow at a given temperature. Ice is a solid but when it melts it become a liquid. Other Examples of solids are cars, books and clothes.   Solids can be of different colours and textures, and they can be turned into different shapes. For example, clay. Solids are made up of molecules which group together and don?t move around.   Solids hold their shape at room temperature. The pencil that you left in the desk at school will more...

Sports   Sports events have played pivotal role in communities around the world. Sports events, specially football world cup, commonwealth game, etc., attract millions of people. Let us know more about some sporting events.   SOME FAMOUS SPORTS EVENTS   1.            Icc World Cup - The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of one -bay International (001) cricket. The event is organized by the sport's governing body, the International Cricket Council (ICC), every four years, with preliminary qualification rounds leading up to a finals tournament. The tournament is one of the world's most viewed sporting events and is considered the "Flagship Event of the International Cricket Calendar" by the ICC. 2.            Pro Kabbadi League - Pro Kabaddi League was conceptualized and founded by Mashal Sports promoted by Anand Mahindra, Charu Sharma and Rajiv Luthra. The leagues inception was influenced by the popularity of the Kabaddi tournament at the 2006 Asian Games. The format of the competition was influenced by Indian Premier League. 3.            Martial Art Camp- A martial art is a system of training for combat and self-defense that's widely practiced as a sport. There are camps and classes for each kind of martial art. Including karate, taekwondo, kung fu, and judo. These camps can take place in summers or winters. 4.            Indian Premier League- It is a professional T20 cricket league in India contested during April and May of every year by teams representing Indian cities and some states. The league was founded by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) in 2008, and is regarded as the brainchild of Lalit Modi, the founder and former commissioner of the league.   Do you know
  •             The first men's cricket world cup was held in England in 1975
  5.            Notional Games-The National Games of India compnses various disciplines in which sportsmen from the different states of India participate against each other. The country's first few Olympic Games, now renamed as National Games, were held in North India (Delhi, Lahore Allahabad, Patiala, Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay.   6.            Junior Hockey World Cup- The Hockey Junior World Cup. is an international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH). The tournament was started in 1979.   7.            Commonwealth Games - The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The J event was first held in 1930, and has taken place every four years since then. The Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to | 1950. It is the world's first multi-sport event which inducted more...

Language and Literature   LANGUAGE AND LIERATURE Language is essentially a means of communication among the members of a society. There are roughly 6,500 spoken languages in the know about sone of them.   1.            Chinese- It is the official language of China and Taiwan, as well as one of the four official languages of Singapore. It is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.   2.            Spanish- There are many Spanish speaking countries in the world, as Spanish is the official language of the 20 countries, as well as Puerto Rico, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Guatemala. Honduras, Mexico. Nicaragua. Panama, Paraguay, ...Apr 19, 2017   3.            English- There are more than 50 English speaking countries, where English is either the official or the primary language. It is the third most common primary language in the world (after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish).   4.            Hindi- Hindi is also spoken in some countries outside India, such as in Mauritius. Fiji, Suriname. Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago and Nepal. Just like European languages, Hindi is written from left to right   5.            Arabic- Arabic is the official language in Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt. Eritrea, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Palestine, and Western Sahara.   6.            Portugese- Portuguese is an official language in about ten countries, including Brazil, Mozambique, Angola  Portugal, Gunea- Bissau , East Timor Equatorial Guinea , Macau , cape verde , and sao tome and principe   Interesting Facts
  •           The most popular language in the world is mandarin Chinese. There are 1,213,000,000 people in the world that speak that language
  7.            Bengali- It is spoken by more than 210 million people as a first or second language, with some 100 million Bengali speakers in Bangladesh; about 85 million in India, primarily in the states of West Bengal, Assam, and Tripura; and sizable immigrant communities in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Middle East.   8.            Russian -If we're speaking about countries in which Russian is an official national language, then the list is Russia. Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.   9.            Japanese- It is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated.   10. more...

Plants   We often see beautiful trees, plants full of green leaves, around us. But do we ever think why the leaves of trees are green? Have you ever seen plants having coloured leaves? The leaves of most of the plants are green because their leaves contain a green coloured pigment called chlorophyll. Green leaves are responsible for making food. Thus, they are also known as food factories of the plants. Plants uses carbon dioxide, sunlight and water for making food. Upper surface of a leaf has more chlorophyll for trapping the sunlight. On the undersurface of the leaf, there are tiny pores known as stomata which can only be seen through microscope. The stomata are responsible for exchange of gases in plants. Water and essential minerals are absorbed by the roots of the plant from soil and then It is transported to leaves through Stem. On the undersurface of leaves, there are fine network of lines called veins. Main vein is located at the centre of the leaf called midrib. Main vein has two tubes. One tube carries water and minerals from the stem to the leaf. The other one takes food from the leaf to other parts of the plant. A leaf is attached to the stem by a stalk. Related image Leaves   Photosynthesis The process of making food by plants in the presence of sunlight, water, carbon dioxide and chlorophyll is called photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, plants take carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Food is prepared by plants in the form of glucose. Plants store extra food in fruits and seeds as starch. Trees store food in their trunks in the form of cellulose. Cactus do not have leaves. Photosynthesis occurs in their stems. Image result for cactus plant Cactus   Some plants are not green. For example, mushroom. Another plant like croton plant has red coloured leaves. The red colour of the leaves is due to the presence of anthocyanin. But they have chlorophyll also. Photosynthesis takes place in these plants also.   Image result for corton plants png Croton   Mushrooms do not have chlorophyll. They cannot make their food from photosynthesis. They get food from dead plants and animals.   Classification of Plants Plants are of various types classified on the basis of where they grow.   Terrestrial Plants Plant that grows on land are called terrestrial plants. They are further divided into various types such as:   Related image Mango tree     Plants in hilly areas In hilly areas, plants can make food easily as there is sufficient sunlight and rainfall in these places. Coniferous tree grows on hills and mountains. They have standing branches so that snow which falls on them more...

Animals   Animals are living beings that can move and produce young ones. The process of producing young ones is called reproduction. Different animals reproduce by different methods. Some animals lay eggs and some give birth to young ones.   Egg Laying Animals Several types of animals like birds, reptiles, insects and amphibians lay eggs. An egg is an organic vessel in which an embryo begins to develop.   Birds Birds lay eggs which have a hard, protective shell. It contains a yellow yolk surrounded by white albumen. The yolk provides food to the chick growing inside it. The growing chick is called embryo. The parent bird sits on the egg to keep it warm. The chick breaks the shell and comes out when it has grown. This is called hatching. Related image   Insects Insects also reproduce by laying eggs. Insects like butterfly and housefly have four stages in their life cycle i.e. egg, larva, pupa and adult. The egg is hatched into a larva. The young one looks different from the adult. The larva of a butterfly is known as caterpillar and that of a housefly is called a maggot. The larva first grows rapidly by eating the leaves. Then after sometime, it stops eating and forms a covering around itself called as cocoon. This is called the pupa. The larva changes into an adult inside he pupa and comes out of it after sometime.   Amphibians             Amphibians reproduce by laying eggs in water. The young frog which comes out of the egg is known as tadpole.   Fishes             Fishes also reproduce by laying thousands of eggs in water. But only few eggs grow into baby fishes. Reptiles Reptiles lay eggs in the sand or rotting vegetation. They do not sit on the eggs to keep them warm. The sea makes them warm and the egg is hatched.   Animals Giving Birth to Young Ones             Mammals are the animals which give birth to young ones and produce milk to feed them. They do not lay eggs. Dogs, monkeys, cats and human beings comes under the category of mammals. Bats are flying mammals. Whales and dolphins are also mammals living in water.   Habitat The home or natural environment of a living thing is known as habitat. All living beings changes themselves to survive in the natural world, for example, birds and insects can fly. This is called adaptation.   Classification of Animals on the Basis of Their Habitat             Animals are classified on the basis of the place where they live.   Aquatic Animals Animals which live in water are called aquatic animals. Fishes live in water. They have fins for swimming in water. They have gills for breathing. Aquatic animals like dolphins and whales do not have more...



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