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Natural Vegetation (MPPSC Geography)

Category : MP State Exams




Natural vegetation is a plant cover that develops with little or no human interference. It is subject to natural forces, storms, or fires that can modify or even destroy it. Natural vegetation here refers to the natural forest, which in general defines a community of living trees and associated organisms, covering a considerable area, utilizing sunshine, air, water, and earthly materials to attain maturity and to reproduce itself; it is capable of furnishing humankind with indispensable products and services.


Forest played a major role in environment conservation. They also maintain ecological stability and biological diversity. Madhya Pradesh is endowed with rich and diverse forest resources.


Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state of the country with an area of 3,08,252 sq km which is 9.38% of the geographical area of country. According to the India State of Forest Report 2019, the recorded forest area of the state is 94,689 sq km. It constitutes 30.71% of the geographical area of the state and 12.44% of the forest area of the country. The geographical and biotic diversity of the state is well reflected in its 18 forest types ranging from thorn-forest to subtropical hill forest. The state is divided into 9 natural regions and 11 agro-climatic zones. Madhya Pradesh is the first state to bring 100% nationalization of forest in 1970.


Classification of Forest in Madhya Pradesh


The forests of Madhya Pradesh are classified into the following category



                               On the Basis of Geographical Features


On the basis of geographical features, the forests of Madhya Pradesh are, divided into four Categories. These are as follows:-


1.            Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest

  • Cover 8.97% of Total area
  • These forests grow in the areas receiving rainfall of around 100 to 150 cm. These forests are majority found in the area of Sidhi, Mandla, Balaghat, Seoni, Umaria, Anuppur and Shahdol.
  • Major trees found in these forests are Peepal, Rosewood, Sal, Bamboo, etc.
  • Major and Minor both forest produce are provided by these forest. It includes mainly Teak, Sal, Bamboo, and some quantity of Dhora, Kasai, Tinsa, Jamun, Mahua, Seza, Harra, etc


2.            Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest

  • Cover 88.65% of Total area
  • These forests grow in the areas receiving an annual average rainfall of 50 to 100 cm. These forests shed their leaves during summer due to lack of water.
  • These forests are found at Chhatarpur, Parma, Chhindwara, Damoh, Seoni, Sagar, Jabalpur, Betul, and Hoshangabad, Gwalior and Bhopal districts.
  • Major trees found in these forests are Teak, Rosewood, Neem, Peepal, etc.
  • Teak is the main tree of these forests
  • Mixed forests are spread over a wide area.


3.            Tropical Thorn Forest

  • Cover 0.26% of Total area
  • These forest grow in the area receiving the rainfall of 25 to 75 cm. These forest are found in Sheopur, Nimar, Ratlam, Mandsaur, Tikamgarh, Datia, Gwalior and Shivpuri districts.
  • Major trees found in this forest are Babool, Sheesham, Tendu, Keekar, Teak, Neem etc.
  • These mainly provide Minor forest produce in addition to timbers.


4.            Subtropical Broad leaves hill forest 

  • These type of forest is found in high peaks of Satpura and Vindhya ranges. Similar forests are also found around Pachmarhi.


On the basis of Region


Madhya Pradesh has three major forest belts. They are:-  



1.            Madhya Bharat Belt

  • This belt is spread from Morena to Shivpuri district, majorly thorn vegetation is found here.   


2.            Vindhya Forest Belt                                            

  • This belt covers Vindhya-Kaimur range spread over Damoh-Sagar plateau. 


3.            Satpura-Maikal Belt            

  • This belt is the widest belt spread over East to West of the state on the Southern side of the Narmada river. It includes Satpura-Maikal ranges and hilly areas of highlands of  Baghelkhand region.      


On the basis of the species


Based on the composition, there are three important forest formations:

1. Teak forest                                                          

2. Sal forest

3. Miscellaneous forest.       


1.            Teak forests

  • These forests are the pride of the state. Found in Hoshangabad Jabalpur, Seoni, Balaghat, Panna, Sehore, Dewas, Harda, Betul, Sagar, Chhindwara and Mandia districts. These are mainly spread in areas with 75-125 cm rainfall and in the black soil region.


2.            Sal forests

  • Sal forests are mainly located in Mandia, Dindori, Balaghat, Sidhi, Umaria, Anuppur and Shahdol districts.
  • Sal forests are found in areas where average rainfall is 120cm. These are found in the Red- Yellow soil areas.
  • Used for Railway sleeper and building making.


3.            Miscellaneous forests

  • These forests are found in Balaghat, Hoshangabad, Mandia, Chhindwara, Umaria, Shivpuri and Nimar region.
  • Major species found are Saj, Bija, Mahua, Palash, Bamboo, Harra etc.


Type of forest

Area (sq. km)

Forest (%)










Open area






On the Basis of Administrative Control


On the basis of administrative control, the forests of Madhya Pradesh are classified into three categories:


1.     Reserved Forests

2.     Protected Forests

3.     Unclassified Forests


1.            Reserved Forests


  • In these forests, right to activities like hunting, grazing movement and wood cutting are banned unless specific orders are issued. As per India States of Forest Report, 2019, 65.35% of the forests in Madhya Pradesh come under Reserved Forest.
  • The highest percentage of reserved forest is in Khandwa district whereas the lowest percentage is in Chhatarpur district.
  • Total reserved forest area is 61886 Km2.


2.            Protected Forests

  • These are the forests which are managed under state supervision.
  • As per India State of Forest Report, 2019, 32.84% of forest area of Madhya Pradesh comes under protected forests.
  • Here animal grazing is allowed and administrative rules are not very strict.
  • The movement of people is allowed but destruction of forest is a punishable offence.
  • Only those people living inside protected forests may cut trees but only in special conditions with prior permission.          
  • The highest percentage of protected forests is in Rajgarh district (100%) whereat lowest percentage is in Ujjain district (0%). Total protected forest is 31098 Km2.


3.            Unclassified Forests

  • These forests attract lesser administrative attention. Here grazing is allowed and trees may be allowed to cut. As per India State of Forest Report, 2019, 1.80% of forest Madhya Pradesh comes under unclassified forests. The total area of unclassified forest is 1705 Km2.


Recorded Forest Area


Reserved Forest


Protected Forest

Unclassified Forest

1,705 sq. km


94,689 sq. km

State's Geographical Area


India's Forest Area



Forest Cover in Madhya Pradesh


  • As per India State of Forest Report, 2019, Recorded Forest Area (RFA) in the State is 94,689 sq km of which 61,886 sq km is Reserved Forests, 31,098, sq km is Protected Forests and 1,705 sq km is Unclassified Forests.
  • The total forest cover area in the state is 77,482 sq. km which is 25.14% of the state?s geographical area.  


The country's forest cover includes all patches of land with a tree canopy density of more than 10% and more than 1 hectare in area, irrespective of land use, ownership and species of trees. By Indian State forest Report                                                      


  • In terms of forest canopy density classes, the state has 6,676.02sq km area under Very Dense Forest (VDF) 34,341 sq km area under Moderately Dense Forest (MDF) and 36,456.07sq km area under Open Forest (OF).




% of Geographical area

Very Dense forest (VDF)



Moderately dense forest (MDF)



Open forest











  • The highest forest cover is in Balaghat district (4,932sq km) while the lowest forest cover is in Ujjain district (36.22sq km).



Districts with Highest Forest Cover in Madhya Pradesh (Area wise)




Total Forest Cover (in sq km)

Total Forest

Cover %





















Source:-India State of Forests Report, 2019


Districts with Lowest Forest Cover in Madhya Pradesh (Area wise)




Total Forest Cover

(in sq km)

Total Forest

Cover %





















Source:-India State of Forests Report, 2019


Forest resources in Madhya Pradesh


Teak, Sal, Bamboo, Mahua, Amla, Laakh, etc some important forests found in Madhya Pradesh. These forest resources are discussed below:



Major Forest Produce



Teak (Sagon) wood 


  • The botanical name of Teak is Tectona grandis (common Teak). It is me most important timber species with wide distribution in Madhya Pradesh. 
  • Teak grows in areas where rainfall is 75 to 125 cm with availability of black soil. These are found in tropical semi-deciduous forest and are used for furniture manufacturing and building construction. 
  • Teak covers 18,332.67 sq km area in the state. Major areas of Teak forest in Madhya Pradesh are Hoshangabad, Jabalpur, Betui, etc.




  • The botanical name of Salts Shorearobusta. It is an important timber species in Madhya Pradesh. They are large evergreen trees and grow in areas of heavy rainfall of above 125 cm.
  • Wood of Sal tree is used in railway sleepers, building, construction, furniture, etc. Sal forests are located in the Eastern part of the state.
  • Sal covers 4.15% area of the total geographical area of Madhya Pradesh.     
  • Districts covered under Sal forest are Shahdol, Umaria, Anuppur, Balaghat and Mandla.
  • Sal forests are also distributed in and around Pachmarhi in Hoshangabad and Chhindwara districts.




  • The botanical name of Bamboo is Bambusoideae. Dendrocalamusstrictus is the main Bamboo species found overlapping with other species. They grow in areas with rainfall 75 cm to 125 cm.
  • It is used in production of paper, baskets, etc. Bamboo are tropical deciduous forest.
  • Major areas of Bamboo forest are Southern and Eastern districts i.e. Balaghat, Seoni, Betui, Mandia, Jabalpur, Anuppur, Khandwa and Shahdol.


Minor Forest Produce





  • Mahua are representative trees of Central India particularly Madhya Pradesh. They are valuable for many reasons. Seeds from the fruit produce oil that serves as a source for
  • cooking, lightening oil lamps, manufacturing soaps, etc.
  • The tree is considered sacred by the local tribal and form part of their rites and rituals.
  • Mahua is mainly found in Eastern districts of Madhya Pradesh.



  • Amla or Indian Gooseberry is an important crop in Madhya Pradesh.
  • These are richest source of Vitamin-C.
  • It is valued for being anti-scorbutic, diuretic, laxative, antibiotic and anti-dysentric.
  • Amla is mainly found in South-East and Central Madhya Pradesh.


Tendu Leaf

  • It is the most important forest produce of Madhya Pradesh. Tendu leaves are abundantly found in the Northern, Central and Eastern districts of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Almost half of the Tendu leaves of the country are produced in Madhya Pradesh. Madhya Pradesh is the first state to nationalize Tendu leaf. The Tendu leaves are used for manufacturing of Bidi.
  • Major areas of Tendu Leaf in Madhya Pradesh are Sagar (highest), Sidhi, Shahdol, Rewa, Jabalpur.




  • It is basically extracted from trees of Babool, Kullu and Salai. There are three types of gums i.e. Babool gum, Kullu gum and Salai gum.
  • Babool gum is used in food items, Kullu gum is used in coffee and pastry and Salai gum used in paints.
  • Major areas of Gum in Madhya Pradesh are Khandwa, Dhar, Jhabua, Khargone, Gwalior Shivpuri, Betui, Morena and Ratlam.


Harra Tree    

  • It is a multipurpose tree. Its fruit contains 35% to 40% 'Tanning'.       
  • Harra tree is used in the Tanning of leather and in ink, paint, medicine and food items.
  • Major areas of Harra in Madhya Pradesh are Chhindwara, Jabalpur, Sheopur, Balaghat, Betui, Panna, etc.




  • In the state of Madhya Pradesh, laakh is extracted from trees of Kusum, Ghont, Palash Berry and Arhar plant. It is used in the manufacturing of medicines, bangles, toys, chemicals and cosmetics.   
  • The laakh making industry is located in Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Major areas of laakh are Jabalpur, Seoni, Hoshangabad, Shahdol, and Mandla. 


Khair Wood

  • Khair is a deciduous and thorny tree. The seeds of this are good sources of protein.
  • Khair wood is mostly used in manufacturing of Kattha, medicine, paints and tanning of leather.
  • It is abundantly found in Madhya Pradesh in Guna, Shivpuri, Jabalpur, Sagar, Damoh, Umaria, Hoshangabad, etc.



  • It is a type of fruit. It is used in medicine, paint and ink.               
  • It is mainly found in Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh.

 Medicinal Plants in Madhya Pradesh


Madhya Pradesh is the herbal hub of the country. Huge demand of Indian herbal industry is met out by the herbal collection centres of Madhya Pradesh situated at Shivpuri, Betul, Neemuch etc. From being a raw material bowl of the herbal industry, Madhya Pradesh is now becoming the main processing centre for several herbal products.



Mojor Medicinal Plants available in Madhya Pradesh


Botanical Name

Common Name


Buch or Sweet Flag

Aloe Vera


Asparagus Recemosus





Lemon grass














Indian Bael


Madhya Pradesh Forest Policy, 2005


The first Forest Policy for Madhya Pradesh was constituted in 1952, but due to changing challenges and situations, the government has amended the older one and declared the new Forest Policy on 4t April, 2005. The main goal of Forest Policy, 2005 is to use the environmental, financial, social and technological resources of the state for the conservation, development and preservation of state forests-


Main objectives of the State Forest Policy are as follows:-


  • Expanding forest tree-covered area to make it one-third of the geographical area.
  • Ensuring stability of the environment and ecological balance by developing goveminent forests and private areas under forest cover through sustainable management of forests. 
  • Strengthening beneficial components, forces and systems for the protection and management of forests.
  • Optimizing the use of timber, fuel wood, bamboo, fodder and minor forest produce, to maximize their production and creating atmosphere for regular availability of forest- based alternative employment to forest dependent families.
  • To earmark 10 per cent of the forest area under intensive management for production of timber in order to reduce the gap between its demand and supply.
  • Increasing the production of non-timber forest produce, especially herbal medicines, and making economic conditions of the forest dependent communities better by ensuring their sustainable exploitation, value addition and marketing.
  • Promoting extension forestry without adversely affecting the agricultural production, promoting plantation of bamboo in the rural areas and thus making it the means of income for the villagers and ensuring better management of revenue and private areas covered with forests by implementing Lok Vaniki.
  • To build essential legal environment and to provide facilities to enable the forest-based industries to produce their own raw material.
  • To give priority to the social needs and aspirations of the local communities in the use of products obtained from sustainable exploitation of the forests not considering them a source of income only.
  • To make efforts for sustainable development of weaker sections of the society, especially forest dependent tribal communities and women in view of the environmental, economic, social and cultural linkages of these communities with forests.
  • Reducing losses caused to the forests due to uncontrolled grazing and collection of head load fuel wood.
  • Promoting alternative sources of energy in order to reduce pressure on government forests. Strengthening the management of protected areas to conserve biodiversity, strengthening cohesion between the wild life management and the requirements of those living in forests and taking steps to conserve bio-diversity outside the protected areas also.
  • To develop Eco-tourism and Herbal-Health Tourism in forest areas for the benefit of forest dependent communities and conservation of natural resources.
  • Directing forest research and extension in accordance with the prevailing conditions and future requirements. 
  • Providing traditional and modem techniques and skills as well as healthy work atmosphere to forest officials and members of the forest committees in order to encourage them to work with full capacity and zeal. 5       
  • Attracting private investment for the afforestation work on a large scale in the forestry Sector.


Deforestation and Forest Degradation in MP


  • Conversion of forests: - for other land uses, including plantations, pastures, agriculture land, settlements, roads and infrastructure.
  • Livestock grazing:-Cattles eat tree seedlings, thus slowing natural forest regeneration.
  • Forest fires:-Each year, fires bum millions of hectares of forest worldwide. Fires are a part of natural and anthropogenic causes which degraded forests that are particularly vulnerable. The resulting loss has wide-reaching consequences on biodiversity, climate, and the economy.  



  • Illegal and unsustainable logging:-Illegal logging occurs in all types of forests destroying nature and wildlife, taking away community livelihoods and distorting trade.
  • Fuel wood harvesting:-Over-harvesting for domestic use or for commercial trade in charcoal significantly damages forests.
  • Mining:-The impact of mining on tropical forests is growing due to rising demand and high mineral prices. Mining projects are often accompanied by major infrastructure construction, such as roads, railway lines and power stations, putting further pressure on forests and freshwater ecosystems.
  • Climate change:- Forest loss is both a cause and an effect of our changing climate. Climate change can damage forests, for instance by drying out tropical rainforests and increasing fire damage in boreal forests. Inside forests, climate change is already harming biodiversity, a threat that is likely to increase.



  • Eco-forestry


Eco-forestry has been defined as restoration forestry. The main idea of eco forestry is to maintain or restore the forest to standards where the forest may still be harvested for products on a sustainable basis.


Eco-forestry is forestry that emphasizes holistic practices which strive to protect and restore ecosystems rather than maximize economic productivity. Sustainability of the forest also comes with uncertainties. There are other factors that may affect the forest furthermore than that of the harvesting. There are internal conditions such as effects of soil compaction, tree damage, disease, fire, and blow down that also directly affect the ecosystem. These factors have to be taken into account when determining the sustainability of a forest. If these factors are added to the harvesting and production that comes out of the forest, then the forest will become less likely to survive, and will then become less sustainable.



  • Laws and Regulations


Due to the nature and extent of forest destruction, efforts to stop the human activities can be complemented by laws and regulation at governmental and organizational levels. As much as people increasingly become aware of deforestation consequences, some people focus more on the immediate economic gains at the expense of the long- term environmental damage.


This attitude has encourages illegal logging for timber and other valuable resources like rubber and palm oil. Therefore, stopping deforestation and preserving the natural vegetations demands rules, laws, and regulations from organizations and governments to aid in enforcing forest preservation policies. Laws on timber, wood fuel, fanning, and land use among other forest resources must be advanced and enforced to limit reforestation.


  • Community Forestry


Community forestry is whereby local communities together with their local government and other local organizations such as schools, corporate, and universities join hands to start localized tree planting programs and management of their local forests. On various occasions such as public holidays, opening ceremonies, environment days, or other periodic localized activities, concerned local citizens can create awareness and plant trees.                          


This can be done within the surrounding areas as a method of boosting environmental sustainability and keeping the local forests viable. All local learning institutions, hospitals, local government headquarters, and the rest of the community can ensure trees are planted and the local forests are protected against damage as a way of finding solutions to the deforestation menace.


  • Replanting (Reforestation)


Replanting or tree planting utilizes almost the same aspect as community forestry. However, it entirely focuses on replanting, a feature commonly known as reforestation. Reforestation is the restoration or replanting of forests that have been reduced by fire or felling. It requires an ongoing process and should not be viewed as a onetime thing.


People, communities, governments, and organizations are all active actors. It involves selecting and dedicating large tracts of land mainly for the purpose of cultivating forests. For instance, in local communities and urban centers, it can be done around market areas, in game/wildlife reserves, or within city parks. Replanting, therefore, qualifies restorative measure of deforestation.


  • Sensitization and Educative Campaigns


Deforestation can also be counteracted through awareness and sensitization. Sensitization and educative campaigns can be a simple but a more workable solution. Initiating awareness creation campaigns makes it easy for people to detect the causes, effects, and ways of counteracting deforestation. Personal experiences from adversely affected communities such as farmers can be used to emphasize the negative effects of deforestation.

Thus, making conscious efforts to share information with people including family, friends, colleagues, and the entire community on deforestation and its effects is an appropriate measure of standing up in unison to combat the clearing of forests.


  • Joint Organizations


Conservation, wildlife, rainforest, and nature protection agencies among other environmental programs can join together with a common goal of preserving, restoring, and protecting forests to ensure permanence of the world's natural resources. When such a big organizations work together, it makes it easier to install the proper forest management mechanisms. Far-reaching impact can likewise be realized if environmental conservation and protection organizations work together.


  • Land Rights


Transferring rights over land from public domain to its indigenous inhabitants is argued to be a cost-effective strategy to conserve forests. This includes the protection of such rights entitled in existing laws, such as India's Forest Rights Act 2006.


  • Land Use Planning    


Cities and urban centers continue to grow day after day as more and more people claim their share of living in cities and the urban areas. Agricultural practices also continue to expand as farmers and consumer demands call for better productivity and quality food products respectively. As a result, the urban sprawl and agricultural expansion have kept on clearing forests to create more room for their respective activities. In response to this threat, creation of proper land use planning technique offer the fastest and the most feasible solution to deforestation.


State Government's Schemes and Programmes for Forest Conservation


1.            Social forestry scheme:-This national scheme was also launched in M.P. in the same year 1976. The motive is to promote private plantation and to promote agriculture forestry. Under the scheme farmers are being financially motivated for tree plantations, horticulture, forestry etc.


Social forestry schemes have the main objectives

  • Improve the environment for protecting agriculture from adverse climatic factors
  • Increase the supply of fuel wood for domestic use, small timber for rural housing, fodder for livestock, and minor forest produce for local industries,
  • Increase the natural beauty of the landscape; create recreational forests for the benefit of rural and urban populations  
  • Provide jobs for unskilled workers
  •  Effect land rehabilitation, and      
  • Raise the standard of living and quality of life of rural and urban people.  


2.            Panchvan Yojana- 'Panchvan Yojana' has been run since 1976 for the a forestation in such districts of Madhya Pradesh where the forest area is less than the prescribed 33% of the National Forest Policy.


3.            Vidya van yojana-Under this scheme started in the year 2007-08 in Madhya Pradesh, in order to make children aware of the environment along with education in 10 schools in Bhopal, they were entrusted with the responsibility of protecting them by planting small forests in the school premises. The main objective of this scheme is not only to make the children of the new generation aware of the characteristics of forests, but also to motivate them for gardening.



4.            Madhya Pradesh Forest Protection Award Rules, 2004-The 'Forest Protection Award Rules 2004' has been implemented by the Government of Madhya Pradesh under which the general people who cooperate in catching forest crimes, investigating them or help in seizing forest produce obtained from criminals, etc. Individuals will be awarded Rs 25,000 or the value of the seized forest produces whichever is less.


5.            Education Development Scheme-This scheme was started in 1991 by the Small Forest Produce Association in collaboration with life insurance Corporation of India. The purpose of this scheme is to provide assistance and insurance in the event of accidental death or disability of tendupatta collectors              


6.            Green India Mission-The objective of the mission is to increase green cover to the  extent of 5 Million hectares (Mha) and improve the qualities of existing green cover in another 5 Mha, The mission also has aim to improve ecosystem services like carbon sequestration, hydrological services etc.   

  • Pench Satpura Corridor,                                                
  • Kanha Bandhavgarh Corridor.                                      
  • Kanha Pench corridor.                                             
  • Pench Landscape.                                                     
  • Shivpuri- Gwalior Landsape.                
  • Indore- Ujjain Landscape.             
  • Khandwa Landscape.
  • Shahdol Landscape.
  • Rewa Landscape.                    
  • Bhopal Landscape.                                                
  • Satpura Landscape.                                                 
  • Ratapani- Naraira Dehippanna Corridor.                                 
  • Satpura Meladhar Corridor (Betui Landscape). 
  • Establishment of forest outposts- Total 400 outposts proposed.          
  • Promotion of tree plantation program            
  • 100% nationalization of forests.                                        
  • Community Forest Management.                                    


7.            Dindayal Vanachal sewa- It was launched on 20th October 2016. Main aim is to ensure the forest protection along with welfare of tribal community in remote areas.


8.            Social Forestry Program- 'Social Forestry Program' was started in the year 1981-82 a program for development of forests in Madhya Pradesh. The main objective of the social forestry program is to encourage the common citizen to plant forest and develop pasture.

The main objectives of the social forestry program financial aided by United states to-


  • Generate interest in planting trees in general public.            
  • Through this, increase employment opportunities for villages.              
  • To increase plantation in villages by distributing plants.                    
  • Maintaining ecological balance through plantation.                        
  • Providing forest produce to cottage industries.                    
  • In 1987, in Madhya Pradesh to achieve the above objectives; 36 social forestry division have been created.


9.            Scheme for improvement of degraded forest areas- It started in the year 1989-90 in Madhya Pradesh. Under this scheme, the degraded forests of 20 districts were improved through cooperatives.


10.          Joint Forest Management- Joint forest management (JFM) is partnership involving both the forest department and local communities in natural forest management. In order to ensure public participation in accordance with the national forest policy, the forest department accepted the concept of joint forest management.


11.          Forest Village Development Scheme- There are 925 forest villages in the state of Madhya Pradesh, which is about 19 % of the total number of forest villages in the country. This scheme was launched for 29 districts in Madhya Pradesh. Main focus areas


  • Assist natural regeneration
  • Reduce dependency of Villagers on forests
  • Integrated forest and village development
  • Ensuring sustained supply of fuel, fodder, and small timber
  • Increase in NWFP to provide additional income to tribal and rural poor
  • Restore ecological balance
  • Obtain optimum productivity from forest, community and private lands
  • Educating and training villagers in scientific resource management.


12.          Van Vidohan Yojana- Under this scheme there is a complete ban on departmental deforestation in 11 districts Bhopal, Gwalior, Dhar, Rewa, Ratlam, Vidisha, Khargone, Rajgarh, Tikamgarh, Indore and Jhabua.


13.          Madhya Pradesh Forest Produce (Trade Regulation) Act, 1969- This Act came into on 01 November 1969 for the purpose of trade regulation of all forest produce except timber.


14.          Madhya Pradesh Tendupatta (Trade Regulation) Act, 1964- This Act was enacted on 28 November 1964 with the objectives of regulating the trade of tendupatta in the public inerest and establishing the state monopoly in tendupatta Trade.


15.          Madhya Pradesh Public Forestry Act, 2001- This act was enacted on April 12, 2001 with the objective of managing private and state tree cover areas in the state and regulating allied matters


16.          Lok Vaniki scheme- It introduced in Madhya Pradesh in 1999, aims at empowering the fanners to manage their degraded forestland so as to derive maximum benefits by selling its produce, including timber.


  •  Out of the 8.4 million farmers in Madhya Pradesh, around half a million farmers have about one hectare of degraded forestland each, which can be utilized under the Lok Vaniki scheme without much investment
  • The farmers have been encouraged to create a Lok Vaniki Samiti at the district and state level
  • Gram sabhas and gram panchayats are also being encouraged to plant on barren or sparsely covered common land to augment their income


 MP State Bamboo Mission                                   

  • It was Setup on 3 July 2013                                               
  •  Objective is to develop a new line of bamboo products by bamboo artisans for national and international marketing (market), also to promote and facilitate traditional and nontraditional bamboo based artisans by developing their skills, increasing the supply of quality bamboo and availability of advanced tools and equipments.    
  • Activities: Bamboo based entrepreneurship Program, e.g. Nursery development Rectification of deformed Bamboos. Bamboo plantation


Important Forest Related Institutions of Madhya Pradesh




v  Forest Management Education Centre


v  Van Rajkiya Mabavidyalya


v  Indian Institute of Forest Management


v  Forest Guard Training School

Shivpuri, Rewa, Betui, Anuppur, Seoni,

Hoshangabad, Amarkantak

v  Indian Forest Research Institute


v  Forest Development Corporation


v  Forest Research and Human Resource



v  Tropical Forest institute


v  Sanjeevani Sansthan



Forest  Management in MP


  • The forest of MP is managed under joint endeavor as directed under National Forest policy, 1988.      
  • Under Joint Forest management government and local people both are assigned the coordinated duties.                
  • For this purpose state government passed a resolution on 22nd Oct 2001 to create three types of committees as follows;          


1.            Forest protection committees (Van Suraksha Samiti)        


  • Total No: 9650                
  • Every village within 5 km range of forest block with deformed forest has a forest protection committee.           
  • They monitor the regular forestry task like collection of forest products.


2.            Village forest committee (Gram Van Samiti)                 

  • Total No: 4747
  • Every village within 5 km range of forest block with deformed forest has a gram van samiti.                                                         
  • They help in rejuvenating the deformed forest.          


3.            ECO development committees

  • They constitute in National Park & Sanctuaries and in the villages which fall within their 5 km of range.
  • Total No: 831
  • They performed the task of maintaining ecology of the forest.





Gram Van Samiti


37,268 Km2.

Van Suraksha Samiti


25,904 Km2.

ECO vikas samiti


3,702 Km2.



66,874 Km2.


 Some Important Forest Institutions


1.            MP State Forest Development Corporation.

  • Established in 1975. It is operational through project division in 11 districts.



  • Its main objective is to improve the quality and capacity of production by converting low grade forest areas into high quality forests areas by planting fast growing valuable and multipurpose species.
  • Commercial plantation of teak and Bamboo.
  • Plantation of Medicinal plants
  • Development program for fallow land.


2.            MP State Forest Development Agency

  • It was founded on 19th April 2010
  • Its objective is to do plantation work in degraded forest areas and forestless area through joint forest management committees.


3.            State Forestry Research Institute (SFRI)

  • The institute came into existence on 27th June, 1963 in Jabalpur, for the scientific development of forestry sector in the state following the impetus generated by the recommendations of tenth silvicultural conference held at Dehradun in 1961.
  • Over the years the institute has developed as an educational, training, research and consultancy organization at the state and national level.
  • The institute is carrying out adaptive and applied research programmes. It is dedicated to research and tropical forestry, environment and biodiversity conservation.
  • The vision of SFRI is to function as nodal centre of research in forestry and to provide scientific support to the state and its people on matters related to forestry, with particular emphasis on conservation, sustainable utilization and scientific management of natural resources.       


  • Mission


  • The institute's mission is to focus its efforts on research programmes for the conservation and development of forests and forestry sector in the state of Madhya Pradesh.                                  
  • It endeavors to focus its activities as per the requirement of the forest development community and is engaged in need based research. The institute tries to acquire knowledge about sectoral problems in forest management and means to overcome them and disseminate the same simultaneously to the stakeholders.


  • Goals
  • Conservation of forests and forest resources - soil, water and floral and faunal diversity.
  • Enhancement of productivity of natural forests and plantations.
  • Efficient and sustainable utilization of forest resources and forest products-timber and NTFPs and expansion of tree cover.
  • Sustainable management of forests involving forest -dependent communities and people's participation                                                  
  • Mass production of high fruit yielding forest tree species through biotechnological approaches.                                                    
  • Preparation of inventory and biodiversity assessment in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Protection and conservation of wildlife resources in Madhya Pradesh.


4.            MP Ecotourism Development Board (MPEDB)


  • Madhya Pradesh Ecotourism Development Board is an autonomous organization in the forest department of the Government of Madhya Pradesh.
  • The Board was constituted in July 2005 for the promotion and development of ecotourism as a mainstream program of the Forest Department.
  • The Board, apart from complimenting the Forest Department with the necessary knowledge, skills and policy initiatives, acts as a center of coordination between the Madhya Pradesh Tourism, the Forest Department and other stakeholders, for generating synergies between them.


5.            Madhya Pradesh State Minor Forest Produce (Trading & Development) , Co- operative Federation           

  • Madhya Pradesh State Minor Forest Produce (Trading & Development) Co-operative Federation was formed in 1984. This Federation co-ordinates collection and processing of Tendu leaves, Sal Seed, & Kullu Gum through Primary Forest Produce Co-operative Societies in the districts of the State which are forest produce areas and organizes disposal of these produce. In addition, other non-nationalized NTFP are also being collected and traded by the Primary Forest Produce Co-operative Societies.


Wild life protection in Madhya Pradesh


Madhya Pradesh was the state to enact wildlife (Protection) Act-1973, on the lines of wildlife (Protection) Act-1972 but the history of Wildlife Management in the State is even older than the State itself. The formal efforts to conserve the wildlife of this landscape began with establishment of Kanha Sanctuary in 1933. Later, in the Post-Independence era the State enacted Madhya Pradesh National Parks Act in 1955, later the Wildlife (Protection) Act superseded the above Act.



1.            Kanha National Park

  • It spreads over Mandia and Balaghat district.
  • The biggest National Park of MP, Total Area 940 km
  • Tiger, Barahsingha (Stagdeer), Wild Deer, Chinkara, Gaur, Hyena, Langur, leopard, wolf, fox Various Species of birds, etc. are found in the park.
  • Project Tiger Scheme is being continued in the park since 1974.


  • Brief history-
  • In 1879 Kanha declared as a reserved forest.
  • Declared as Wild Life Sanctuary in 1953 and National Park in 1955.
  • Declared as Project Tiger reserve in 1973-74
  • Kanha has been the 1st Sanctuary of MP (1933) and is the first National Park (1955) and first Project Tiger (1974) of MP
  • Hard Ground Barahsingha is exclusively found in the park. Stag deer called as the 'Jewels of Kanha'.
  • "Bhursingh-The BarahSingha", the mascot of Kanha National park.
  • The forest of kanha Tiger Reserve was inhibited by two indigenous tribes of Central India, the gonds and the baigas. The kanha tiger Reserve is being occupied by two major sanctuaries, the hallon and the banjar sanctuaries.


2.            Bandhavgarh National Park                          

  • It is located in Umaria District.                      
  • It was established in 1968 and declared as Project Tiger reserve in 1993.
  • Bandhavgarh National Park (437 km2) is the second important national park and tiger project located in M.P. 
  • Bandhavgarh has the largest density of tigers in India. It is located in Umaria district Surrounded by 32 hills.  
  • Bandhavgarh National Park is known for the Royal Bengal Tigers.
  • White tiger in Govindgarh (Rewa) 
  • More than 250 bird species are found in the park, especially Grey hornbill. Red wattled lapwing, Indian Jungle Crow (Carvus), white heron, owl, parrot and francolin.
  • Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer, Sambhar


3.            Madhav National Park

  • It was established in 1958 in Shivpuri district.            
  • Manihar River passes through the park.                            
  • The park is situated near Shivpuri town and is a part of the upper Vindhyan hills.
  • The Park was the hunting ground of Mughal emperors and Maharaja of Gwalior.
  • It got the status of a National Park in 1958. 
  • There are two entry points for the park; one situated on NH-25 (Old Jhansi road) about 5 km from Shivpuri town while the other is on NH-3 (Agra-Mumbai road) at a distance of 7 km from Shivpuri towards Gwalior. 
  • The Park is gifted with a diverse ecosystem comprising of lakes, forests and grasslands.
  • The forest is home to antelopes like Nilgai, Chinkara and Chowsinga and Deer including Chital, Sambar and Barking Deer. Animals like the Leopard, Wolf, Jackal, Fox, Wild Dog, Wild Pig, Porcupine, Python etc are also sighted in the National park.


4.            Pench (Priyadarshini) National Park

  • It coversa total area of 75 8,
  • It is located on the southern part of Madhya Pradesh, to be specific, in the districtes of  Seoni and Chhindwara, which also shares a boundary with Maharashtra. An additional area of 257 of this park lies in Maharashtra but is also accessible from Madhya Pradesh.
  • A treasure of rich flora and fauna, this national park has its area segregated in two divisions- a) Priyadarshini National Park and Mowgli Pench Sanctuary which covers an area of 299 and b) 464 which is considered as the buffer area.
  • The national park is named after the river- Pench, which while flowing from north to south, divides the national park in almost equal halves namely eastern and western halves.
  • The national park is home to flora species like Mahua, White Kulu, Salai, Saja, Bijiyasal, Dhaora, Amaltas and many others.
  • Pench National Park is a residence of a great variety of wildlife. The place is an abode of real Sher Khans (Bengal Tigers) accompanied by Chital, Jungle Cat, Wolf, Indian Leopard, Gaur, Four-homed Antelope, Sloth Bear and many other wildlife. Also a great variety of birds like Crow Pheasant, Peafowl, Pintail, Lesser Whistling Teal, Indian Roller, Wagtail, Munia, Waterfowl, Blue Kingfisher, Crimson-Breasted Barbet, Red- Vented Bulbul are found here.


5.            Satpura National Park

  • It was declared as a National Park in 1981. Located in Hoshangabad.
  • Declared as a Tiger reserve in 2000.
  • Area covered under Satpura National Park; Satpura National Park Notified area, Pachmarhi Sanctuary and Bori Sanctuary.
  • Total Area It covers 524 km2
  • Some part of Satpura National Park falls under water catchment area of Tawa reservoir.
  • Pachmarhi Bio-sphere reserve is also a part of Satpura national park.
  • The highest peak of MP Dhoopgarh is situated in the park area.
  • Satpura National Park is rich in biodiversity. The main animals are leopard, sambar, chital, nilgai, four homed antelope, chinkara wild boar, bear, black buck, fox, Porcupine.
  • There are a variety of birds- hornbill, peafowl, Egret, Eagle, Pheasant, Quail, Hombill, Butterfly, Vultures are commonly found here.
  • The flora consists of mainly sal, teak, tendu, phyllanthusemblic, mahua, bel, bamboo, and grasses and medicinal plants.


6.            Panna National Park

  • It was established as National Park in 1981.
  • Panna National Park is located in Panna and Chhatarpur districts of Madhya Pradesh.
  • It has an area of 542.67 km2 (209.53 sq mi). It was declared as a Tiger reserve in 1993.
  • It was designated as Biosphere Reserve on 25 August 2011.
  • Sal, Arjun, jamun, etc. is trees present here.
  • the tiger, leopard, chital, chinkara, nilgai, sambhar and sloth bear are found here. The park is home to more than 200 species of birds including the bar-headed goose, honey buzzard, king vulture, blossom-headed parakeet, changeable hawk-eagle and Indian vulture.
  • The only reptile park of the state is founded in the Panna National Park.


Effect of Ken Betwa River Linkins Project 


  • The Government of India along with Government of Madhya Pradesh and Government of Uttar Pradesh have planned to link the Ken River with Betwa River. This involves construction of 283m long Daudhan Dam. The project aims to transfer excess water from Ken basin to Betwa basin thus provide water access to the drought prone region of Bundelkhand.
  • This construction will cause inundation of 400 hectares of land of 4300 hectare Panna Tiger reserve. Environmentalist is afraid that this will adversely affect the population of tigers in the region.


7.            Sanjay Gandhi-Dubri National Park

  • It was established in 1981 and declared Tiger Project in 2008.
  • All of Sanjay Dubri used to be in M.P. after the separation of Chhattisgarh, it's bigger part has gone to Chhattisgarh which was removed to National Parks as under;-Guru Ghasidas National Park, (district Korea) in Chattisgarh. 
  • Largest numbers of spotted deers are found in Sanjay Gandhi National Park.
  •  Sanjay Gandhi National Park falls under the water catchment area of rivers: Gopad and Banas, Son.
  • The National Park is mostly of Sakhalsul tree.
  • It is located in sidhi and singrauli district of Madhya Pradesh.
  • It covers an area of 966 km2
  • It is located in the Narmada Valley's dry deciduous forest eco-region.        
  • The Bengal Tiger, India leopard, spotted deer, sambar deer, wild boar, nilgai, Chinkara, Civet, Porcupine, Monitor Lizard, and 309 species of birds are found here. Among the many birds here are the Golden hooded oriole, Racket-tailed Drongo, Indian Pitta, Rufous treepie, lesser adjutant. Red-headed vulture.


8.            Fossil National Park

  • It was declared as a Nation park in 1983, Area, 0.27 km2
  • It is a smallest national park of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Other regions under park: Umaria-Silther, Dewarikhurd and Barbaspur.
  • The Park has a large number of fossils.
  • Old vegetation fossils are protected here.
  • It is one of the four fossils National Park in India.


9.            Van-Vihar National Park                    

  • Van Vihar National Park is located in Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh).
  • It was established in 1979 and in 1983 declared as a National Park.
  • It is developed and managed as a modem zoological park, following the guidelines of the central zoo authority.
  • Established as a Zoo in 1993-94 by Central Zoo Authority (CZA). 
  • It covers an area of 4.45 km.
  • It is situated next to the famous Upper Lake of Bhopal also known as the "Bada Talab" which is a Ramsar Site and one of the two lakes of Bhoj Wetland.
  • It has the unique distinction of being a combination of National Park, a Zoo, Rescue Centre for wild animals and Conservation Breeding Centre for selected vital species.
  • It is the only place in central India where its rescue centre harbours a number of Lions and Tigers rescued from the circuses, Sloth Bears rescued from the madaris, Tigers, Panthers and Bears rescued from the zones of human-wildlife conflict.
  • It is also a designated coordinating zoo and Conservation Breeding Centre for the Hard Ground Barasingha, the state animal of Madhya Pradesh and two species of Gyps Vultures.
  • It is a natural habitat for a variety of herbivores and carnivores namely, tiger, white tiger, leopard, hyena and sloth bear, chital, sambhar, blackbuck, blue bull, chowsinga, common langur, rhesus monkey, porcupine, etc
  • It is the second smallest national park in M.P. in terms of Area.
  • This area has been notified as a National Park in order to provide adequate legal protection. It is being managed as a modem zoological park. Here the captive wild animals have been kept in near natural habitat set-up.
  • The Bengal tiger, Asiatic lion, Asiatic wildcat, Indian wolf, Sloth bear, Red fox, Indian jackal, wild dog, mongoose, striped hyena, mugger Crocodile, gharial, and snakes such as the python are kept in captivity.


10.          Dinosaur Fossil National Park

  • It was established in 2010 in Dhar district. Area: 108km2
  • Second fossil National park of Madhya Pradesh.
  • National Park is located at the bank of Bagh-Jobat river.
  • About 125 dinosaur eggs, which were found here Dhar, mandav, bagh areas.
  • Fossils of plants, large trees, and shark and lava rocks dating back 70 million years found here.
  • The teeth of meat eating Dinosaur found inside rocks of manavar.


11.          Palpur-Kuno National Park

  • This protected area was established in 1981 as a valid life sanctuary later received the status of National park in 2018.
  • It covers an area of 748.76 km.
  • Territory under National park:
  • Palpur-Kuno sanctuary in elevated as National Park.
  • It spreads in morena and sheopur districts.
  • The complete area of Karera wild life sanctuary has also become the part of National Park.
  • Some part of Son Chiraiya bird Sanctuary, Ghatigoan has been included in the National Park.
  • Asian Gir Lions and African Leopard are to be shifted and rehabilitated in the Kuno National Park.
  • Indian leopard, jungle cat, sloth bear, golden jackal


12.          Omkareshwar National Park

  • Omkareshwar National Park was established in 2014 in Khandwa district near Narmada River.
  • Spread over an area of 651 square km, all the main wildlife of the state has been protected here. 
  • Tiger, panther, bison, neelgai, sambhar, chital and chinkara are found here.


S. No.

Name (year of Est.)


Area (km2 )

Main Fauna






Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer Sambhar, Hyena



Umaria, Katni


Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer, Sambhar, Grey hornlill





Leopard, Sambhar, Spotted deer






Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer, Sambhar, Gour





Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer, Sambhar, gour





Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer





Tiger, Leopard, Sambhar, Wild dog, Spotted deer, Wild Boar, Black duck





All wild animals of state.


National Fossil Park (1983) (Smallest in M.P.)



Plants Vegetation and Fossils.


Dinosaur (2010) Fossil Park



Dinosaur fossils (6.5 million years old)


Palpur Kuno(2018)



Tiger, Leopard, spotted dear.



National Park



Tiger, panther, Bison, neelgai, sambhar, chital and chinkara


Sanctuaries for Particular Animals


Wildlife Sanctuaries in M.P.






Area (km2)

Main Fauna






Lion, Leopard, Spotted Deer






Lion, Leopard, Spotted Deer


Gandhi Sagar




Nilgai, Blackbuck, Leopard






Son Chiraiya, Black Deer.






Son Chiraiya, Black Deer.






Crocodile, Alligator






Leopard, Alligator, Chamois, Spotted deer.






Crocodile, Dolphin, Trutle







Leopard, Spotted deer, Black Buk Sambhar, Neelgai, Bear






Leopard, Spotted deer, Black Buck Sambhar, Neelgai, Bear






Lion, Leopard, Spotted deer, Chinkara Chamois, Nilgai, Bear, Blackduck.












Leopard, Spotted Deer, Gour








Tiger,   Leopard,   Chamois,

Spotted dear. Black buck,



Sanjay Dubri




Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer, Nilgai, Chinkara






Lion, Leopard, Spotted deer, Black duck, Crocodile, Turtle.






Lion, Leopard, Spotted deer, Black duck, Crocodile, Turtle.






Kharmor bird






Paradise, Kharmor bird







Lion, Leopard, spotted deer, black duck






Spotted deer, Neelgai






Leopard Spotted Deer, Chamois, Gaur, Owl.







Leopard, Spotted deer.






Classification of forest on the basis of Geographical Features


On the basis of geographical features, the forests of Madhya Pradesh are divided into Four categories. These are as Follows:


Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest


  • Cover 8.97% of Total area
  • Rainfall- 100 to 150 cm. These forests are majority found in the area of Sidhi, Mandia, Balaghat,  Seoni, Umaria, Anuppur and Shahdol.
  • It includes mainly Teak, Sal, Bamboo, and some quantity of Dhora, Kasai, Tinsa, Jamun, Mahua, Seza, Harra, Peepal, Sheesham, Sal, Bamboo, etc.


Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest


  • Cover 88.65% of Total area
  • Rainfall- 50 to 100 cm. These forests shed their leaves during summer due to lack of water.
  • These forests are found at Chhatarpur, Panna, Chhindwara, Damoh, Seoni, Sagar,    Jabalpur,    Betui,   and Hoshangabad, Gwalior and Bhopal Districts.
  • Major trees found in these forests are Teak, Sheesham, Neem, Peepal, etc.
  • Teak is the main tree of these forests.


Tropical thorn Forest


  • Cover 0.26% of Total area
  • Rainfall- 25 to 75 cm. These forests are found in Sheopur, Nimar, Ratlam, Mandsaur, Tikamgarh, Datia, Gwalior and Shivpuri districts.
  • Major trees found in these forests are Babool, Sheesham, Tendu, Keekar, Teak, Neem etc.


Subtropical Broad leaved hill forest


  • These type of forests is found in high peaks of satpura and vindhya ranges. Similar forests are also found around Pachmarhi


On the basis of the composition


  • Based on composition, there are three important forest formations.
  • Teak forest, Sal forest, and miscellaneous forest


Teak forest


  • These forests are the pride of the state.
  • Found in Hoshangabad, Jabalpur, Seoni, Balaghat, Panna, Sehore, Dewas, Harda, Betul, Sagar, Chhindwara and Mandla diaricts.
  • These are mainly spread in areas with 75- 125 cm rainfall and in the black soil region.


Sal forest


  • Sal forests are mainly located in Mandla, Dindori, Balaghat,   Sidhi, Umaria, Anuppur and Shahdol districts.
  • Sal forests are found in areas where average rainfall is 120cm.
  • These are found in the Red- Yellow soil areas.


On the Basis of Administrative Control


  • On the basis of administrative control, the forests of Madhya Pradesh are classified into three categories:
  • Reserved Forests
  • Protected Forests
  • Unclassified Forests

Forest circles


  • Madhya Pradesh has been divided into territorial circles. The administration head of forest circle is forest conservator.


Three Largest circles

1.     Khandwa

2.     Jabalpur

3.     Rewa


Three smallest circle

1.     Hoshangawad

2.     Indore

3.     Betui


  • Khandwa circle having highest reserved forests.
  • Chhatarpur circle having lowest reserved forests.
  • Forest division circles are further divided into divisions. There are 62 Forest divisions in MP. A forest circles have two more divisions with divisional officer as its head. Mandala is the largest division and part of Jabalpur circle.


Forest Cover in Madhya Pradesh


  • As pre India State of Forest Report, 2019, the total forest cover area in the state is 77,482 sq. km which is 25.14% of the state's geographical area.


Forest cover


  • The country's forest cover includes all  patches of land with a tree canopy density of more than 10% and more than 1 hectare in area, irrespective of lands use, ownership and species of trees              


Recorded Forest


  • Recorded Forest Area is used for lands which have been notified as "forest" under any government Act or rules or recorded as "forest" in the government records.


Major Forest Produce


  • Sagon (Teak)
  • Sal
  • Bamboo


Minor forest Produce


  • Tendu leaf
  • Khair
  • Harra tree
  • Amla
  • Laakh
  • Gum
  • Bhilawa


Forest Protection Schemes


  • Vraksharopan Yojna
  • Social forestry scheme:
  • Decentralized Nursery scheme:
  • DeendayalVananchalSewa
  • Tendu Leaf Policy, 2004
  • JangalGaliyaraYojana
  • Sanjeevani Ayurveda Programme
  • LokVaniki Yojana
  • Panchvan scheme




  • The State fish of Madhya Pradesh is "Mahasheer", whose genus and species is Tor.
  • It is locally also known as Mahaseer Baudas and is found in rivers originating from the Himalayas and also in Narmada, Ken, Betwa, Tapti and Chambal rivers among others.


MP State Bio diversity board


Madhya Pradesh State Biodiversity Board has been constituted by the State Government as per the provisions of Biological Diversity Act, 2002 notified by the Government of India. The notification regarding the constitution of Board was issued on 11th April 2005.


The objectives of the Board are:


  • Conservation of biodiversity,
  • Sustainable use of its components and
  • Equitable shearing of benefits arising out of the use of biological resources and associated traditional knowledge.
  • In MP, there are three Biosphere Reserve-


1.            Panchmarhi (1999)- Is located in Betui, Hoshanawadand and Chindwara.

2.            Amarkantak-Achanakmar (2005)- Is located in Dindori and Anuppur.

3.            Panna (2011)-Is located in Panna and Chhatarpur.


Panchmarhi and Amarkantak- Achanakmar have been included in UNESCO World Wide Network.


Project Tiger


Project Tiger was launched in 1973. With the aim of ensuring that the population of Bengal tigers is well-maintained in their natural habitats. 


Project Tiger is an ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment,    Forests    and Climate Change providing central assistance to the tiger States for tiger conservation in designated tiger reserves.


Tiger reserves in MP:

  • Kanha Tiger Reserve
  • Pench Tiger Reserve
  • Panna Tiger Reserve      
  • Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve
  • Satpuda Tiger Reserve 
  • Sanjay Tiger Reserve
  • Ratapani Tiger Reserve


Kharmaur Conservation


  • To protect the endangered Kharmaur MP government is making efforts with community participation.
  • Scheme was started in 2005 under this if any farmer informs about the presence of Kharmaur in his field in July than 1000 rupees are given to him and if the presence is found till September-October than 4000 rupees are given.


Lion Relocation Project


The Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project is an initiative of the Indian Government to provide safeguards to the Asiatic lion from extinction on in the wild by means of reintroduction. The last wild population of the Asiatic lion is found in the region of Gir Forest National Park, in the state of Gujarat.

The project aims to establish a second independent population of Asiatic lions at the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in the state of Madhya Pradesh.


Gaur (Indian Bison) Relocation project


In February 2011, 19 Gaur (Indian Bison) were translocated at Bandhavgarh National Park. The project saw the first successful reversal of a local extinction by means of the mass translocation of wild animals in the country. It also laid the foundation for further specialized wildlife relocations in the state of Madhya Pradesh, including the subsequent movement of another 31 gaur in January 2012 by Indian wildlife authorities.


Tiger relocation in Panna


Tiger relocation project in Panna was undertaken in year 2009.

Under the project two tigresses were introduced to Panna from Bandhavgarh National Park and Kanha National Park, respectively. These tigresses were tagged as T1 and T2. Along with them, a male tiger (T3) was also relocated to Panna from Pench National Park.


Wildlife Protection act


  • The Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972 provides the basic framework to ensure the protection and management of wildlife.
  • The Act established schedules of protected plant and animal species; hunting or harvesting these species was largely outlawed.
  • The Act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants; and for matters connected there with or ancillary or incidental thereto.


Awards on forest conservation


Shaheed amrita devi vishnoi award

  • Madhya Pradesh government has instituted shaheed amrita devi vishnoi award for outstanding contribution in the field of forest protection and conservation works.
  • Three amrita devi vishnoi awards of Rs one lakh each would be given to gram panchayats, joint forest management committee and voluntary organisations for forest protection and conservation. Two awards of Rs 50,000 each would be given to individuals for contribution in this direction.


Basaman Mama Memorial Award


Madhya Pradesh government is giving this award since 2010 for Forest and Wildlife conservation.


This award is given under two categories;


  • Vindhya Region: For conservation of forests and wildlife.
  • State   level award:   For excellent plantation on private land.


MP State Bamboo Mission


MP State Bamboo Mission has been registered as society in July 2013 under M P Societies Registration Act, 1973.


The society will function as the apex coordinating organization for implementation of the activities of the National Bamboo Mission in Madhya Pradesh and or any other project given to the society for its implementation. Objective is to develop a new line of bamboo products by bamboo artisans for national and intenational marketing (market), also to promote and facilitate traditional and nontraditional bamboo based artisans by developing their

skills, increasing the supply of quality bamboo and availability of advanced tools and equipments.       






Probable Questions


1. Very Short questions


  • Protected forests
  • Reserved forests
  • Major forest produce in MP
  • CharanPaduka scheme
  • Panchvan scheme  
  • LokVaniki scheme.
  • Sal forests in MP
  • Champion and Seth's classification of Forests in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Geographical classification of forests in MP.         
  • Write names of three medicinal plants found in M.P.


2. Short Questions


  • Examine the New Forest policy (2005) of Madhya Pradesh.              (MPPSC-2014)
  • Write a note on Lok Vaniki scheme.
  • Write a note on the forest produce of Madhya Pradesh.


3. Long Questions


  • Describe the major national parks in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Write a note on the problems in forest conservation Madhya Pradesh and various schemes of the state government to conserve forests.
  • Give a detailed geographical classification of forests in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Give a detailed administrative classification of forests in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Write a note on State government's efforts for conservation of forests.
  • Discuss the problem of forest depletion in Madhya Pradesh and describe its solutions. (MPPSC-2016)

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