|Premium National Organisations Under The Ministry|
|Botanical Survey of India||1890||Kolkata||carrying out taxonomic and floristic studies on wild plant resources of the country|
|Zoological Survey of India||1916||Kolkata with 16 regional stations||undertaking survey, exploration and research leading to the advancement of our knowledge on the exceptionally rich faunal diversity of the country|
|Forest Survey of India||1981||Computer
The earliest known tool for computation was
the Abacus. It was developed in China.
Blaise Pascal invented the second real
mechanical calculator called Pascaline.
Charles Babbage is considered as the 'father
of computer' because he invented difference engine in 1822 and then analytical
engine, which can store the information on punch cards, in 1837.
Alan Turing is regarded as father of 'modem
characteristics of a computer are as follows:
Speed: The computer uses the
electronic pulses, the speed of those pulses is virtually instantaneous and process
the inputs in microseconds, nanoseconds or piccosenconds.
Storage: It is also known as memory.
It consists of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data.
Accuracy: Computers are error free
and most of the errors are due to human negligence.
Versatility: Computers are
multi-tasking in nature.
Automation: It is a field where the
computer itself executes all tasks automatically when inputs are provided to
of a Computer
No Self Intelligence: Though a
computer is programmed to work efficiently, fast and accurately, yet it is
programmed by human beings to do so.
Decision Making: The concept of
artificial intelligence shows that the computer is the decision maker. But it
is still dependent on instructions provided by human being.
Self Care: Computer cannot take care
of itself like a human being. It is dependent on human beings for this purpose.
Retrieval of Memory: Computers can
retrieve data very fast but this technique is linear. Human mind does not
follow this rule.
Sensation: Computers cannot feel like
a human being.
Generations of Computer
Generation (Vacuum Tube) 1940-56
Technology: Use of vacuum tubes in
Internal Operating Speed (IOS):
Operating Systems (OS): Batch
Languages: Machine code and electric
Examples: UNIVAC-I, IBM-701
Generation (Transistor) 1957-63
Technology: Use of transistor and
OS: Batch processing
Languages: Assembly language, high more...
Biotechnology and Genetics · Biotechnology, generally speaking, is any technique that is used to make or modify the products of living organisms in order to improve plants or animal or to develop useful microorganisms. · In modem terms, biotechnology has come to mean the use of cell and tissue culture, cell fusion, molecular biology, and in particular, recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology to generate unique organisms with new trait or organisms that have the potential to produce specific products. · The origin of biotechnology can be traced back to prehistoric times, when microorganisms were already used for processes like fermentation. Although a molecular biologist may consider cloning of DNA to be the most important event in the history of biotechnology, the latter has actually been rediscovered in 1970s for the third time during the last century. · In 1920s, Clostridium acetobutylicum was used by Chaim Weizmann for converting starch into butanol and acetone; the latter was an essential component of explosives during World War I. This raised hopes for commercial production of useful chemicals through biological processes, and may be considered as the first rediscovery of biotechnology in the last century. · Similarly, during World War II (in 1940s), the production of penicillin (as an antibiotic discovered by Alexander Flemming in 1929) on a large scale from cultures of Penicillium notatum, marked the second rediscovery of biotechnology. This was the beginning of an era of antibiotic research. · The third rediscovery of biotechnology is its recent reincarnation in the form of recombinant - DNA technology, which led to the development of a variety of gene technologies and is thus considered to be the greatest scientific evolution of the last century. · Although the term sounds contemporary, biotechnology is not new Over 9,000 years ago, people discovered that microorganisms could be used to make bread, brew alcohol, and produce cheese. Although this process of fermentation was not thoroughly understood at that time, its use still constitutes a traditional application of biotechnology · What is new, however, is the extent of applications and sophistication of biotechnology techniques currently employed. Researchers car manipulate living organisms and transfer genetic material between organisms. Genetic engineering, the specific modification or transfer of genetic material, underlies modem biotechnological innovations These current applications of biotechnology are predominantly practised in the fields of agriculture and medicine. Modem technique- allow for the production of new and improved foods. Virus resistant crop plants and animals have been developed and advances in insect resistance have been made. Biotechnology applications vaccines for malaria, and improved ways of producing insulin. Diagnostic tests for detecting serious diseases such as hereditary cancers and Huntington's chorea have been developed as well more...
Energy (Renewable and Non ? Renewable) GENERAL INTRODUCTION Power development in India dates back to the pre-Independence era with the commissioning of electricity supply in Darjeeling during 1897. It was followed by the commissioning of a hydro power station at Sivasamudram in Karnataka during 1902. Through private sector controlled power supply in the pre Independence era, formation of state electricity boards during Five- Year Plans and setting up of multipurpose projects with thermal, hydro and nuclear power stations systematic growth of power supply industry in the country took place. India is the fifth largest producer and consumer of electricity in the world. It produces 1,006 Terawatt Hours (TWh) of power which has grown at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.5 per cent. The Indian power sector is one of the most diversified sectors in the world. The generation of power in India is done using main commercial sources like coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, hydro and nuclear power. Other viable non- conventional sources include wind, solar, agriculture and domestic waste. The Government of India targeted capacity addition of 89 GW under the 12th Five-Year Plan (2012-17). It plans to add close to 100 GW under the 13th Five-Year Plan (2017-22). Investments of around US$ 223.9 billion have been planned for the power sector during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2012-17). There is a target of generating 10,000 MW of power through solar energy by 2017. Phase I of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission has been very successful, wherein 1,685 MW of solar power was generated. The government of India has permitted an FDI up to 100 per cent under the automatic route for the projects of electricity generation (except atomic energy), transmission distribution and power trading. The Ministry of Power (MOP) is the nodal authority for the development of power resources in the country. The Central Electricity Authority (CEA) assists the Ministry in technical matters. An Electricity Policy was developed by the ministry which sets the tune for generation of electricity in the country. (1) Energy Sector in India By and large, the Indian energy sector has been regulated and owned by government agencies and organisations, though of late the entry of private sector has enhanced the scope for greater power generation. (2) Institutional Structure The basic institutional structure comprises of a nodal ministry at the centre for each energy supply sector, which is the primary agency for policy formulation support in decision-making, and implementation by state governments; state- level nodal agencies, public sector undertakings, and technical and research institutions. The Union Government plays a dominant role in the energy sector and it is mainly due to the fact that the subject energy has been placed in the concurrent list of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India. (3) India's Energy Policy The Energy Policy of India speaks about the goals with respect to short medium and long terms, which are as follows: · more...
Information and Communication Technology NATIONAL INFORMATICS CENTRE (NIC) · Information Technology (IT) has its roots in the strategic infection propagated by the success of India's export-led software industry. The Information Technology industry in India has gained its brand identity. · The National Informatics Centre (NIC) is a premier organisation in the field of Information Technology (IT) in India. It provides state-of-the-art solutions to the information management and decision support requirements of the government and corporate sectors. BIOTECHNOLOGY INFORMATION SYSTEM NETWORK (BTISNET) It was established on the basis of database and network organization by the Department of Biotechnology. BTISNET is headquartered in New Delhi. NICNET (NIC Network) · NICNET was designed and implemented by NIC using state-of-the- art satellite-based computer communication technology. It ensures extremely cost effective and reliable implementation. · The National Internet Exchange of India (Nixi) is the official meeting point of the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) in India to provide neutral ISP services. Its main aim is to facilitate exchange of domestic Internet traffic between the peering ISP members. This enables more efficient use of international bandwidth, saving foreign exchange. SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY PARKS OF INDIA (STPI) · It is a society established in 1991 by the Government of India, under the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. Its objective is to setup and manage infrastructure facilities and provide services like technology assessment and professional training. NATIONAL E-GOVERNANCE PLAN (NeGP) · NeGP is a plan of the Government of India to make all the government services available to the citizens of India via electronic media. v E-Learning: It includes all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching, including education technology. v E-Government: The provision of government services available on the Internet is known as e-Government. v E-Parliament: It is a non-profit organisation that links together the world's democratic members of Parliament and Congress on a single forum. INFORMATION AND LIBRARY NETWORK (INFLIBNET) · It is an autonomous Inter University Centre (IUC) of the University Grants Commission (UGC) of India. It is involved in modernizing university libraries in India and connecting them. Digital Library · It is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats and are accessible via computers. A digital library is a type of information retrieval system. Multimedia · It is a media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. This contrasts with media that uses only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Fuzzy Logic · Space Technology · The Indian space programme began in 1962 by the setting up of Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR). · Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was set up in 1969 with its headquarters at Bengaluru. · The Government of India established the Department of Space in 1972 to promote development and application of space science and technology for socio-economic benefits. · Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching station was set up in the year 1963 near Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala to provide launching facilities. · Sriharikota Range (SHAR) is another satellite-launching station. It was set up at Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh. SHAR has been renamed as Satish Dhawan Space Centre. · India launched its second satellite named Bhaskara I on 7 June 1979 from Baikonur (former USSR). · The first Indian Remote Sensing Satellite was launched on 17 March 1988. · APPLE was the first Indian communication satellite. It was launched on 19 June 1981 from Kourou in French Guyana (South America). It was the first Indian satellite to be placed in the geostationary orbit. · India demonstrated development of space applications for communication, broadcasting and remote sensing. It designed and developed experimental satellites viz. Aryabhata, Bhaskara, APPLE and Rohini including experimental Satellite Launch Vehicles SLV-3 and ASLV. · India successfully sent its spacecraft Chandrayaan-I to Moon in November 2008. It joined a special club of four countries to send a probe to the lunar surface. · 100th Space Mission of India took-off in September 2012 whenIndia's main workhorse Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) successfully placed French SPOT-6 and Japanese PROITERES satellites in the designated orbits. · Aryabhata, the first Indian space satellite, was launched on 19 April 1975. · Indian National Satellite (INSAT) System: Commissioned in 1983, INSAT is a multipurpose satellite system for telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorology, disaster warning, search and rescue. · Tele-education programme of ISRO, through INSAT/ GSAT series of satellites, supports distance education. · Telemedicine programme is an innovative process to deliver the health care services to the remote, distant and under-served regions of the country. INDIA?S SPACE RESEARCH CENTRES · Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram. It is a centre for development of technologies for launching satellites and its propulsion. · ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bengaluru. It is the centre for developing satellite technology that includes implementation of satellite systems for various missions such as scientific, more...
Defence Research and Technology Defence Research and Technology · Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) was established in 1958 to provide a solid base to the national security system. · DRDO formulates and executes programmes of scientific research. design and develops new weapons required by the armed forces. · Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) was launched in 1983 with the aim of achieving self-sufficiency in missile development and production. Currently, it comprises of five core missile programmes - the strategic Agni ballistic missile, the tactical Prithvi ballistic missile, the Akash and Trishul surface-to-air missiles and the Nag anti-tank guided missile.