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  More About Logic Gates   Introduction The internal architecture of computer performs operations like, mathematical as well as logical operations. Logical and arithmetic operations in the microprocessor of a computer is done by comparing the inputs in which output is depend on the state of input. Combination of logic circuit can be used for addition, logical functions, etc. Combination of logic gates is used to make half adder, full adder in the form of flip flop which is used for the manufacturing of microprocessor. The logic gate is made of logic circuits perform the Boolean function. A basic logic gate obtains one or two input but it produces one output at a time. Logic gates is made of transistors and other devices which supports the function of the transistor, such as, resister. All types of logic circuits are divided into two groups, Basic logic gates and Derived logic gates. The following picture illustrates the application of logic circuits in the microprocessor.     Basic Logic Gates Basic logic gates are logic circuits which are made of a single logic gate. It is made of transistor and capacitors. The output of the basic logic gate is depend on the switching of transistor.   AND Gate AND gate has two input and one output. The output of the AND gate is also written as, Y = A.B. Output of the AND gate is obtained by multiplying both the input. The input of the AND gate is given as logic high and logic low or 0 and 1. Every logic gate has a truth table which is the statement of input given to the logic gate and output obtained by that logic gate.                                                                    Look at the following symbol of the AND gate:     Look at the following truth table of the AND gate:      
Input Output
A B Y = A.B
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
    From the truth table of AND gate, the output is low or 0 if any one of input A or B is low or high and also output is low if both input are low. In the case of both input high, the output of the AND gate is high.   OR more...

  Working With MS-Access 2013   Introduction MS-Access 2013 is an application software integrated with Microsoft Office package which is used for database management applications. Data is the raw fact. It can be character, number or symbols which are processed by a computer. In terms of computer science you can say data may be characters, facts or number, which can be processed by a computer. A group of meaningful data is called information. Information may be broken down further.   In computerize system, you can store the data in spreadsheets or in database. An organized collection of data, which can be updated, accessed and managed in a systematic order is called database. With the help of computers, one can works on huge volume of data. It allows the user to access data conveniently and data can also be easily updated whenever it is required.   Need of Database Without database you cannot maintain data in proper way. You can face a lot of problem, such as data duplicity and security. Using database you can manage your data in proper and secure way.   Database provides the following advantages:   v  Sharing Data. v  Avoiding data redundancy. v  Maintaining integrity of data. v  Avoiding inconsistency of data. v  Securing data.   Disadvantages Database maintenance increases the cost because it requires special database software and hardware. Database systems are complex, difficult and time-consuming to design. It requires initial training for all users and programmers.   Getting started with Access   Click on Start All Apps  Microsoft Office  Access 2013   In the left pane, the template categories?including the featured local templates?are listed, as well as the categories on Office Online. Templates are prebuilt databases focused on a specific task that you can download and use immediately.       In the example below, the featured templates are selected, and the template options are displayed in the center area of the screen. Featured templates include database template options that are available online, as well as templates available as part of the local version Access.   Opening a database You have three main options on the Getting Started page. You can open a template database stored locally or online, an existing database, or a blank database. To view templates included with Access:   v  Click on Blank desktop database and click on create option. v  Now the screen will change to main screen of the database.     more...

  Working With HTML     Introduction HTML is defined as the hypertext markup language used for creating web pages. It is also defined as the text which links to the other text and allows 3you to format, arrange and group text, display text as links, and add images and multimedia to a webpage. There are many version of HTML such as, HTML 1.0, HTML 2.0, HTML 3, HTML 4, HTML 5. HTML 5 is the latest version released in 2009 that includes a number of new elements and attributes and removes some elements and attributes that was the part of its earlier version. A text editor can be used for creating the HTML webpages. Some specialized HTML editors are also available.  There are number of HTML editors available for creating Web pages. The followings are the HTML editors.   Gedit: It is designed as general purpose text editor for Mac OS X and Windows has tools to edit source codes for creating webpage.  TinyMCE: It is an open source HTML editor offers HTML formatting tools such as, bold, italics, underline, TinyMCE is compatible with Internet Explorer, Mozilla firefox, Opera, Google Chrome.  CKEditor: It is an open source text editor can be used to create web pages. It is compatible with most of the popular internet browser such as, Internet explorer, Google chrome, Opera.  Adobe Dreamwaver: It is the web development application or HTML editor available for both Mac and Windows operating system.   Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) HTML language is developed by Tim Berner-Lee at CERN (Consiel European pour la Research Nuclear) to enable permit the researchers to share their research papers with the help of the Internet. Generally all the browsers are supporting HTML but basically the HTML was used by Mosaic Browser. The HTML 1.0 is the first version of HTML, whereas continuous growth of Web extended HTML growth in several other ways. World Wide Web (W3C) is the organization which did not specify the fir version of HTML. This organization maintains the language and keeps involving it proper direction. Latest version of HTML is HTML 4.01 which is in general uses are is the sub version of HTML4.0. The errors which are occurring in HTML4.0 have been fixed in this version.  The whole HTML document comes under the <html>tag which is used as a container. The entire content of the HTML page comes under the opening and closing of the <html>tags. This <html>tag indicates the browser this is the starting of the document and the closing </html>tag indicates that it's the ending of an HTML document.   The following is the syntax:   <html>  …………….  Contents mentioned in the page  </html>   For the Heading of the HTML document the tag <head> is used. The information contains some certain headings regarding documents that come under this. There are only few tags which are valid under the heading section. These are the following:   <HTML dir = rtl>: Specifies more...

  Working With CSS   Introduction CSS is defined as the Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a text document or Style sheet. A style sheet is a set of style rules that tell a browser how to present a document. HTML's STYLE element is the simplest ways of linking these style rules to your HTML documents. These elements are placed in the document HEAD, and it contains the style rules for the page. Same CSS document can be used to define multiple HTML document. CSS document has the .css extension. The CSS syntax can be divided into two parts, selector and declaration. The selector is defined as the HTML element to which the CSS style is applied and declaration contains the CSS properties, such as colour, font size, and values of these properties.   CSS Syntax A CSS rule divides into two parts. Selector (Head1; Head2 ;) and declaration (property1: value1; property2: value2). Basically selector is the HTML element you want to style and property is the style attribute. CSS declaration always ends with a semicolon and declaration group is surrounded by middle or curly bracket. The following is the simple example of CSS:   Mystyle { color:green; text-align:center; }   CSS Background CSS allows changing background colour of a page. It enables background-colour property that specifies the background colour of an element. The following code snippet shows how to change background:   body {background-color: # ff0000;}   CSS enables background-image property that allows changing background image of a page. The following code snippet shows how to change background image for a page:   body {background-image: url ('imgl.gif');}   To repeat the image only horizontally you need to use repeat-x property.   The following code snippet shows how to use repeat-x property:   body { background-image: uri ('img 1.gif'); background-repeat: repeat-x; }   Background property allows following values declaration:   Background-Color Allows setting background colour of an element. You can pass the following values:   v  color-rgb v  color-hex v  color-name v  transparent   Background-Image Allows setting background image for an element. You can pass the following values:   v  url v  inherit v  none   Background-Repeat Allows setting background image will be repeated. You can pass the following values:   v  repeat v  repeat-x v  repeat-y v  no-repeat v  inherit   Background-Attachments Allows making a background image is fixed or scroll. You can pass the following values:   v more...

  Working With Internet Application   Introduction Nothing has revolutionized modern life the way rapid progress of computer has. For better or worse computers have infiltrated every aspect of our society. Today, computers do much more than simply compute. They make airline or railway reservation and teach on-line, some super store scanners Calculate our grocery bills while keeping the store inventory computerized telephone switching has greatly improved the telephone system and automatic teller machines (ATM).   As a computers become more widespread in the workplace, new ways to harness their potential developed. As smaller computers become more powerful, they could be linked together, or network to share memory space, software and information and communication with each other.   In Education Computer applications in education is a broad and changing term due to the breadth of the area of study and the rapid and ever ? changing naturo of technology. Computer applications includes, but are not limited to, desktop publishing and presentations, computer use in classrooms, telecommunications and distance education, computer hardware and software, networking, tab administration, multimedia presentations and publishing.   v  Online Education: Many web sites provide online education. You can read or download educational material and books. v  Research: Computers are also used for research work. Internet is a huge source of information on any topic. v  Preparing time - table: Computers help in preparing time - tables, schedules etc. v  Tutorial and dialogue: Computer can play effectively the role of the tutor. It helps the teachers in engaging students in tutorial work: v  Maintenance of progress cards: Computers maintain progress cards and preserve them efficiently and confidentially. v  Computers are being used to perform many tasks in educational institutions, easily and quickly.   ·         Keeping Records of students. ·         Storing Records of employees of school/college. ·         Managing Accounts of the institution. ·         Fee collection' and maintains of fees records. ·         Circulation of instruction / notices and getting it in printed form. ·         Preparation of school / college magazine etc.         In Healthcare The use of information and communication technologies has become widespread in the health care sector. Computer plays very important role in medical science. Today, more and more members of the medical profession are embracing social media for sharing helpful medical information and providing patient care.   Computers can be used to perform research in the health sector. Research studies can be done more...

  WHAT IS SERIES COMPLETION? A series is made up of alphabetical letters or numerals or combination of both. In this chapter the questions are asked in the given two ways: 1.  Find one or more missing terms in the given number series or alphabet series or alpha-numeric series. 2.  Find a wrong term in the given number series or alphabet series or alpha-numeric series.   Trick: To find out a missing or wrong term, just decipher the pattern in the given series.     EXAMPLE   1.         Choose the missing term in the given number series.             165, 195, 255, 285, 345,   ?              (a) 375                          (b) 420                         (c) 435                          (d) 390   Explanation (a): We observe the given series as follows: Clearly, the required term = 345 + 30 = 375.     2.         Choose the missing term. 43, ?, 66, 83, 91, 106, 123 (a) 58                            (b) 51              (c) 60                            (d) 56   Explanation (b): We see that 83 - 66 = 17 91-83=8 106-91 = 15 123- 106= 17 So, the difference between four consecutive terms in pairs is 8, 15, 17; 8, 15, 17. \[\therefore \]Required term = 43 + 8 = 51.     3.         Identify the wrong number in the series. 69, 55, 26, 13, 5             (a) 55                            (b) 5                           (c) 26                            (d) 13   Explanation (b): Clearly, in the given series, each term is one more than the product of the digits of the preceding term. Thus, \[\left( 6\times 9 \right)+1=55,\left( 5\times 5 \right)+1=26,\left( 2\times 6 \right)+1=13.\] So, 5 is wrong number in the series and must be replaced by \[\left( 1\times 3 \right)\]+1 i.e., 4. Hence, the answer is (b).     4.         Choose the missing term.  AB, DEF, HUK, ?, STUVWX (a) MNOPQ                   (b) LMNOP        (c) LMNO                      (d) QRSTU   Explanation (a): First letter of each term except the first term is two more than the last letter of the previous term. 1st letter of required term = more...

  'Analogy' means similarity of the same features of two pairs of things/objects/numbers/ words. In such type of problems, the members of one pair already have a relationship between each other. A student is required to establish the same relationship between the two members of another pair. To do so, the first priority is to identify the relationship between those members that already have relationship. There are various types of analogy. Here, we will consider only the following three types of analogy: 1.  Number Analogy 2.  Alphabet Analogy 3.  Number-Alphabet Analogy Let us illustrate you with examples of each type.     EXAMPLE     1.         Identify the number pattern and complete the second pair in the same way as the first pair. 64 : 625 : : ? : 256 (a) 243                          (b) 18             (c) 27                            (d) 35   Explanation: (c) 64 : 625 are 43 : 54 So, the second pair will be 33 : 44, i.e., \[\]: 256. So, the correct option is (c).     2.         Which group of numbers has the same property of the members in the given below group?             (44, 22, 11) (a) (42, 20, 10)               (b) (46, 22, 10)      (c) (40, 20, 10)               (d) (44, 22, 10)   Explanation: (c) Clearly, in the given group, the first number is twice the second one and the second number is twice the third one, i.e., \[44=22\times 2\text{ }and\text{ }22=11\times 2.\] A similar relationship exists between the numbers in the group (40, 20, 10). So, the correct option is (a).     3.         If SATURDAY is to TBSVAERZ, then in the same way MEGHDOOT is to  ________ ? (a) GFMIOPDU              (b) GFMPOPDU     (c) NFMSOPDU              (d) NFMIOPDV   Explanation: (c) We observe the given relationship as follows : Similarly, we find So, the correct option is (A).     4.         If \[M\otimes N\] is to \[14\times 15,\] then \[P\otimes Q\] is to .......... . (a) \[14\times 15\]           (b) \[15\times 16\]        (c) \[17\times 18\]           (d) \[16\times 17\]   Explanation: (c) \[\otimes \] becomes the symbol 'x'. Letters become one more than numbers as their places in the English alphabet. Therefore, more...

'Classification means grouping of items/words/numbers in accordance of their common properties. In such type of problems some items are given. All of them accept one Eire simliar in same way, A student is required to identify this odd one. These items may be 1. Numbers 2. Set of numbers 3. Letters 4. Set of letters 5. Words like months of the year, days of the week/ etc. Let us illustrate you with the help of examples.               EXAMPLE   1.         Three of the following four are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which Is the one that does not belong to that group?              (a) 85                             (b) 65                           (c) 185                          (d) 165   Explanation: (d) \[85=5\times 17\] \[65-5\times 13\] \[185=5\times 37\] \[165=5\times 3\times 11\] We observe that only 165 has three factors other than 1 and itself. So, 165 does not belong to the group of members having two factors each.     2.         Three of the following four are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Choose the odd one out. (a) 2, 5, 11, 13               (b) 2, 3, 1, 17        (c) 4, 6, 8, 15                  (d) 2, 7, 19, 23   Explanation: (c) Each number of option (c) i.e. 4, 6, 8 and 15 is composite while each number of other sets is a prime number.     3.         Find the odd one out. (a) B                             (b) J               (c) t                             (d) G   Explanation: (d) The letter 'G- is at the odd place in the English alphabet while rest are at even places.   4.         Identify the odd one out from amongst the four options (a) ORUX                      (b) PSVX          (c) CFIL                         (d) JMPS   Explanation: (b) In all other groups, there are two letters in between two consecutive letters as in the English alphabet.     5.         Three of the following four are alike in some way and so form a group. Which is one that does not belong to that group? (a) January        more...

WHAT IS CODING? Coding is a method of expressing something in a secret way.   WHAT IS DECODING Decoding is a process to understand a code language.   TYPES OF CODING 1.    Letter Coding: Letters are used in forward or backward or both the directions for making some code language. 2.    Direct Letter Coding: Letters of a word are directly replaced by other letters. 3.    Number/Symbol Coding: Numerals or symbols are assigned to words. 4.    Substitution Coding: Some particular words are assigned to certain names.     EXAMPLE     1.         If in a code language, 'COULD' is written as 'BNTKC and 'MARGIN' is written as 'LZQFHM', then how will 'MOULDING' be written in that code?              (a) CHEMFINTK             (b) LNKTCHMF                  (c) LNTKCHMF              (d) NITKHCMF   Explanation: (c) So, 'MOULDING' will be written as 'LNTKCHMF'.   2.         In a code, CONTRIBUTE is written as ETUBIRTNOC. If POPULARISE is written in that code, then which letter will be in the 6th place when counted from the left end? (a) P                             (b) L              (c) R                              (d) I   Explanation: (b) In code language, the letters of the word are written in the reverse order. So, POPULARISE will be written as \[E\text{ }S\text{ }I\text{ }R\text{ }AOU\,P\,O\,P.\] Clearly, 6th letter is 'L   3.         In a certain code, PRAISE is written as #@$27% and RESPIRE is written as @%7#2@%. How is REPAIR written in that code? (a) #2@%$@                (b) %@7#$2@     (c) @%#$2@                (d) @%$2#@   Explanation: (c) From the given words and their codes, we conclude that
Letter Code
P more...
In this section/ problems are based on blood relations. The process of solving these problems (puzzles) depends upon the deep knowledge of blood relations. The common relations are: Father, Mother, Grandparents/ Wife, Husband/Son, Daughter, Grandchild, Sister, Brother etc.   Remarks: 1.     Relatives on the mother's side are called 'maternal'. For example, mother's brother is called maternal uncle. 2.     Relatives on the father's side are called 'paternal'. For example, father's brother is called paternal uncle. 3.     Assume a relation as paternal relation, unless stated otherwise.     EXAMPLE 1.         A woman going with a boy is asked by another woman about the relationship between them.            The woman replied, "My maternal uncle and the uncle of his maternal uncle is the same."            How is the lady related with that boy?              (a) Grandmother and Grandson                      (b) Mother and Son              (c) Aunt and Nephew                              (d) Sister and brother   Explanations: (c) The brother of woman's mother is the same as brother of the father of boy's maternal uncle. Also, the woman's mother's brother is the boy's maternal uncle's father, Thus, the woman's mother's brother's son is boy's maternal uncle, i.e., woman's mother's brother's daughter is boy's mother. So, the woman and boy's mother are cousins. Thus, the woman is boy's aunt. Hence, the answer is (c).   2.         A and B are brothers. C and D are sisters. A's son is D's brother. How is B related to C?            (a) Father                                   (b) Brother                     (c) Uncle                                     (d) Grandfather   Explanation: (c) Clearly, A's son is C's brother. This means C is the daughter of A. So, B is the uncle of C. Hence, the answer is (c).   3.         If 'P + Q' means 'P is the father of Q', means 'P is the brother of Q' and 'P - Q' means 'P is the mother of Q', then which of the following is definitely true about C ? A+B? (a) B is the son of A         (b) B is the father of A (c) more...



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