Current Affairs 1st Class

  Comparison   Comparison of Numbers Comparison enables us to identify what is greater or smaller between two objects and what is greatest and smallest among more than two objects.   Greater Number In greater number, we identify which number is the bigger in comparison to then numbers. Let us see the examples given below:   v    Example: \[>\] It means that \[\] is greater than \[\], ?>? is the sign of 'greater than' or "bigger than' or ?more than'. \[>\] is read as \[\] is greater than \[\]   Smaller Numbers In smaller number, we have to identify which number is smaller or less than in comparison to the given numbers. See the following examples:   v    Example: It means  is less than 3 '<" is the sign of "less than' or "smaller than". Hence,  is read as 2 is smaller than 3.   Equal Numbers Equal means neither greater than nor less than.   v    Example: Let's consider  and These numbers are equal because if one or more zeroes is put before any number the number remains unchanged. Thus  and  can be written as:  =  or  = Where '=.' is the sign of equal. And  =  is read as  is equal to     Comparison of Images The comparison of images means comparing the sizes or numbers of the pictures given. In other words, if a particular picture is bigger or smaller or equal in comparison to the other pictures given. It also means comparing the numbers of pictures between groups.   Size Comparison Let's understand it through an example: v    Example: A           B In the above mentioned pictures (A) is smaller and (B) is bigger. Therefore, (A) is 3-aiiler in comparison to (B).   Number Comparison Just see the two groups of pictures given below: v    Example:               Group A                      Group B             Here group A has four keys and group B has two keys. Therefore, group A is greater than group B.   Ascending and Descending Order Numbers can be arranged in ascending or descending order. In other words you can say that numbers can be arranged from smaller to bigger or bigger to smaller.   Ascending Order In more...

  Geometrical Shapes   Geometrical Shapes  In this chapter, we will know about the basic geometrical shapes, which we often see around us.   Line A line is a collection of points. The lines may be straight or curved. See the picture of lines given below: 1. Straight lines 2. Curved lines   Angles When two lines meet at a point, an angle is formed. See the following figures:               (i)                    (ii)   These are angles. v    Example:   Which one of the following is not an angle? (a)                       (b) (c)                      (d)  (e)   None of these Answer (d) Explanation: Option (d) is correct because in (d), two lines do not meet to make an angle.   Triangle A triangle has three sides and three angles. Let's see the following figures:     Quadrilateral Quadrilateral has four sides and four angles. Let's see the following figures:   Thus it is clear that a quadrilateral has four sides whether they are equal or not.   Rectangle A rectangle has equal angles and equal opposite sides. Let's see the following rectangles:     Square Square has 4 equal sides and 4 angles. Let's see the squares given below:   Rhombus Rhombus is a quadrilateral in which all four sides are equal. Let's see the pictures of rhombus given below.    v    Example:   How many lines are required to make 2 square? (a) 4                                          (b) 8 (c) 12                                        (d) 3 (e) None of these   Answer (b) Explanation: Option (b) is correct because one square has \[\] lines. So \[+=\] lines are required to make \[\] squares.

  Measurement   Measurement Measurement means determining the size, length, distance, height etc. of objects, place etc. The kilometer, metre, centimeter, inches and foot are the units of distance and length. While kilometer and metre are used for long and average distances, and length, centimeter, inches and foot are used to measure short distances.   What is Length and Breadth? Length is the longer dimension of an object, while breadth is the dimension from side to side. Let's see the picture given below:         Look at the following:   \[\] kilometre = \[\] metres. \[\] metre = \[\] centimetres.   Therefore,   \[\] metre = two \[\] centimetres \[\] metres = three \[\] centimetres and the process goes on.   Again,   \[\] foot = \[\] inches.   Therefore,   \[\] foot= two \[\] inches = \[\] inches. \[\] foot = three \[\] inches = \[\] inches.   Points to remember, Short forms, Kilometre = \[\]. Metre = \[\], Centimetre = \[\]   v    Example: How many kilometres are there in one 1000 metres? (a) 4                                          (b) 1 (c) 3                                          (d) 5 (e) None of these Answer (b)   Explanation: (b) is correct because \[\] km = one \[\]metres.   Note \[>>\] Foot> Inches>Cm

  Time and Calendar   Concept of Time A day is divided into hours. An hour is divided into minutes and a minute is divided into seconds. See the following examples: For example, Leesa reaches school on 8 O'clock every day. Here 8 O'clock is the time   Hours, Minutes and Seconds Hours, minutes and seconds are units for the measurement of time. For example, we can say \[\] hours; \[\] minutes; \[\] seconds.   Now just remember: \[\] hours  = \[\] day \[\] hour = \[\] minutes \[\] minute = \[\] seconds Hence \[\] day = \[\] hours   Knowing Time Knowing time means knowing period or duration of a certain event. For example, A man goes to a certain distance in \[\] minutes. We can therefore say that he takes \[\] hour to cover the certain distance.   Time Indicating Watches Let's see the face of a clock given below:                            CLOCK   Look carefully at the clock given. It has two hands. One is the shorter hand, which is called hour hand. The other is the longer hand, which is called minute hand.   Important Points Ø  The hour hand moves from one number to the next in \[\] hour. Ø  The hour hand takes two complete rounds in a day. Ø  The minute hand takes \[\] hour to complete one round.   Reading Time from a Clock Trick 1 When the minute hand is at \[\] then the actual time is the number that is indicated by the shorter or hour hand. For example, just see the following: Example:   Here the longer or the minute hand is at 12 and hour or shorter hand indicates 9. Therefore, the time is 9 or 9 0 ' clock. Similarly, in the clock shown below. The time is 4 or 4 O'clock.     Trick 2 Counting of the movements of minute hand at each of the number starting from 1 to 12 is done in the unit of 5, as given below: \[,,,,,,,,,,\,and\,\]   If shorter or hour hand is somewhere between \[\] and \[\] and minute hand is at 5 then the time is 2 : 25 and it will be read as ?25? minutes past 2.   v    Example:     The above clock shows the time ten past five that is 10:05.   Calendar A calendar is a system of organising various periods of time. This is done by giving names to the periods as days, weeks, months and year. Week   A period of seven days is called a week. In other words there are seven days in a week. They are as follows: more...
  Subtraction   Subtraction Subtraction means taking out something from some bigger unit and finding the outcome as left over.   Subtraction of Two Numbers It is the process of taking away smaller number from the greater one. v    Example:   \[\,\,-\,\,\,\,=\]          Subtraction of Figures \[\,\,hours-\text{ }hours=\text{ }hours\] Trick:                Subtraction of Images It means taking out picture or pictures from the group of pictures and finding the remaining as the result of the subtraction.   v    Example:   Subtraction in Column Subtraction in column is done by subtracting the numbers in column. See the examples given below: v    Example:   \[-\frac{\begin{matrix}    27  \\    19  \\ \end{matrix}}{\underline{08}}\,\,\,\,\,\,-\frac{\begin{matrix}    39  \\    17  \\ \end{matrix}}{\underline{22}}\,\,\,\,\,\,-\frac{\begin{matrix}    24  \\    12  \\ \end{matrix}}{\underline{12}}\,\,\,\,\,\,-\frac{\begin{matrix}    19  \\    8  \\ \end{matrix}}{\underline{11}}\]     Word Problems Based on Subtraction Like addition, word problems on subtraction are basically the statements, which require solution by means of subtraction only.   v    Example: James purchased 18 balloons on his birthday and gave 1 balloon to each of his friends. He has 7 friends. How many balloons are left with him? (a) 11 balloons               (b) 10 balloons (c) 12 balloons                (d) All the above (e) None of these Answer (a)   Explanation: Option (a) is correct because: \[-=\] balloons.   Problems Based on Addition and Subtraction Both In some questions you have to perform both addition and subtraction. See the examples given below:   v    Example:   Solve the sum given below: \[++-\]   To solve this sum, first add the numbers with + sign. That is \[++=\] Now subtract \[\] from \[\]. That is\[-=\]. So the answer is \[\].

  Addition   Concept of Addition Addition means collection of different units together and counting them as single v    Example:   There are three balls in box A  A Three balls      There are one ball in another box B   B     One ball   Now, How many balls are there in both the boxes together? For this, we put the balls from both the boxes in a single box as shown below:   Four balls   Therefore, the third box has three balls of box A and one ball of box B. Together there are 4 balls.   Addition of Two Numbers It is the grouping of two numbers together and counting them as a single number.   v    Example: \[\,+\,\,=\,\]   It is also written as: \[\begin{align}   & \underline{\begin{align}   & \,\,\,\,\,2 \\  & +\,\,3 \\ \end{align}} \\  & \,\,\,\,\,5 \\ \end{align}\] Trick: Put two vertical lines for 2 and three vertical lines for 3. After this, count all the lines together and that line will be the final result of this addition. \[\,+\,\,=\,\]      
Point to Remember   \[\,\,number+\,\,number=\,\,number+\,\,number\]
v    Example:             +         =  Four Mangoes     Two Mangoes       Six Mangoes         Addition in Column   Addition in column is done by adding the numbers in column. See the example given below:   v    Example:   \[+\frac{\begin{matrix}    7  \\    4  \\ \end{matrix}}{\underline{11}}\,\,\,\,\,+\frac{\begin{matrix}    3  \\    8  \\ \end{matrix}}{\underline{11}}\,\,\,\,\,+\frac{\begin{matrix}    4  \\    5  \\ \end{matrix}}{\underline{9}}\,\,\,\,\,+\frac{\begin{matrix}    9  \\    8  \\ \end{matrix}}{\underline{17}}\]   Word Problem Based on Addition\ In word problem some statements are given. These statements are to be solved by means of addition   v    Example: Steve has 12 toffees. His father gives him 10 more toffees. How many toffees does Steve have now? (a) 2 toffees                                (b) 10 toffees (c) 12 toffees                              (d) 22 toffees (e) None of these Answer (d)   Explanation: Option (d) is correct because: \[+=\] toffees.

  Ones, Tens and Hundreds   Concept of Ones and Tens Ones, tens and hundreds are the places of digits in a number.   Identifying such Number In any number, first number from right is called ones; Second number from right is called tens; And third digit from the right is called hundreds. Identifying ones in a number.   In 35 first digit from right is 5. Thus the digit at one's place is 5. It is also said that 35 has 5 ones.   v    Example: 18 has 8 ones because in 18, first digit from right is 8.   Identifying Tens in a Number Here 21 is a number. In 21, 2 is at tens place. Second digit from right is the digit at tens place.   v    Example: In 43 the 2nd digit from right is 4 and hence, it is the digit at tens place. In this case it is also said 43 has 4 tens.   v    Example: In 34, the 2nd digit from right is 4 and hence it is at tens place.   Identifying Hundreds in a Number In 120, the third digit from right is 'I'. Therefore, one is at hundreds place.   v    Example: In 500, 5 is at the hundreds place.   v    Example In 755, 7 is at the hundreds place.  

  Back Counting   Back Counting Look at the following figures:                         Back Counting   Reverse Counting Reverse counting is back counting or counting backward. The reverse counting goes as given below: Look at the following figures:                  Reverse Counting                      Reverse Counting     Forth Counting Look at the following figures:                Forth Counting     What Comes before In forth counting, smaller number always comes before greater number.   v    Example:              Forth Counting   Here, \[\]comes just before \[\] & \[\] comes just before \[\] In forth counting Numbers coming before \[\] are \[\,\,\,\,\,\,\] Numbers coming before \[\] are \[\,\,\,\,\]     What Comes After Just remember that greater number always comes after smaller number in forth counting.   v    Example:                        Forth Counting   Here, \[\] comes just after \[\] \[\] comes just after \[\] In forth counting, Numbers coming after \[\] are \[\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\] Numbers coming after \[\] are \[\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\]

  My Family and Relatives   We all live in a house with our father, mother, brother and sister. Our parents, brother and sister make our family.    A small family in which mother and father live with their children is known as a nuclear family. Again, in some families not only parents and children, but also their uncle, aunt, their children along with grand parents live together. Such family is called a joint family. All the members of a family generally have common surname. Brother of our father is Known as paternal uncle. Brother of our mother is known as maternal uncle. Our uncle's children are our cousins. Our family is our first teacher. A chart is given herewith to give you an idea of a family tree:     A family has important role in the area in which it stays and other families depend on it. These families, when taken together, form a society. Some families follow certain practices which may not be followed by other families. Such practices are called customs of the family. Our family and relatives are the important part of our life They help us in our physical and mental development.

  The Sun, Moon and Stars   The Sun If you see the sky during the day, you will see some clouds and the sun. The sun looks like a yellow, hot ball of fire. It is very big. It shines brightly during the day. It gives us heat and light. All plants and animals need the warmth of the sun to live. The sun rises every morning in the east. It brings us the day. The sun set every evening in the west It bring us the night   The Moon If you see the sky at night, you will see the moon and lots of starts. The moon looks like a big white ball. Sometimes, you can see the moon even during the day. If you observe the sky every day, you will notice that the shape of the moon change every night. Sometimes it is round like a ball. At other times, you can see parts of the moon or no moon at all. Stars In the night sky we see lots and lots of stars. They shine brightly. Stars are very big in size, but they look tiny, because they are very, very far away from us. If you see the stars carefully, you will notice that they make patterns in the sky.            Days of A Week A new day begins when the sun rises in the sky. It ends when the sun sets and brings us the night. A group of seven days and nights makes a week. Each day of the week has a name.   1. Sunday                      2. Monday 3. Tuesday                     4. Wednesday 5. Thursday                   6. Friday 7. Saturday  



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