BACK AND FORTH COUNTING
Back and Forth Counting
Understanding and applying basic mathematics is an essential skill set for a student to learn. In this chapter you will know about the back and forth counting.
Forth Counting
Look at the following figures:
In forth counting, we count from smaller to greater numbers.

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ONE, TENS & HUNDREDS
Concept of Ones and Tens
Ones, tens and hundreds are the places of digits in a number.
Identifying Ones in a Number
In any number, first number from right is called ones;
Second number from right is called tens;
And third digit from the right is called hundreds.

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ADDITION
Concept of Addition
Addition means collection of different units together and counting them as single unit.
Let's understand this through an example:

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SUBTRACTION
Subtraction
Subtraction means taking out something from some bigger unit and finding the outcome as left over.
Subtraction of Two Numbers
It is the process of taking away smaller number from the greater one.

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COMPARISON
Comparison of Numbers
Comparison enables us to identify what is greater or smaller between two objects and what is greatest and smallest among more than two objects.
Greater Number
In greater number, we identify which number is the bigger in comparison to the given numbers.
Let us see the examples given below:

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TIME AND CALENDAR
1. Concept of Time
A day is divided into hours. An hour is divided into minutes and a minute is divided into seconds. See the following examples:
For example, Leesa reaches school on 8 O'clock everyday. Here 8 O'clock is the time.
Hours, Minutes and Seconds
Hours, minutes and seconds are units for the measurement of time.
For example, we can say
[2] hours; [2] minutes; [2] seconds.
Now just remember:
[24] hours = [1] day
[1] hour= [60] minutes
[1] minute = [60] seconds
Hence [1] day = [24] hours
Knowing Time
Knowing time means knowing period or duration of a certain event.
For example,
A man goes to a certain distance in [60] minutes. We can therefore say that he takes [1] hour to cover the certain distance.

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MONEY
Concept of Money
We all are familiar with Money. In India or anywhere in the world money is available in the form of coins and notes. We pay money while purchasing any things and receive money by selling goods.
Money in India is counted in terms of paise and rupees.
Rupee and Paise
Let's remember the following:
100 paise =
50 paise =
25 paise =
20 paise =
10 paise =
5 paise =
Identifying Coins
All coins are made up of metal. In India, at present coins of 50 paise, Rs. 1, Rs. 2, Rs. 5 and Rs. 10 are in circulation.

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MEASUREMENT
Measurement
Measurement means determining the size, length, distance, height etc. of objects, place etc. The kilometre, metre, centimetre, inches and foot are the units of distance and length. While kilometre and metre are used for long and average distances, and length, centimetre, inches and foot are used to measure short distances.
What is Length and Breadth?
Length is the longer dimension of an object, while breadth is the dimension from side to side.
Let's see the picture given below:
Look at the following:
[1] kilometer = [1000] meters
[1] meter = [100] centimeters.
Therefore,
[2] meters = two [100] centimeters
[3] meters = three [100] centimeters and the process goes. on.
Again,
[1] foot = [12] inches.
Therefore,
[2] feet = two [12] inches = [24] inches.
[3] feet = three [12] inches = [36] inches.
Points to remember,
Short forms
Kilometre = [km],
Metre = [m],
Centimetre = [cm]

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GEOMETRICAL SHAPES
Geometrical Shapes
In this chapter, we will know about the basic geometrical shapes, which we often see around us.
Line
A line is a collection of points. The lines may be straight or curved.
See the picture of lines given below:
1. Straight lines
2. Curved lines
Angles
When two lines meet at a point, an angle is formed.
See the following figures:
(i) (ii)
These are angles.

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APPLIED MATHEMATICS
In this chapter, we will apply our mathematical knowledge to solve various problems.
Some of these problems, along with their solutions are given below.

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