Comparison
Comparison of Numbers
Comparison
enables us to identify what is greater or smaller between two objects and what
is greatest and smallest among more than two objects.
Greater Number
In
greater number, we identify which number is the bigger in comparison to then
numbers.
Let
us see the examples given below:
v Example:
\[>\]
It
means that \[\] is greater than \[\],
?>?
is the sign of 'greater than' or "bigger than' or ?more than'.
\[>\]
is read as
\[\]
is greater than \[\]
Smaller Numbers
In
smaller number, we have to identify which number is smaller or less than in comparison
to the given numbers.
See
the following examples:
v Example:
It
means is less than 3
'<"
is the sign of "less than' or "smaller than".
Hence,
is read as 2 is smaller than
3.
Equal Numbers
Equal
means neither greater than nor less than.
v Example:
Let's
consider
and
These
numbers are equal because if one or more zeroes is put before any number the number
remains unchanged. Thus and can be written
as:
= or =
Where
'=.' is the sign of equal.
And
= is read as is equal to
Comparison of Images
The
comparison of images means comparing the sizes or numbers of the pictures given.
In other words, if a particular picture is bigger or smaller or equal in
comparison to the other pictures given. It also means comparing the numbers of
pictures between groups.
Size Comparison
Let's
understand it through an example:
v Example:
A B
In
the above mentioned pictures (A) is smaller and (B) is bigger. Therefore, (A)
is 3-aiiler in comparison to (B).
Number Comparison
Just
see the two groups of pictures given below:
v Example:
Group
A Group B
Here
group A has four keys and group B has two keys. Therefore, group A is greater
than group B.
Ascending and Descending Order
Numbers
can be arranged in ascending or descending order. In other words you can say that
numbers can be arranged from smaller to bigger or bigger to smaller.
Ascending Order
In more...

Geometrical Shapes
Geometrical Shapes
In
this chapter, we will know about the basic geometrical shapes, which we often
see around us.
Line
A
line is a collection of points. The lines may be straight or curved.
See
the picture of lines given below:
1.
Straight lines
2.
Curved lines
Angles
When
two lines meet at a point, an angle is formed.
See
the following figures:
(i) (ii)
These
are angles.
v
Example:
Which
one of the following is not an angle?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
None of these
Answer
(d)
Explanation:
Option (d) is correct because in (d), two lines do not meet to make an angle.
Triangle
A
triangle has three sides and three angles. Let's see the following figures:
Quadrilateral
Quadrilateral
has four sides and four angles. Let's see the following figures:
Thus
it is clear that a quadrilateral has four sides whether they are equal or not.
Rectangle
A
rectangle has equal angles and equal opposite sides. Let's see the following
rectangles:
Square
Square
has 4 equal sides and 4 angles. Let's see the squares given below:
Rhombus
Rhombus
is a quadrilateral in which all four sides are equal. Let's see the pictures of
rhombus given below.
v Example:
How
many lines are required to make 2 square?
(a)
4 (b) 8
(c)
12 (d) 3
(e)
None of these
Answer
(b)
Explanation:
Option (b) is correct because one square has \[\] lines. So \[+=\] lines are
required to make \[\] squares.

Measurement
Measurement
Measurement
means determining the size, length, distance, height etc. of objects, place
etc. The kilometer, metre, centimeter, inches and foot are the units of
distance and length. While kilometer and metre are used for long and average
distances, and length, centimeter, inches and foot are used to measure short
distances.
What is Length and Breadth?
Length
is the longer dimension of an object, while breadth is the dimension from side
to side.
Let's
see the picture given below:
Look
at the following:
\[\]
kilometre = \[\] metres.
\[\]
metre = \[\] centimetres.
Therefore,
\[\]
metre = two \[\] centimetres
\[\]
metres = three \[\] centimetres and the process goes on.
Again,
\[\]
foot = \[\] inches.
Therefore,
\[\]
foot= two \[\] inches = \[\] inches.
\[\]
foot = three \[\] inches = \[\] inches.
Points to remember,
Short
forms,
Kilometre
= \[\]. Metre = \[\], Centimetre = \[\]
v Example:
How
many kilometres are there in one 1000 metres?
(a)
4 (b) 1
(c)
3 (d) 5
(e)
None of these
Answer
(b)
Explanation:
(b) is correct because \[\] km = one \[\]metres.
Note
\[>>\]
Foot>
Inches>Cm

Time and Calendar
Concept of Time
A
day is divided into hours. An hour is divided into minutes and a minute is
divided into seconds. See the following examples:
For
example, Leesa reaches school on 8 O'clock every day. Here 8
O'clock is the time
Hours, Minutes and Seconds
Hours,
minutes and seconds are units for the measurement of time.
For
example, we can say
\[\]
hours; \[\] minutes; \[\] seconds.
Now
just remember:
\[\]
hours = \[\] day
\[\]
hour = \[\] minutes
\[\]
minute = \[\] seconds
Hence
\[\] day = \[\] hours
Knowing Time
Knowing
time means knowing period or duration of a certain event.
For
example,
A
man goes to a certain distance in \[\] minutes. We can therefore say
that he takes \[\] hour to cover the certain distance.
Time Indicating Watches
Let's
see the face of a clock given below:
CLOCK
Look
carefully at the clock given. It has two hands. One is the shorter hand, which
is called hour hand. The other is the longer hand, which is called minute
hand.
Important Points
Ø The
hour hand moves from one number to the next in \[\] hour.
Ø The
hour hand takes two complete rounds in a day.
Ø The
minute hand takes \[\] hour to complete one round.
Reading Time from a Clock
Trick
1
When
the minute hand is at \[\] then the actual time is the number that is indicated
by the shorter or hour hand. For example, just see the following:
Example:
Here
the longer or the minute hand is at 12 and hour or shorter hand indicates 9.
Therefore,
the time is 9 or 9 0 ' clock.
Similarly,
in the clock shown below. The time is 4 or 4 O'clock.
Trick
2
Counting
of the movements of minute hand at each of the number starting from 1 to 12 is
done in the unit of 5, as given below:
\[,,,,,,,,,,\,and\,\]
If
shorter or hour hand is somewhere between \[\] and \[\] and minute hand is at 5
then the time is 2 : 25 and it will be read as ?25? minutes past 2.
v
Example:
The
above clock shows the time ten past five that is 10:05.
Calendar
A
calendar is a system of organising various periods of time. This is done by
giving names to the periods as days, weeks, months and year.
Week
A
period of seven days is called a week. In other words there are seven days in a
week. They are as follows:
more...

v Example:
+ =
Four Mangoes Two Mangoes
Six Mangoes
Addition in Column
Addition
in column is done by adding the numbers in column. See the example given below:
v Example:
\[+\frac{\begin{matrix}
7 \\
4 \\
\end{matrix}}{\underline{11}}\,\,\,\,\,+\frac{\begin{matrix}
3 \\
8 \\
\end{matrix}}{\underline{11}}\,\,\,\,\,+\frac{\begin{matrix}
4 \\
5 \\
\end{matrix}}{\underline{9}}\,\,\,\,\,+\frac{\begin{matrix}
9 \\
8 \\
\end{matrix}}{\underline{17}}\]
Word
Problem Based on Addition\
In
word problem some statements are given. These statements are to be solved by means
of addition
v Example:
Steve
has 12 toffees. His father gives him 10 more toffees. How many toffees does
Steve have now?
(a)
2 toffees (b) 10 toffees
(c)
12 toffees (d) 22 toffees
(e)
None of these
Answer
(d)
Explanation:
Option (d) is correct because:
\[+=\]
toffees.

Subtraction
Subtraction
Subtraction
means taking out something from some bigger unit and finding the outcome as
left over.
Subtraction of Two Numbers
It
is the process of taking away smaller number from the greater one.
v Example:
\[\,\,-\,\,\,\,=\]
Subtraction of Figures
\[\,\,hours-\text{
}hours=\text{ }hours\]
Trick:
Subtraction of Images
It
means taking out picture or pictures from the group of pictures and finding the
remaining as the result of the subtraction.
v Example:
Subtraction in Column
Subtraction
in column is done by subtracting the numbers in column. See the examples given
below:
v Example:
\[-\frac{\begin{matrix}
27 \\
19 \\
\end{matrix}}{\underline{08}}\,\,\,\,\,\,-\frac{\begin{matrix}
39 \\
17 \\
\end{matrix}}{\underline{22}}\,\,\,\,\,\,-\frac{\begin{matrix}
24 \\
12 \\
\end{matrix}}{\underline{12}}\,\,\,\,\,\,-\frac{\begin{matrix}
19 \\
8 \\
\end{matrix}}{\underline{11}}\]
Word Problems Based on Subtraction
Like
addition, word problems on subtraction are basically the statements, which require
solution by means of subtraction only.
v Example:
James
purchased 18 balloons on his birthday and gave 1 balloon to each of his friends.
He has 7 friends. How many balloons are left with him?
(a)
11 balloons (b) 10 balloons
(c)
12 balloons (d) All the above
(e)
None of these
Answer
(a)
Explanation:
Option (a) is correct because:
\[-=\]
balloons.
Problems Based on Addition and Subtraction Both
In
some questions you have to perform both addition and subtraction. See the
examples given below:
v Example:
Solve
the sum given below:
\[++-\]
To
solve this sum, first add the numbers with + sign. That is \[++=\] Now subtract
\[\] from \[\]. That is\[-=\]. So the answer is \[\].

Addition
Concept of Addition
Addition
means collection of different units together and counting them as single
v Example:
There
are three balls in box A
A
Three balls
There
are one ball in another box B
B
One ball
Now,
How
many balls are there in both the boxes together?
For
this, we put the balls from both the boxes in a single box as shown below:
Four balls
Therefore,
the third box has three balls of box A and one ball of box B. Together there
are 4 balls.
Addition of Two Numbers
It
is the grouping of two numbers together and counting them as a single number.
v Example:
\[\,+\,\,=\,\]
It
is also written as: \[\begin{align}
& \underline{\begin{align}
& \,\,\,\,\,2 \\
&
+\,\,3 \\
\end{align}}
\\
&
\,\,\,\,\,5 \\
\end{align}\]
Trick:
Put
two vertical lines for 2 and three vertical lines for 3. After this,
count all the lines together and that line will be the final result of this
addition.
\[\,+\,\,=\,\]

Point to Remember \[\,\,number+\,\,number=\,\,number+\,\,number\] |

Ones, Tens and Hundreds
Concept of Ones and Tens
Ones,
tens and hundreds are the places of digits in a number.
Identifying such Number
In
any number, first number from right is called ones;
Second
number from right is called tens;
And
third digit from the right is called hundreds.
Identifying
ones in a number.
In
35 first digit from right is 5. Thus the digit at one's place is 5. It is also
said that 35 has 5 ones.
v Example:
18
has 8 ones because in 18, first digit from right is 8.
Identifying Tens in a Number
Here
21 is a number. In 21, 2 is at tens place. Second digit from right is the digit
at tens place.
v Example:
In
43 the 2nd digit from right is 4 and hence, it is the digit at tens place. In
this case it is also said 43 has 4 tens.
v Example:
In
34, the 2nd digit from right is 4 and hence it is at tens place.
Identifying Hundreds in a Number
In
120, the third digit from right is 'I'. Therefore, one is at hundreds place.
v Example:
In
500, 5 is at the hundreds place.
v Example
In
755, 7 is at the hundreds place.

Back Counting
Back Counting
Look
at the following figures:
Back Counting
Reverse Counting
Reverse
counting is back counting or counting backward.
The reverse counting
goes as given below:
Look
at the following figures:
Reverse Counting
Reverse Counting
Forth Counting
Look
at the following figures:
Forth Counting
What Comes before
In
forth counting, smaller number always comes before greater number.
v Example:
Forth Counting
Here,
\[\]comes
just before \[\] &
\[\]
comes just before \[\]
In
forth counting
Numbers
coming before \[\] are \[\,\,\,\,\,\,\]
Numbers
coming before \[\] are \[\,\,\,\,\]
What Comes After
Just
remember that greater number always comes after smaller number in forth counting.
v Example:
Forth
Counting
Here,
\[\] comes just after \[\]
\[\] comes just after \[\]
In forth counting,
Numbers coming after \[\] are \[\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\]
Numbers coming after \[\] are \[\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\]

My Family and Relatives
We
all live in a house with our father, mother, brother and sister. Our parents,
brother and sister make our family.
A
small family in which mother and father live with their children is known as a nuclear
family. Again, in some families not only parents and children, but also
their uncle, aunt, their children along with grand parents live together. Such
family is called a joint family.
All
the members of a family generally have common surname. Brother of our father is
Known as paternal uncle. Brother of our mother is known as maternal uncle. Our
uncle's children are our cousins. Our family is our first teacher.
A
chart is given herewith to give you an idea of a family tree:
A
family has important role in the area in which it stays and other families
depend on it.
These
families, when taken together, form a society.
Some
families follow certain practices which may not be followed by other families. Such
practices are called customs of the family. Our family and relatives are the
important part of our life They help us in our physical and mental development.

The Sun, Moon and Stars
The Sun
If
you see the sky during the day, you will see some clouds and the sun.
The
sun looks like a yellow, hot ball of fire. It is very big. It shines brightly
during the day. It gives us heat and light.
All plants and animals need the warmth of the sun to live.
The sun rises every morning in the east.
It brings us the day.
The sun set every evening in the west
It bring us the night
The Moon
If you see the sky at night, you will see the moon and lots of
starts.
The moon looks like a big white ball.
Sometimes, you can see the moon even during the day.
If you observe the sky every day, you will notice that the
shape of the moon change every night. Sometimes it is round like a ball. At
other times, you can see parts of the moon or no moon at all.
Stars
In the night sky we see lots and lots of stars. They shine
brightly. Stars are very big in size, but they look tiny, because they are
very, very far away from us. If you see the stars carefully, you will notice
that they make patterns in the sky.
Days of A Week
A new day begins when the sun rises in the sky. It ends when
the sun sets and brings us the night. A group of seven days and nights makes a
week. Each day of the week has a name.
1. Sunday 2. Monday
3. Tuesday 4. Wednesday
5. Thursday 6. Friday
7. Saturday

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