Current Affairs Banking

Glossary   Access Time: Access time is the time from the start of one access of the storage device to the time when the next access can be started.   Accessory: An Accessory is a device attached to a host computer, but not part of it, and is more or less dependent on the host. It expands the host's capabilities, but does not form part of the core computer architecture. Examples are computer printers, image scanners, tape drives, microphones, loudspeakers, webcams, and digital cameras.   Active Cell: The cell that continues the value being used or modified in a spreadsheet program, and that is highlighted by the cell pointer. Also known as current cell.   Active Window: The window in Micrddosoft Windows with which the user may interact.   Accumulator: The computer register in which the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is formed (related to arithmetic and logic unit).   Analog Computer: A computer in which numerical data are represented by measurable physical variables, such as electrical.   Antivirus: Computer antivirus refers to a software program that can protect your computer from unwanted viruses and remove any that penetrate your computer's defenses.   Artificial Intelligence: Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.   ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange): ASCII, a code for information exchange between computers made by different companies; a string of 7 binary digits represents each character; used in most microcomputers   Abstraction: The separation of the logical properties of data or function from its implementation in a computer program.   Address: A number, character, or group of characters which identifies a given device or a storage location which may contain a piece of data or a program step. To refer to a device or storage location by an identifying number, character, or group of characters.   Algorithm: A finite set of well-defined rules for the solution of a problem in a finite number of steps. Any sequence of operations for performing a specific task.   Alphanumeric: Pertaining to a character set that contains letters, digits, and usually other characters such as punctuation marks.   Analog: Pertaining to data signals in the form of continuously variable wave form physical quantities; e.g. pressure, resistance, rotation, temperature, voltage. Contrast with digital.   Analog device: A device that operates with variables represented by continuously measured quantities sacs. as pressures, resistances, rotations, temperatures, and voltages.   Analog-to-digital converter: Input related devices which translate an input device's sensor analog signal to the corresponding digital signals needed by the computer   Android: It is linux based operating system designed primarily for touch screen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets computers.   Application more...

Technologies and Terms used in Internet Banking   Online banking was long considered to be a tremendous new technology breaking offering that would not only enhance the banks 'capabilities in terms of services offered on the go but also as a possible change in various types of operational and Strategic business models. Now almost all the banks across the globe are there to offer online banking with different capabilities in their respective fields. With ever-increasing competition, banks have devised new ways to maintain their revenue streams. The core of the idea, however, still remains to offer more value, convenience and satisfaction to the customer.   INTERNET BANKING TECHNOLOGIES ATM (Automated teller machine) ATM is known as an automated banking machine cash machine, cashpoint, or cashline machine that is an electronic telecommunications device which enables the customers of a financial institution to perform financial transactions without the need for a human cashier, clerk or bank teller. On most modem ATMs, the customer is identified by inserting the ATM card with a magnetic stripe or a plastic smart card with a chip that has a unique card number and some security information such as an expiration date or CWC (CW). Authentication is provided by the customer entering a personal identification number (PIN). Using an ATM, customers can access their bank deposit or credit accounts in order to make a variety of transactions such as cash withdrawals, check balances, or credit mobile phones. If the currency being withdrawn from the ATM is different from that in which the bank account is denominated the money will be converted at an official exchange rate. Thus, ATMs often provide the best possible exchange rates for foreign travellers, and are widely used for this purpose.   Mobile banking It is a service provided by a bank that allows its customers to conduct financial transactions remotely using a mobile device such as a mobile phone or tablet. It uses software, usually called an app, provided by the bank. Mobile banking is usually available on a 24-hour basis. Some bank has restrictions on which accounts may be accessed through mobile banking,, as well as a limit on the amount that can be transacted. Transactions through mobile banking may include obtaining account balances and lists of latest transactions, electronic bill payments, and funds transfers between a customer's or another's accounts. Some apps also enable copies of statements to be downloaded and sometimes printed at the customer's premises; and some banks charge a fee for mailing hardcopies of bank statements. Model of mobile banking According to the model mobile banking can be said to consist of three inter-related concepts:
  • Mobile financial information services
  • Mobile accounting
  • Mobile brokerage
  Most services in the categories designated accounting and brokerage are transaction-based. The non-transaction based services of an informational nature are however essential for conducting transactions - for instance, balance inquiries might be needed before committing a money remittance. The mobile accounting and brokerage services are more...

Latest Development in IT Related to Banking   With the globalization trends world over it is difficult for any nation big or small, developed or developing, to remain isolated from what is happening around. For a country like India, which "s one of the most promising emerging markets, such isolation is nearly impossible. More particularly in the area of Information technology, where India has definitely an edge over its competitors, remaining away or uniformity of the world trends is untenable. Financial sector in general and banking industry in particular is the largest spender and beneficiary from information technology. This endeavours to relate the international trends in it with the Indian banking industry. The last lot includes possibly all foreign banks and newly established Private sector banks, which have fully computerized all the operations. With these variations in the level of information technology in Indian banks, it is useful to take account of the trends in Information technology internationally as also to see the comparative position with Indian banks. The present article starts with the banks perception when they get into IT up gradation. All the trends in IT sector are then discussed to see their relevance to the status of Indian banks. The government and the regulator have undertaken several measures to strengthen the Indian banking sector.
  • In July 2016, the government allocated Rs 22,915 crore (US$ 3.41 billion) as capital infusion in 13 public sector banks, which is expected to improve their liquidity and lending operations, and shore up economic growth in the country.
  • To reduce the burden of loan repayment on farmers, a provision of Rs 15,000 crore (US$ 2.2 billion) has been made in the Union Budget 2016-17 towards interest subvention.
  • Under Pradhan Mantri Jan DhanYojna (PMJDY), 250.5 million accounts! Have been opened and 192.2 million RuPay debit cards have been issued as of October 12, 2016. These new accounts have mustered deposits worth almost Rs 44,480 crore (US$ 6.67 billion).
  • To provide relief to the state electricity distribution companies, Government of India has proposed to their lenders that 75 per cent of their loans be converted to state government bonds in two phases by March 2017
  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has released the Vision 2018 document, aimed at encouraging greater use of electronic payments by all sections of society by bringing down paper-based transactions, increasing the usage of digital channels, and boosting the customer base for mobile banking.
  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has issued guidelines for priority sector lending certificates (PSLCs), according to which banks can issue four different kinds of PSLCs—those for the shortfall in agriculture lending, lending to small and marginal farmers, lending to micro enterprises and for overall lending targets - to meet their priority sector lending targets.
  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has allowed additional reserves to be part of tier-1 or core capital of banks, such as revaluation reserves linked to property holdings, foreign currency translation reserves and deferred tax assets, which more...

  • Microsoft Windows   When referring to an operating system. Windows is an operating environment created by Microsoft that provides an interface known a s Graphical User Interface (GUI) for computers/laptops/notebooks etc. Windows eliminates the need for a user to type each command at a command line, like MS-DOS, by using a mouse to navigate through drop-down menus, dialog boxes, buttons, tabs, and icons.   BASIC OF MICROSOFT WINDOWS Developer(s) Microsoft Initial release November 19, 1990; almost 24 years ago Stable release 2010 (14.0.6023.1000 SP1) / June 28, 2011 Development status Active Written in C++ Operating system Microsoft Windows Available in Over 35 languages Type Office suite GENERATIONS OF M ICROSOFT WlNDOWS       MICROSOFT WINDOWS VERSIONS   Microsoft Windows Versions for Personal Computers   The following details the history of Microsoft Windows Versions designed for personal computers (PCs).
  • MS-DOS (Microsoft disk operating system in 1992): Originally developed by Microsoft for IBM. MS-DOS was the standard operating system for IBM-compatible personal computers. The initial versions of DOS were very simple and resembled another operating system called CP/M.
  • Windows NT (New Technology, introduced in 1993) is a 32-bit operating system that supports preemptive multitasking. There are actually two versions of Windows NT: Windows NT Server, designed to act as 2 server in networks, and Windows NT Workstation for stand-alone or client workstations.
  • Windows 95 (August 1995): Windows 95 is a GUI (Graphical User Interface) based operating system It supports 32-bit applications, which means that applications written specifically for this operating system should run much faster.
  • Windows 98 (June 1998): It is a graphical operating system by Microsoft. It is the second major release in the Windows 9x line of operating systems. Windows 98 is the successor to Windows 95. Like is predecessor, it is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit monolithic product with an MS-DOS based boot stage.
  • Windows ME - Millennium Edition (September 2000): The Windows Millennium Edition, called "Windows Me" was an update to the Windows 98 core and included some features of the Window? 2000 operating system. It is designed for single CPU or SMP 32 bit Intel X86 computer. It introduced the Multilingual User Interface (MUI).
  • Windows XP (experience, introduced in October 2001): Windows XP is an OS produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers.
  • Windows XP comes in two versions, Home and Professional. Microsoft focused on mobility for both editions, including plug and play features for connecting to wireless networks. The operating system also utilizes the 802.1 Ix wireless security standard.
  • Windows Vista (30 Jan 2007): Its is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers. including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs, and media center PCs. New features of Windows Vista include an updated graphical user interface and visual style dubbed Aero. a new search component called Windows Search, redesigned networking, audio, print and display sub- systems, and new multimedia tools including Windows DVD Maker. Vista aimed to increase the level of more...

  • Microsoft Office   Microsoft Office is an office suite of desktop applications, servers and services for Microsoft Windows and OS X operating systems. It was first announced by Bill Gates of Microsoft on 1 August 1988 at COMDEX in Las Vegas.   BASICS OF MICROSOFT WORD Microsoft Word is the word processor component of Microsoft Office that allows users the ability to create and save documents. A word document can be a letter, report, or even a web page.   How to Start the MS Word Program Click Start.\[\to \]All Programs\[\to \]Microsoft Office\[\to \]Microsoft Word   File format for document created in word is .docx or.doc   GENERATIONS OF MICROSOFT OFFIFCE     SOME IMPORTANT MICROSOFT TERMINOLOGY   Microsoft Outlook Its is a personal information manager from Microsoft, available as a part of the Microsoft Office suite. Although often used mainly as an email application, it also includes a calendar, task manager, contact manager, note taking, journal, and web browsing. It can be used as a stand-alone application, or can work with Microsoft Exchange Server and Microsoft SharePoint Server for multiple users in an organization, such as shared mailboxes and calendars, Exchange public folders, SharePoint lists, and meeting schedules.   Microsoft OneNote Microsoft OneNote was included in all Microsoft Office offerings before eventually becoming completely free of charge. OneNote is available as a web application on Office Online, a Windows desktop app, a mobile app for Windows Phone, iOS, Android, and Symbian, and a Metro-style app for Windows 8 or later. Microsoft OneNote is a freeware note-taking program. It gathers notes (handwritten or typed), drawings, screen clipping-sand audio commentaries. However, OneNote eventually became a core component of Microsoft Office; with the release of Microsoft Office 2013.   Microsoft Office Sway Microsoft office Sway released by Microsoft in August 2015, Sways is stored on Microsoft's server and are tied to the user's Microsoft account. They can be viewed and edited from any web browser with a web app available in Office Online. They can also be accessed using apps for Windows 10 and iOS. Additional apps are currently in development for Android and Windows 10 Mobile. Microsoft office, Sway allows users who have a Microsoft account to combine text and media to create a presentable website. Users can pull content locally from the device in use, or from internet sources such as. Bing, Facebook, One-Drive, and YouTube.   Microsoft Office 2010 Microsoft Office 2010 (code named Office 14) is a version of the Microsoft Office productivity suite for Microsoft Windows. It is the successor to Microsoft Office 2007 and the predecessor to Microsoft Office 2013. Office 2010 includes extended file format support, user interface improvements, and a changed user experience. A 64-bit version of Office 2010 is available, but not for Windows XP or Windows Server 2003. It is the first version of the productivity suite to ship in both 32-bit and 64-bit versions. Office 2010 marks the debut more...

    Basics of Internet Technology   The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link various billion devices worldwide. It is an international network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government packet switched networks, linked by abroad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a wide range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), the infrastructure to support email, and peer-to-peer networks for file sharing and telephony.     USES AND WORKING OF INTERNET Internet is today one of the most important part of our daily life. There are large numbers of things that can be done using the internet and so it is very important. You can say that with the progress in the internet we are progressing in every sphere of life as it not only makes our tasks easier but also saves a lot of time.
  • Communication: Earlier the communication used to be a daunting task but all that chanced once internet came into the life of the common people. Now people can not only chat but can also do the video conferencing. It has become extremely easy to contact the loved ones who are in some other part of the world. Communication is the most important gift that the internet has given to the common man. Email, social networking sites are some of the prime example of it.
  • Research: In order to do research you need to go through hundreds of books as well as the references and that was one of the most difficult jobs to do earlier. Since the internet came into life, everything is available just a click away. You just have to search for the concerned topic and you will get hundreds of references that may be beneficial for your research. And since internet is here to make your research public, you can then benefit a large amount of people from the research work that you have done.
  • Education: There are a number of books, reference books, online help centres, expert's views and other study oriented material on the internet that can make the learning process very easier as well as a fan learning experience. There are lots and lots of websites which are related to different topic. You can visit them and can gain endless amount of knowledge that you wish to have. With the use of internet for education, you are non-longer dependent on some other person to come and teach you. There are various number of tutorials available over the internet using which you can learn so many thing very easily.
  • Financial Transaction: Now you don't need to stand in the queue at the branch of your particular bank rather you can just log in on to the bank website with more...

  • Computer Network   A computer Network is a group of computer systems and other computing hardware devices that are linked together through communication channels to facilitate communication and resource-sharing among a wide range of users.                                                                                Generally, networks are distinguished based on their geographical span. A network can be as small as distance between your mobile phone and its Bluetooth headphone and as large as the Internet itself, covering the whole geographical world, i.e. the Earth.   TYPES OF COMPUTER NETWORKS     There are many types of Networks including:
  • Personal Area Network (PAN): A Personal Area Network or simply PAN, is smallest network which is very personal to a user. This may include Bluetooth enabled devices or infra-red enabled devices. PAN has connectivity range up to 10 meters. PAN may include wireless computer keyboard and mouse, Bluetooth enabled headphones, wireless printers and TV remotes for examples.
  • Local Area Network (LAN): A computer network spanned inside a building and operated under single administrative system is generally termed as Local Area Network. Usually, Local Area Network covers an organization such as offices, schools, college/universities etc. Number of systems may vary from as least as two to as much as 16 million LAN provides a useful way of sharing resources between end users. Resources like Printers, File Servers, Scanners and internet is easy sharable among computers. Local Area Networks are composed of inexpensive networking and routing equipment. It may contains local servers serving file storage and other locally shared applications. It mostly operates on private IP addresses and generally do not involve heavy routing. LAN uses either Ethernet or Token-ring technology. Ethernet is most widely employed LAN technology and uses Star topology while Token-ring is rarely seen. Data transfer rate in LAN is of the order 10 to 100 megabits per second (Mbps).
  • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): MAN, generally expands throughout a city such as cable TV network. It can be in form of Ethernet, Token-ring, ATM or FDDI. Metro Ethernet is a service which is provided by ISPs. This service enables its users to expand their Local Area Networks. For example, MAN can help an organization to connect all of its offices in a City. Backbone of MAN is high-capacity and high-speed fiber optics. MAN is works in between Local Area Network and Wide Area Network. MAN provides uplink for LANs to WANs or Internet.
  • Wide Area Network (WAN): As name suggests, this network covers a wide area which may span across provinces and even a whole country. Generally, telecommunication networks are Wide Area Network. These networks provides connectivity to MANs and LANs. Equipped with very high speed backbone, WAN uses very expensive network equipment. WAN may use advanced technologies like Asynchronous Transfer. Mode (ATM), Frame Relay and SONET. WAN may be managed under by more than one administration.
  • Virtual Private Network (VPN): VPN is a network that is constructed by using public wires more...

  • Computer Hardware   Computer hardware is the collection of physical parts of a computer system. This includes the computer case, monitor, keyboard, and mouse. It also includes all the parts inside the computer case, such as the hard disk drive, motherboard, video card, and many others. Computer hardware is what you can physically touch. All computers have a common structure. These components can be very different in terms of expense, speed and quality, but every computer has them to one degree or another. The main components are as follows:
    • Form Factor: This is the physical configuration of the computer: desktop, laptop, tablet or netbook
    • The Processor: This is the 'brain' of the computer
    • Data Storage: This is where your data are stored, as well as all the programmers and other files that your computer needs to run.
    • The Operating System: The OS is the software that runs the computer on the lowest level - Windows,
    • Macintosh or Linux are the most popular.
    • Monitor: This is the viewing screen that you use to operate the computer. It is a very important part of the digital photography computer.
  • The Processor: The Processor (CPU) is the "brain" of your computer, the thing that carries out the tasks you give it. The speed that the computer can run an operation is largely determined by how fast the processor can make calculations. The CPU (Central Processing Unit), a complete computation engine that is fabricated on a single chip, is the computer's brain. It is sometimes referred to as the central processor, microprocessor, or just processor.
  • Two typical components of a CPU are: (1) The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations. (2) The Control Unit, which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary. There are three parts to determining how feat a processorcan do its work: clock speed, number of cores, and chip generation.
    • Clock Speed: Every processor has a speed rating, currently measured in Gigahertz or GHz. The higher the number, the faster it runs. In theory, a processor that is 2GHz will be twice as fast as a 1 GHz.
    • Number of Cores: A core refers to part of the processor that actually does the calculations. One way that computer chip makers have increased the speed is by adding additional cores. A dual core processor can run operations twice as fast as a single core processor of the same design and clock speed. Multiple cores can make some computing tasks go quickly, and for others, there is no speed increase at all. In many cases, both clock speed and number of cores is less important than the chip generation.
    • Chip Generation: Every few years, the companies that make processor chips will redesign the entire chip architecture to make them faster. Sometimes the clock speed of the newer chips will be slower, even as the real-world more...

    Database Management System   Database Management Systems (DBMS) are specially designed software which is used to create and maintain a database. It acts as an interface between users and a database or multiple databases. DBMS is comprised of tables that made up of rows called records and columns called fields. The important processes catered by existing DBMS are as below:
    • Denning or constructing a data structure which is also called as data definition such as creating a table, deleting a table or modifying the existing one.
    • Updating like inserting a record into a table, deleting or modifying a record.
    • Retrieval or extracting information from the database by user queries for user applications, reporting or any other business purposes.
    • Administration includes the activities like enforcing data security, maintaining data integrity, data backup and recovery, granting & revoking accesses, performance monitoring, disaster management etc. These activities are generally carried out by a DBA (database administrator).
      SOME OF THE DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ARE (1) Microsoft Access: This is the database management system developed by Microsoft. It stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It also has the facilities like importing or linking directly to data stored in other databases and applications. (2) MySQL: MySQL is open source database management system, one of the most popular dbms on the web. It is reliable, fast and also flexible. (3) Oracle: Developed by Oracle corporation. It is object relational database management system. The original version of Oracle software was developed by Software Development Laboratories (SDL). Oracle is regarded to be one of the safe DBMS. (4) Microsoft SQL Server: Microsoft developed this relational database server. The primary function of this software is to store and retrieve the data as requested by other applications, whether those applications are on the same computer or running on other computers across the network (including internet).   COMPONENTS OF DATABASE SYSTEM The database system can be divided into four components.
    • Users: Users may be of various type such as DB administrator, System developer and End users.
    • Database application: Database application may be Personal, Departmental, Enterprise and internal.
    • DBMS: Software that allow users to define, create and manages database access. Ex : Mysql, Oracle etc
    • Database: Collection of logical data.
      DATABASE TABULAR MODEL Database in tabular form contain. Row and Column database.   Row database In a database, a row also called a tuple represents a single row, implicitly structured data item in a table. A database table can be thought of as consisting of rows and columns or fields. Each row in a table represent a set of related data, and every tuple in the table has the same structure. Example: A table that represents companies, each row would represent a single company. Columns might represent things like company name, company street address, whether the company is publicly held, its TIN number, VET number, etc.   Column database In a database, more...

    Computer Software   Computer Programs are called as Computer software, or just software. A computer Software is set of programs that guides the hardware through its job. The computer program is the non-tangible component of a computer system. A Computer software is different from computer hardware that is the physical component of a computer system. Computer hardware and software work hand in hand cannot function without the other.   TYAPES OF SOFTWARE Computer software’s are mainly divided into two parts: (a) System Software   (b) Application Software     (A) System Software System software is the software which manages and controls the hardware components and allows interaction between the hardware and the other different types of software. The computer's operating system is a type of system software. Device drivers are also a part of this category. System software can be separated into two different categories: Operating systems and Utility software.   OPERATING SYSTEM: A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware is called an operating system. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. For example: UNIX, MS-DOS, WINDOWS, 98/2000/xp/7. Functions of an operating system - The basic functions of an operating system are:
  • Booting the computer
  • Performs basic computer tasks eg managing the various peripheral devices eg mouse, keyboard
  • III. Provides a user interface, e.g. command line, graphical user interface (GUI)
  • Handles system resources such as computer's memory and sharing of the central processing unit (CPU) time by various applications or peripheral devices
  • Provides file management which refers to the way that the operating system manipulates, stores, retrieves and saves data.
  • Booting the computer: The process of starting or restarting the computer is known as booting. A cold boot is when you turn on a computer that has been turned off completely. A warm boot is the process of using the operating system to restart the computer.
  • Performs basic computer tasks: The operating system performs basic computer tasks, such as managing the various peripheral devices such as the mouse, keyboard and printers. For example, most operating systems now are plug and play which means a device such as a printer will automatically be detected and configured without any user intervention.
  • III. Provides a user interface: A user interacts with software through the user interface. The two main types of user interfaces are: command line and a graphical user interface (GUI). With a command line interface, the user interacts with the operating system by typing commands to perform specific tasks. An example of a command line interface is DOS (disk operating system). With a graphical user interface, the user interacts with the operating system by using a more...

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