Current Affairs 7th Class

  A Shirt in the Market   You have understood that there are different types of markets where you can buy different types of goods. You have read about the supply chain briefly in the previous chapter. In this chapter, you will get to know in detail about how goods pass through various stages till they reach you, the consumer, and how different people play different roles in this chain.   In a supply chain, there is a network of people and activities involved in trading to move a product or service from the supplier to the customer. The people involved in the supply chain earn money at their level. As the product or service moves in the chain of supply towards the consumer the rates of the product or service increase. Hence, the more the people involved in the supply chain, the higher is the price of the service or product.   STORY OF A SHIRT   Cotton is produced at a farm and undergoes various stages of spinning, weaving, dyeing, tailoring, etc., before it becomes a shirt. The wholesalers and retailers who earn the major chunk of profit are merely agents in the chain of sale.   A Cotton farmer   Shivram is a cotton farmer in Salem, Tamil Nadu. He grows cotton in his small field. When the harvest is ready and he collects enough kapas1 in his godown; he loads them in a lorry or a bullock cart and takes them to the wholesale market or mandi. Shivram sells his cotton to Ratan, a wholesaler at the mandi in pothis2. He earns Rs. 0,000 for his entire produce of cotton. Shivram will use this money to buy new seeds, farming equipment and fulfil his daily needs over the next few months. Ratan, on the other hand, sells the same cotton in quintals and earns much more than Shivram.   Q. Do you think the money Shivram gets is sufficient to lead a good life?   A wholesale market of cotton   Textile mill owners approach the wholesale dealer at the mandi to buy cotton. Ratan sells Shivram's produce at Rs. 5,000 for each quintal to Shambhu and earns a profit.   A wholesale market of cotton Shambhu owns a cotton gin in Tirupur. He has employed many spinners who spin cotton into yarn. After the cotton yarn is spun, Shambu sells it at a high price to traders at the Tirupur cloth market.   Raghu is a trader at the Tirupur cloth market. Raghu buys the yarn from Shambu and gives it to his weavers to weave cloth. He pays each of his weavers a salary of 2,000 per month. Sita is a weaver employed by Raghu. She works 10-12 hours more...

Markets Around Us   Where do you get your household articles from? Where do you get your stationery, cosmetics and clothes from? Where do you get fruit, vegetables and groceries from? Of course, you get all these things from the market. You get everything you need in your daily life from the market. You go there to shop. What is a market? How do goods reach there and from where? Who are the people and which are the agencies involved in producing an article and reaching it to you? We will get to know all this and much more in this chapter.   Markets are places of trade. They serve as a link between the producers and the consumers and ensure distribution of goods and services in a society. A market is a place that brings together a buyer and a seller to exchange goods or services at a fixed or flexible price that is agreeable to both.   Markets were first held in open places, usually in the centre of villages and towns. Bartering of farm produce, clothing and tools took place there. Barter is a system where goods or services are directly exchanged for other goods or services without using money, for example, trading a cow for some sacks of rice or wheat, or a bag of sugar for utensils and clothes. There was no standard unit of exchange. At times, it was not possible to swap goods for other goods in an equable way. Money was created as a tool to help man avoid this problem.   Barter system   Q. why do you think barter system did not work for long?   RETAIL MARKETS   Retail markets include shops at fixed locations such as weekly markets, local neighbourhood markets, supermarkets and malls. These are all consumer markets.         WEEKLY MARKETS   Weekly markets are set up in almost every district on different days of the week. They are called by different names such as Monday market, Shani bazaar, etc. One can buy fresh vegetables and fruits, clothes, stationery and many other things at very reasonable prices at these markets. The vendors of this market have stands, carts or even sell their goods spread on the ground. This is because they shift from one area to another. Farmers and craftspersons get an opportunity to sell their goods directly to the consumer at these markets. Such markets are also called haats.   A Weekly market   Haats or street markets are popular because they are affordable and colourful. They are set up everywhere and offer all goods ranging from food to clothes. The rates of the items are lower as the vendors make purchases from the wholesale markets or handicraft the goods themselves. These markets are also more...

  Role of Gender   When a child is born, the first thing one wants to know about the child is whether it is a boy or a girl. To be a girl or a boy is an important aspect of one's identity in a society. The society we grow up in tells us how a girl should behave, what kind of behaviour is expected from a boy, what a girl or boy can or cannot do, etc. This forms fixed ideas in our minds about gender roles and we form gender stereotypes. Not all societies behave in the same way as ours. Ours is a patriarchal society where the roles played by women are valued less than the roles men play. But there are matriarchal societies also though very rare, where women are valued over men. This chapter will deal with all gender roles and try to wipe out gender bias against women in our society.   It is Sunday. Aarti and Sohan are excited about their grandmother's visit. Her train will arrive in two hours. There is a lot of work to do. Aarti has already got up early and taken a bath. "Aarti, come and help me set the breakfast table. Spread butter on these slices and then prepare the tea," mother orders. Solian is still languishing in bed. "Aarti, I need another packet of milk for preparing klieer. Could you go over to Sheela auntie's house and bring one?" says mother. Aarti goes to her neighbour's house. Sohan wakes up and calls out for a cup of tea. Aarti returns with the milk packet and keeps it in the kitchen. "Mother, I want to call up Sunidhi. It is her birthday today," she tells her mother. "Do that later, Aarti. Solzan has got up. Go and give him tea in his room," says her mother. Aarti does as told. Sohan is playing a video game. Aarti's eyes brighten for a minute and then she remembers that Sohan never lets her play with it. "It is not for girls," he says. Aarti calls up Sunidhi to wish her. Sunidhi invites her for her birthday party. Sohan comes out of his room and informs his mother, "Mother, I am going to see a movie with Raj in the evening. It is the latest Disney release...all right?" "Okay, but meet dadi before you go," mother answers. Aarti too wants to go out. Meekly, she asks, "Mother, can I also go out in the evening? Sunidhi has invited me for her birthday party." Aarti's mother is silent and then says, "Aarti, it would be dark before you return. It is not safe for you to stay out after dark. Besides, I will need your help in the house." Aarti tries again, "But mother, Sohan is going out too." Aarti's mother replies firmly, "Sohan is a boy. He can do as he pleases." Aarti does not argue.   From the day Aarti more...

  Understanding Advertising   Our days are surrounded with advertisements. Switch on the television or the radio, an advertisement jingle1 hits our ears and we begin singing and humming along with it. If an advertisement slogan2 is catchy, we find ourselves repeating it all day long. Pick up the newspaper and we see big colourful advertisements glaring at us on the very first page; Step out of the house we see advertisements on massive billboards in the streets alluring us. Click on a site on the Internet and promptly an advertisement pops up. Ever thought what these advertisements are trying to do? Why do these advertisements catch our attention and stay in our mind? Read the chapter and you will come to know.   Aisha Bhimani is a 32-year-old housewife residing in Delhi. To ease her kitchen work, she wants to buy a food mixer. However, she does not know which is the best brand available in the market. She looks up the advertisements in the local newspaper. There she sees an advertisement of a mixer which claims that it is the best brand in terms of price and features. It also says that a juicer and dry grinder come absolutely free with the purchase of the mixer. Excited at the offer/ she visits the nearest showroom and purchases it.   What makes Aisha go for that particular brand?   Is it the advertisement in the newspaper?   WHAT IS ADVERTISING?   Advertising is a form of communication between the seller of a product and its buyer. An advertisement is used to persuade an audience to buy a certain product or service and thus promote business. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors3 and viewed via various types of media such as newspapers, magazines,   Q. Rohan is watching a movie and enjoying himself. Only the movie has very long repetitive advertisements in between. He finally gets frustrated and stops watching the movie. What might he be feeling?   Advertisements on the television and in the newspaper Television, internet, text messages, banners, billboards, hoardings and announcements. Thus, advertising can be defined as the act of calling public attention to one's products, services, needs, etc., especially by paid announcements through the mass media.   PURPOSE OF ADVERTISING   As early as 1836, French newspaper La Presse included paid advertising in its pages. This made it possible for the newspaper to lower its price. Doing this, its readership increased   Know a Little More HD television came as a relief for television viewers as besides offering high definition it also offered advertisement-free programmes.   And thus there was an increase in its sale. This explains why newspapers and magazines have entire pages devoted to advertisements and why there are so many advertisements more...

  Understanding Media   English papers took nine months to reach India in the 18th century. How fast do you receive information today? What are the means by which we come to know about what is happening in another corner of the world? Why is it important to receive news and information on time? The answer to all these questions lies in knowing about the media. In this chapter, we will come to know about media in democracy.   'Media' is the plural form of the Latin word medium, meaning 'an intervening agency, or instrument'. We use the media to communicate. We write letters to our family members and Friends, call up people on the telephone, send documents and photographs through email, fax, etc., to share information or communicate with each other. These agencies or instruments like the letter, telephone, fax and email enable us to communicate with one or few persons and are means of personal media. But today, we are not frogs in the well. What happens in one comer of the world affects us all in a big way. The media has made such information accessible to us. Radio, television, newspapers, magazines and the Internet reach and influence a large number of people. These sources are called the mass media.   CHANGE IN MEDIA TECHNOLOGY   How and when did we begin to communicate? What are the different means of communication? When did mass media come to India? These could be the questions in your mind.   Communication developed gradually. Humans started to speak and communicate with words about 60,000 years ago. They began to write nearly 5,000 years ago. The printing press was invented some 600 years ago and people began to publish various thoughts and findings. Books which educated the masses came into being. Radio was invented only 110 years back followed by the television 30 years later. The radio and television were also sources of entertainment. When the Internet came about 45 years ago, it revolutionised the world of communication. With a click of a button one could travel all over the world. Children could explore and learn about the world around them.   In India, print media came into existence in 1780 with the introduction of a newspaper-The Bengal Gazette. The radio was developed in 1924 and the television in 1959. The quality and range of media has also evolved with the upgrading of technology.   Today we find 24-hour news channels, music Videos, nature documentaries, and reality shows about everything. There are also movies available on demand from cable providers or television and videos available online for streaming or downloading. We have access to media in taxis and buses, in classrooms and doctors' offices, and even in aeroplanes.   The Internet has become a medium that allows everyone the ability to express their opinions, for example, through blogging and social networking.   more...

  Role of the State Government in Health Care   In a democracy, the government needs to look after its people's welfare. This means that the government does not merely collect tax and protect life and property, but also works for the growth of the people by promoting health, education, shelter, food and water. Likewise, India's government too takes care of the welfare of its people. Improved health status of the citizens is of great economic value to a nation.   The word 'health' comes from the old English word 'hale', meaning 'whole' or 'being whole, sound or well'. 'Health' as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) is being in a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. In order to be called 'healthy', one has to be free from illness, injury, malnutrition and mental stress. In order to achieve health, appropriate health care system needs to be in place which would include people like doctors, surgeons, nursing staff, paramedics and medical attendants; institutions such as hospitals, clinics, laboratories for tests and blood banks; and resources like medicines, drugs and medicinal equipment.   HEALTHCARE IN INDIA   According to the Indian Constitution, 'It is the primary duty of the government in all states and UTs to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and improve public health.' In India, the government takes care to improve both public health and personal health. To improve public health, the government's plans include mass immunisation like the Pulse Polio Programme, promoting preventive medicines and improving the health status of rural population. In addition, the government also focuses on programmes of health education   The State Owned Health Facilities:   ?      Regional Cancer Centres Health: Cancer care hospitals and research institutes con-trolled jointly by the central and state governments. ?      Government Medical Colleges: Owned and controlled by the respective state governments. These are referral hospitals. ?      District Hospitals or General Hospitals: Controlled by the respective state governments and serving the respective districts. ?      Taluk level Hospitals: Controlled by the respective state governments and serving the respective taluks.   Community Health Centres are basic health units in the urban areas. They are the units with the most basic facilities, serving rural India, generally at the level of a panchayat. Sub-centres are the most basic units of health in villages; first point of contact between villagers and public health care system in India.   And nutrition, providing safe drinking water, application of sanitary measures, efforts to control communicable diseases such as malaria and dengue, and monitoring environmental hazards. The personal health care facilities can be divided into two categories?(i) Public health services and (ii) Private health facilities. The public health services include primary health more...

  Functioning of State Government   We have already discussed in the previous class that the government in India works at three levels-local, state and national. We have looked at the work of Local Government and read about Panchayats and Municipalities in some detail. In this chapter, we will read about the second level of governance, i.e., government at the State Level.   India is a union of twenty nine States and seven Union Territories including the National Capital Territory of Delhi. There is one Union or Central Government which is at the centre and there is a State Government in each state. The union territories are run by the Union Government. The Government comprises three branches-the Executive, Legislature and the Judiciary. STATE LEGISLATURE   Good governance needs good laws. The legislative bodies in a state are the Legislative Assembly or the Vidhan Sabha and the Legislative Council or the Vidhan Parishad. However, only some states have both the houses and are said to have bicameral legislature. Others have only the Vidhan Sabha and are said to have unicameral legislature. In a bicameral state the Legislative Assembly is known as the Lower House while the Legislative Council is known as the Upper House. Six states-Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh*, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Jammu and Kashmir have bicameral legislature. The rest have unicameral legislature.   LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY (VIDHAN SABHA)   Every state has a Legislative Assembly or Vidhan Sabha. Its members are called Members of Legislative Assembly or MLAs. They are directly elected by the people of the state. Hence, the Vidhan Sabha represents the people. The size of the Vidhan Sabha depends on the size of the population of the state. Its size as outlined in the Constitution of India, should not be more than 500 members and not less than 60. However, the Vidhan Sabha in small states like Goa, Mizoram and Sikkim has fewer members than 60. Besides the elected members, the Governor of the state has the authority to nominate one member of Anglo-Indian Community.   Unlike the State governments that have their own governments, a union territory has its own elected government ruled directly by the Union Government (Central Government), hence the name "union territory". The Parliament of India can amend the Constitution and provide a Legislature with elected Members and a Chief Minister for a Union Territory, as it has done for Delhi and Puducherry.   Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha Election of MLA Each state is divided into different areas called constituencies. From each constituency, the people elect one representative who then becomes an MLA. A constituency is like a Panchayat ward. The MLAs belong to different political parties. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Janata Dal (JD), Congress, etc. are some political parties of India. The political party whose MLAs get more than 50 per cent of the seats is said to be in majority. The party with majority seats becomes the ruling party and forms the more...

  Institutional Representation of Democracy   Representation and participation are cornerstones of representative democracy. At the heart of the system is a commitment to hold regular, free and fair elections. People participate through elections and select representatives to govern them. The representation comes from political parties who, with their various ideologies fight the election. The elected party forms the government while the next in majority forms the opposition which checks every step of the government. Universal Adult Franchise, elections, political parties and coalition governments-are some terms you are already familiar with. These are the institutions that represent democracy. Now let us delve into the whole process.   Maya, the domestic help at Rohini's house has taken the day off to go to vote. Rohini's parents are also going to the voting booth to cast their votes. The next day, Rohini overhears her mother talk to Maya. "Maya/1 saw you and your husband at the booth, yesterday. You both were standing right in front of us." Rohini sees pride on Maya's face. She has got an opportunity to cast her vote as an equal to her sahib and memsahib by standing in the same queue at the polling booth. Maya wants to tell the name of the candidate for whom she has cast her vote but Rohini stops her. "You are not supposed to reveal the name of the person for whom you have voted and the political party he belongs to" says Rohini. ?      Why do you think Maya feels proud? ?      Why does Rohini ask Maya not to reveal the name of the person for whom she has voted?   Q. In the school elections, the girls opt to vote for the Girl candidate and the boys opt to vote for the Boy candidate. How will this affect the election? What must the teacher advise?   ELECTIONS   Elections in India take place every five years by Universal Adult Franchise. These elections are held to choose and elect representatives who will form the government. Representatives that form the government are elected at the centre, state and local levels.   LEVELS OF ELECTIONS   General Elections At the central level, members of Parliament (MPs) are elected directly by the people, through a General Election. The party with majority votes becomes the ruling party and forms the government and its leader becomes the Prime Minister. To secure majority in the parliament, a party needs to win over half the seats in the parliament. All the other MPs form the opposition. Our country is divided into parliamentary constituencies. A constituency is the area from which a representative fights the election. People elect one representative from each constituency who then becomes an MP. The number of parliamentary constituencies in a state depends upon the size and population of the state.   There are currently more...

  Democracy   Democracy is a kind of governance in which all citizens have a say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal participation in the proposal, development and passing of laws in a country. This can be done by the people directly or through representation where people choose their leaders. Leaders of a democracy are answerable to the people. In Class 6, we have already read about this and looked into the key elements of democracy. In this chapter, you will learn about why democracy was chosen at the end by most nations of the world and how it evolved. We will also discuss the elements of democracy in detail and understand our involvement with the law and the Constitution.   Given that democracy privileges some values -equality, dignity, tolerance and justice-today, it is the most popular form of government. India is also a democracy. How it evolved into its present form and where it was born is an interesting story. The term 'democracy' was coined as early as the 5th or the 4th century BCE to denote the political system that existed in some Greek city-states, notably Athens. It comes from the Greek word, demokratia which means 'rule by the people'. But the early form of democracy was far from being based on equality. The European Renaissance1, and the American and French Revolutions brought us closer to the modem concept of democracy that is based on equality. Democracy in the contemporary world implies equality in the eyes of the law bringing in universal suffrage, freedom of speech and the rule of law.   EVOLUTION OF DEMOCRACY?THE HISTORICAL PROSPECT   Thousands of years ago, when man wore no clothes and hunted for food, there were simple ways of resolving disputes. Gradually, man became civilised and the need to have a ruler arose. In Greece and most other nations, powerful kings who ruled the area were the richest. There are many tales of such kings and their bravery in Indian literature as well. This system of government where a king or monarch rules is known as monarchy, or 'rule by one'. In monarchy, the king alone controls all the land and natural resources of the region, and is responsible for all decisions pertaining to his people. When the king dies, the power gets handed down to his eldest son, thereby keeping the power in the family. When you read Indian History, you will know that India had monarchy throughout its Ancient and Middle Ages.   During AD 476 - AD 800 in Western European history, many city-states in Greece were governed by small groups of nobles who shared equal power. The system in which a few people govern over a larger group of people is known as oligarchy, or 'rule by a few'. In Greece, a council made up of aristocrats carried out the policies. This form of government also existed in France and Poland where only the nobility could vote. However, this also more...

  Life In The Hot And Cold Deserts   A desert no matter hot or cold, has very small amount of precipitation throughout the year usually less than 25 cm a year and almost no vegetation. Deserts cover about one-fifth of the earth's surface. Most deserts, such as the Sahara of North Africa and the deserts of the south-western US, Mexico and Australia; that occur near the Tropic of Cancer or the Tropic of Capricorn are hot. Cold deserts, occur near the Arctic and in Antarctica or in the high mountainous areas. Let us learn about the Sahara, a hot desert and Ladakh which is a cold desert.   HOT DESERT REGION THE SAHARA Location   Map No. 11.1 the Sahara Deserts in Africa   The Sahara (Africa) is the largest hot desert of the world. In the physical map of Africa, we will find that the Sahara Desert covers a very large part of this continent in the north, an area of about 8.5 million sq. km. It extends from the shores of Atlantic Ocean in the west to Red Sea in the east. To its north, are the Atlas Mountains? The desert covers parts of eleven countries of Africa that include Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Tunisia, Sudan, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and West Sahara.   Only one-fourth of the Sahara is sandy; the rest is made of gravel plains/ plateaus and bare rocky surfaces. The Sahara at some places, is more than 2,000 metre high. Towards the south, it merges into the Savanna tropica grasslands.   Climate The Sahara is one of the world's driest deserts. Almost all areas of the Sahara receive less   The Sahara landscape with sand dunes and carvan   Geography Reveals Once, this area was lush green with flowing rivers. The cave paintings in the mountainous region of Gilf Kebir in the Sahara Desert which are about 10,000 years old contain images of people swimming. The engravings and paintings on the Tassili Plateau in Algeria describe the region as the Savannah Grasslands where large animals (land and water) like crocodiles were found.     Pictures of Gilf Kebir wall painting showing people swimming and Giraffe like animals   Than 250 millimetres of rainfall; temperature is exceedingly high due to low humidity and low cloud cover. The maximum temperature of 58°C has been recorded in Al Aziziyah that lies in the Sahara Desert in Libya. The Sahara Desert has scorching days; however, the nights are cooler due to rapid radiation of heat. The temperature may fall as low as -17°C. June, July and August are the hottest months. The winter months are cooler due to the bursts of dust laden winds that     Geography Reveals There are places in desert where underground water reaches the surface level and farming can be carried on. Such water sources, around which crops can be more...


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