Current Affairs 3rd Class

                                                                      Animal Kingdom   Land Animals Dog, cat, elephant, zebra, cow, etc. are the examples of land animals Animals that live on land are called land animals.   Characteristics of Land Animals Land animals have certain characteristics that distinguish them from other animals. They are as follows:   Land animals move or crawl Most of the land animals move or crawl in search of food and shelter. For example, lion, tiger, snake, etc. Kangaroo is an animal that hops.   Land animals do not make their own food Land animals depend on plants or other animals for their food. For example, cow eats grass, lion eats deer and deer again eats grass etc. This is like a chain that the plants and animals form.   Food Chain   Land animals take oxygen directly from air Land animals take oxygen directly from air and utilize it to get energy.   Land animals produce sound Most of the land animals produce sound. For example, cat mews, dog barks, etc.   Land animals reproduce Land animals reproduce by laying eggs or by giving birth to young ones.   Land animals have tail Most of the land animals have tail that help them in their movement. Tail also help them to maintain the body balance. For example, lion, elephant, dog, cat, etc.   Classification of Land Animals Land animals are divided into: (i) Domestic animals (ii) Wild animals   Domestic Animals Animals that live with us are called domestic animals. For example, dog, cat, etc.   Wild Animals Animals that live in the forest are called wild animals, .or example, lion, tiger etc. Land animals are classified also: (i) Milk giving animals (ii) Draught animals   Milk Giving Animals Animals that give us milk are called milk giving animals. For example, cow, buffalo, etc.   Draught Animals Animal that work and carry load for us are called draught animals. For example, ox, horse, etc. In the third category, the land animals are classified as. (i) Herbivorous animals (ii) Carnivorous animals (iii) Omnivorous animals   Herbivorous Animals Animals that eat plants are called herbivorous animals.   Carnivorous Animals Animals that eat flesh are called carnivorous animals.   Omnivorous Animals Animals that eat both plants and flesh are called omnivorous animals.   Mammals Animals which give birth to babies are called mammals. For example, human being, dog, whale, dolphin, etc.   Aquatic Animals Aquatic animals live in water. For example, fish, dolphin, whale, etc. Aquatic animals also live in lakes, oceans and rivers. Some animals like tortoise, frog, etc. live both on land and in water and are called amphibians.   Classification of Aquatic Animals Aquatic animals can be classified on the basis of: (i) Their habitat (the kind of water they live in) (ii) Food (the type of food they take in)   Classification on the basis of habitat:   Fresh water animals They are the animals that live in rivers, freshwater more...

                                                              Plants Kingdom   Plants are one of the most important living things that have made the life possible on Earth. They are the only source of life giving oxygen. Plants breathe in harmful carbon dioxide gas and breathe out oxygen.                                                                                                                                                        Tree Characteristics of Plants Plants Make their Own Food Green plants are autotrophs. They make their own food in the presence of carbon dioxide, water and sunlight. Green plants have a pigment called chlorophyll that helps them to make food.   Plants have Roots and Shoots Root grows under the ground and shoot grows above the ground.   Plant    Many Plants bear Fruits Many plants bear fruits that are very nutritious and delicious.   Mango Tree   Plants Reproduce Plants reproduce to continue their existence. They reproduce with the help of seeds, stems and roots.   Plants Grow throughout their Life Cycle Most of the plants grow throughout their life cycle. They attain maximum height.   Few Plants have Thorns For example, rose, cactus, etc.   Leaves of a Plant Plants make food in the leaves. Therefore, leaf is called the kitchen of the plant. Plants get energy from this food. There is a small opening in the leaf. It is called stomata. Plants breathe through this opening. Plant's leaves can be of different shapes. For example, leaves can be round, long or triangular.                       Long leave                        Round leave                   Triangular leave (Mango)                 (Lotus)                                  (Peepal)   Leaves of many plants are used to cure diseases. For example, neem's leaves cure skin problem.   Classification of Plants Plants are classified into three types:   Trees Plants having tall and hard trunks are called trees. Trees have thick and woody branches. For example, mango tree. Banyan tree, etc.   Herbs Plants having weak and soft stem are called herbs. For example, tulsi, mint, etc.   Shrubs Scrubs are taller than herbs and have multiple woody stems. For example, rose plant sunflower, etc.  

                                                                       Human Body   Our Body   Body parts   Human body consists of different parts. All of these parts have specific functions to perform. For example, we can see with the help of eyes and walk with the help of legs.   Flue Sense Organs You know that we have five sense organs, which helps us to feel and know the world around us. Our sense organ and their functions are as follows:   Tongue We can taste with the help of tongue. We can taste whether the food we eat is sweet, sour or salty with the help of taste buds located on the tongue.   Ear We can hear the sounds with the help of ear. We can hear different sounds.   Eyes We can see with the help of eyes. Whenever we see an object, an image of the object is formed inside our eye.   Nose We can smell with the help of nose. We can distinguish between sweat and foul smell just because of our nose.   Skin We can feel with the help of skin. Skin gives sensation of touch, heat, cold, pain, etc.   Human Organ Systems Our body is made up of cells. Cells are the smallest unit of our body. Similar cells join to form a tissue. Different tissues together form an organ which performs specific function. A group of organs form an organ system. Following are the different organ systems: Muscular System Muscles are attached to the bones in our body. Muscles help the different parts of our body to move. All muscles together form the muscular system.   Digestive System Digestive system performs the function of digesting the food that we eat. Organs involved in digestion are esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, mouth, etc.     Skeletal System The bones in our body make the skeletal system. The skeleton gives shape and form to our body. It also protects the inner body parts from getting injured. There are 206 bones in an adult human body.                                                               Skeleton of human body   Respiratory System We breathe in air to survive. We use our nose to breathe. Inside our body, lungs and wind pipe help in breathing. The air we breathe in is called inhaled air. The air we give out is called exhaled air.   Nervous System Our body is controlled by our brain. The brain has messengers called nerves to send the instructions to and from the sense organs. The brain and nerves make up our nervous system.   Excretory System Excretory system cleans our body by throwing out unwanted stuff like urine, stool, etc.     Kidney   Reproductive System The system through more...

                                                                           Matter   Matter We see various things around us. Some of them are heavy, for example, bicycle. Some of them are light, for examples, your pen. This is because, different objects have different masses. The mass of an object tells us whether an object is light or heavy. Every object occupies space. Anything which has mass and occupies space is called matter. Matter exists in three different forms: (i) Solid (ii) Liquid (iii) Gas These three forms of matter are called the states of matter   Solids Objects like books, bricks, pencil, mobile, tiffin box, etc. have a fixed shape. They do not change their shape if we move them from on container to another. They are called solid objects.   Liquids Substances such as water, milk, oil, etc. can flow easily and change their shape according to the shape of container they are kept in. such materials are called liquid objects.   Gas A gas is a state of matter that has no shape and size of its own. Observe when your mother boils water. You will see that some vapours are rising from the boiled water. Now, ask your mother to hold a plate on the rising vapours. You will find that little droplets of water have been formed on the surface of plate. It means that the vapours which were rising from the boiling water of the container was actually water. Water vapour is the gaseous form of water. You know that we all inhale oxygen. Oxygen is a gas. Gases are all around us. We cannot see them. They are invisible.   Changing States of Hatter The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas which can change their form from one to another.
  • The process of changing solid into liquid is called
  • The process of changing liquid into gas is called
  • The process of changing a gas into liquid is called
  • The process of changing a liquid into solid is called freezing
Ice is frozen water. Ice cream is frozen milk.  

                                                                 Environment   Environment Our environment includes living things like plants and animals and non-living things like air, water, soil, sunlight, weather, seasons, etc. All these are the components of environment.   Air Air is all around us. Air contains water in the form of water vapour. It also contains dust particles, gases like oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, etc.   Water Water is very important for life on earth. Rivers, glaciers and lakes are sources of fresh water on earth. Seas and oceans contain salt water.   States of Water Water occurs in all the three states. Ice is the solid form of water. When ice melts, it changes into liquid form. When water is heated or boiled, it becomes steam. Steam is also called water vapour.   Water Cycle Water from rivers and ponds goes up as water vapour in day time, when it reaches a great height it forms clouds in the sky. The clouds cannot hold the water inside them. This water falls back to earth as rain. The rain water runs back to fill the rivers and ponds. This is called water cycle.     Rocks Our earth is made up of rocks. Rocks are of many kinds and are very useful to us. For example, rocks like marble, granite, sandstone, etc. are used to make buildings. Pebbles, which are the small pieces of rocks, are used in making roads, in railway tracks, etc.     Some rocks, like diamond, ruby and emerald are used in jewelry.     Soil Rain wind and the sunlight are continuously breaking the rocks of earth into smaller and smaller pieces, until they cannot break any further. These very tiny pieces of rocks form the soil on earth. Soils are of different types and different colures. This is because different types of soils contain different particles. Soil also contains air and water? Water trapped in the soil is called moisture.   Soil is useful to us in many ways. (i) Plants take water from the soil to grow. (ii) In soil, we grow vegetables and build our homes, roads, schools, etc. (iii) Soil is also home to many animals, such as earthworms, beetles, and snails. (iv) We get many valuable minerals from soil. For example, iron, gold, silver, etc.   Weather Changes in weather is due to sun, wind and water vapours in the air.   Sunny Days Morning and evening are cooler because the sun rays are slanting. Noon time is the hottest part of the day.   Windy and Cloudy Days When wind blows slowly, it is called as a breeze. Strong winds along with rain or shower is called storm. The sun appears to hide on cloudy days. It is cooler on windy and cloudy days, than on sunny days.   Seasons Changes in weather after few months are called changing seasons. There are mainly four seasons namely summer, winter, autumn and spring. Summer is the hottest more...

                                                                Motion and Transport   Motion Movement of an object from one place to another is called motion. We see many things around us are in motion. Motion takes place whenever force is applied. For example, when a boy throws a ball, movement of the ball takes place due to the force exerted by the boy.   Boy exerts force to throw ball   Different Types of Motion These are three types of motion.   Uniform Motion If a body travels equal distance in equal interval of time then it is called uniform motion. For example, a car travels first 30 kilometres in one hour and next 30 kilometres again in are hour and so on then we can say that car is in uniform motion.   Car moving with uniform motion   Non Uniform Motion If a body travels unequal distance in equal interval of time then it is called non uniform motion. For example, a car travels first 30 kilometres in one hour and next 30 kilometres in half an hour then we can say that car is in non-uniform motion. Car moving with non uniform motion   Circular Motion If a body travels on a circular path then it is called circular motion. For example, movements of a merry go round. Merry go round moves in circular motion Transport Transport is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. It is performed by various modes such as road, rail, air, water, etc.   Means of Transport Means of transport is divided into three categories: (i) Land transport (ii) Air transport (iii) Water transport   Land Transport Land transport is the most common and one of the oldest means of transport in this mode, transportation is done by road and rail.   Rood Transport Road transport is the transport on roads for passengers and goods. For example cart bicycle rickshaw, car, scooter, bus, etc. Most of the countries of the world have aw de network of concrete roads. Vehicles move smoothly on these roads and carry goods people from one place to another.   Rail Transport Rail transport is one of the cheapest and comfortable means of transport. For example train. Many countries of the world have a wide network of railways that is used to goods and passengers from one place to another place.   Air Transport Air transport is the fastest means of transport. But it is also the most expensive means of transport. For example, aeroplane, helicopter, etc. you can cover thousands of kilometres in few hours by aeroplane.   Water Transport The water transport is the cheapest means of transport. Most of the goods are transported to various countries by this mode. Water transport also helps us to move from more...

                                                                         Natural Resources   The things that we get from nature are called natural resources. Nature gives us many things. For example, forest, sun, wind, water, minerals, land, etc. this is classified into. (i) Renewable resources (ii) Nonrenewable resources   Renewable Resources Renewable resources are those resources, which we can use repeatedly. For example, trees, soil, solar power, wind power, etc. On the basis of the origin of these resources, they can be classified into: Biotic: The resources that we derive from living organisms. For example, tree. Abiotic: The resources that we derive from non-living things. For example, land, water, air, etc.   Non Renewable Resources Nonrenewable resources cannot be regenerated. Oil, coal, natural gas, etc. are some examples of nonrenewable resources.   Forests Forests are renewable natural resources. They prevent floods conserve soil by replenishing the minerals and give oxygen to the atmosphere.    Forest Sun The sun provides light and warmth to the earth. Plants make their food only in the presence of sunlight. The solar energy from the sun can be used as renewable sources of energy for lightening of streets, cooking food and for many other purposes. Solar energy   Wind Wind is an important natural resource. It is utilised as a renewable source of energy. Many wind mills have been set up all over the world to utilise wind energy. Wind energy used in wind mill   Water Water is essential for the existence of animals and plants. Energy of flowing water can be used for generating hydroelectric power.  Hydroelectric power   Minerals Mineral is a natural resource that is hidden under the earth. Gold, silver, iron, copper, are few examples of minerals.                              Gold in mineral form                                           Silver in mineral form   Land Land is the most important natural resource. All plants and vegetables grow on land. Land    

                                                                    Our Universe   Our Universe Our universe is a large and unimaginable expansion of gases, dust, stars, planets, etc.   Stars Stars are the huge balls of fire that twinkle in the night. They are very far away from us. A telescope is used to see the stars, the moon and the planets clearly.   Sun Sun is a star. It is a huge ball of fire that gives us light and heat. Sun is also the head of a big family called solar system. Solar system consists of sun and eight planets along with their satellites.   Planets There are eight planets in the solar system. They are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. There is also a dwarf planet in the solar system known as Pluto. A planet revolves around the sun in a fixed path.   Moon Moon is the natural satellite of earth. It moves around the earth. It has mountains and sand. There are huge holes on the moon. These holes are called craters. Moon has no air. It does not have its own light also.   Our Earth Our earth is the only planet known to have life that is plants and animals on it. It is third planet in the solar system. It was formed many years ago. It is believed that the earth was very hot when it was newly formed. There were no plants or animals on it. Later, there were rains and thunderstorms. This cooled down the earth from outside. Slowly living forms started appearing on the earth.   Shape of the Earth   Earlier, people used to think that our earth is a flat object. Later, scientists found out that our earth is actually spherical in shape. This means that the earth books like a huge ball. The earth appears flat to us because we see only a tiny part of it. But people who have travelled into space have been the round earth from there. People who travel into space are called astronauts. Astronauts who went to the moon also confirmed that the earth looks round from there.   Movements of the earth The earth moves around the sun. We cannot feel the movement because the earth is moving very smoothly and slowly. Our earth shows two kinds of movements. (i) Rotation (ii) Revolution   Rotation Our earth spins about an imaginary line. The imaginary line passes through the centre of the earth. It is also called the axis of the earth. The spinning movement of the earth about its axis is called rotation.   Day and Night The rotation of the earth causes day and night. The earth takes 24hours to rotate once on the axis.   Revolution The earth moves round the sun on a fixed path known as orbit. This movement more...

                                                                  Our Safety and First Aid   Our Safety and First Rid Our body is like a machine performing different functions like walking, running and eating, etc. We should take care of ourselves by keeping safe from illness and injury. We should follow safety rules at home, school, on the road and in the playground.   Some Safety Rules to be followed at Home
  • Do not leave your toys, bags and books lying on the floor. You might trip over them and injure yourself.
  • Be careful while walking on wet bathroom floors. You might slip on the floor and get hurt.
  • Don’t use water near electrical appliances. Don't touch them with wet hands. You might get an electric shock.
  • Don't jump on the stairs. You might fall down.
  • Don't play with knives and scissors.
  Safety Rules at School
  • Do not board or get down from a moving bus. Stand in a queue and wa.t for your turn.
  • Do not run around the benches in the classroom.
  • Do not push your friends while playing.
  Safety on the Road
  • While crossing the road, first look towards your right, then left and then right again. Then cross the road.
  • Do not lean your face or any body part out of the vehicle.
  • Never play on the road.
  • Use zebra crossing to cross the road.
  • Whenever possible, use subways to cross busy roads.
  First Aid The immediate help given to an injured person is called first aid. If you get hurt, call for an adult immediately. If you see an injured person, do not crowd around him or her. Call a doctor or an adult to give first aid. In case of small cuts and wounds, wash the area with water and wipe it with an antiseptic lotion. Then put a bandage or tie a clean handkerchief and wait for the doctor to arrive. We should have a first-aid box in our house and in school. A first-aid box should contain an antiseptic lotion like Dettol, scissors, Band-Aid, gauze, crepe bandage, antiseptic cream, a bottle of methylated spirit, a tape, etc. If you see an accident, you must try to stay calm. It will help you to remember what you need to do at that time. Fainting If a person has fainted, make him/her lie down for a while. Keep his/her head low to allow extra blood to reach the brain.   Insect Bite Insect bites or stings are painful. To give relief apply a paste of baking soda and cold cream on the affected part. A soft pad soaked in ammonia water also gives relief. Apply calamine lotion if itching is there.   Bleeding Wounds Do not panic or crowd around more...

  Number Sense and Numeration   Introduction Everything is counted by numbers. Numbers are the symbolic representation of counted objects.   Types of Number Natural Numbers Counting numbers are known as natural numbers. For example, natural numbers (N) = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5 .... to infinite}   Whole Numbers Counting numbers including 0 are known as whole numbers. For example, whole numbers (W) = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ..... to infinite}   Even Number Numbers which are exactly divisible by 2 are called even numbers. For example: {2, 4, 6, 8, etc.}   Odd Numbers Numbers that are not exactly divisible by 2 and leaves remainder are called odd numbers. For example: {1, 3, 5, 7 etc.}   Operations on Numbers Place Value Place value of digits of a number is their position in the number. For example, place value of 2 in 54276 is 200. Place value of 5 in 5674 is 5000.   Expanded form of numbers Expanded form of every number is written according to the place value of digits. For example, expanded form of number\[56434=5\times 10000+6\times 1000+4\times 100+3\times 10+4\]   Face Value Face value of every number is the number itself. For example, face value of 5 in numeral 4356 is 5 itself and face value of 4 in 4536 is 4.   Successor Successor of every number is just after the number. For example/successor of 17 is 18. Successor of a number is obtained by adding 1 to the number.   Predecessor Predecessor of every number is just before the number. For example, predecessor of 67 is 66. Predecessor of a number is obtained by subtracting 1 from the number.   Ascending Order Arrangement of the numbers from smallest to greatest is called the ascending order of the numbers. For example, ascending order of 45, 67, 21, 34 is\[21<34<45<67\].   Descending Order Descending order is the arrangement of numbers in decreasing order. For example, descending order of 50, 45, 23, 12, 22 is\[50>45>23>22>12\].   Rounding Counting Numbers Nearest to Ten Rounding counting number 23763 to nearest 10 is 23760. So unit digit is mostly changed while rounding counting numbers to nearest ten. Sometimes, tens digit may also be changed. For example, rounding of 458 to nearest 10 is 460.  
  • Example
Arrange the following capacity of packing materials in ascending order.    
Name of packing materials Quantity
Bottle more...


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