Current Affairs 3rd Class

  Short Paragraph Construction   Paragraph: Paragraph is a small unit of composition. It is a group of sentences which describes only one theme. Some paragraphs are given below:   My Mother   It is very well said in Vedas that "A mother holds the same place as God". She is the symbol of kindness. She loves her child selflessly. She is the first teacher. She shapes the overall personality of the child. My mother is the most precious gift that God has given me. Whenever 1 return from school her sweetest greeting helps me forget all the problems I had to face throughout the day. She takes care of my smallest requirements. She teaches me to face all types of challenges of lite. I cannot imagine my world without my mother.   My school   My school is situated very near to my house. It is a very big school. It is red in colour. It has a big ground play where we play games. It has 3 science laboratories, 2 computer practical rooms and a big library. The library houses have many informative books. Apart from this my school has a big auditorium. Generally, all the school functions are held in this auditorium. My school has lots of open spaces and it is always busting with life. I love my school very much.

  Story Construction   The process of step-wise arrangement of the ideas, acts and occurrences which gives us some moral or idea is called a story. The main parts of a story are:   (i) Heading   (ii) Plot   (iii) Moral   Some stories are given below:   Story - 1: Unity is Strength   A poor farmer had four sons. They did not help their father in the field. They always quarrelled among themselves. The farmer was unhappy. He tried to set them right, but in vain. The farmer was always sad. He fell ill. His end was near. He wanted to unite his sons. He thought of a plan. He called his sons. He gave them a bundle of sticks. He asked them to break it. Each tried to break the bundle but failed. The father then untied the bundle. The sons broke the sticks easily. At this the father said, "Be united like the bundle. If you are united none will harm you." The sons learnt a lesson. They never quarrelled again. Moral: United we stand, divided we fall.   Story - 2: The Hidden Treasure   There was an old farmer. He had four lazy sons. Before dying he wanted to teach his sons the value of hard work. He called his sons to his bed-side. He said, "Dear sons, long ago my father gave me a box full of gold coins. For fear of robbers, I buried it in the fields. I want you to dig it out after my death and lead a happy life." After a few days, the farmer passed away. The sons went to fields with spades and pick- axes. They dug every inch of the ground. But no treasure was found. A passerby asked them to sow wheat. The sons did so. They reaped a rich harvest that year. They realized that the real treasure was in hard work. This was what their father wanted to teach them. Moral: Hard work is the real treasure.     Story - 3: Two Friends and the Bear   Mohan and Sohan were friends. They lived in a village. Mohan was true and loyal but Sohan was selfish. One day they set out on a long journey their way lay through a thick forest. As they were passing through it, they saw a bear. It was coming towards them. Sohan at once climbed up a nearby tree. He was now safe. Mohan did not know how to climb a tree. But he did not lose his presence of mind. He had heard that the bear did not eat the dead. So he lay down on the ground and held his breath. The bear came. It sniffed Mohan and took him for a dead man. So it went away. Now Sohan got down the tree. He said to Mohan, "What did the bear say in your ear?" Mohan replied, "The bear advised me not to trust more...

  Use of Possessives   When a noun shows possession, it is said to be in the possessive case.   For example:  
Sita's purse is lost. Hamid lives in boys' hostel.
\[\downarrow \] \[\downarrow \]
Possessive form of noun Possessive form of noun
(Use of apostrophe?s) (Use of apostrophe?s)
  The case of noun which shows a relation between nouns or inanimate objects is called possessive case. In this case, we use apostrophes after noun or inanimate objects. For example:   1.            The Girl's frock                                                   2.            Dog's tail 3.            Children's park                                                    4.            The Government of India's order    

  Synonyms and Antonyms       Synonyms: Words having similar meaning.  
Word Synonyms
Aid Help, relief, support
Brave Courageous, intrepid, impudent
Clever Able, skillful, intelligent
Courage Boldness, valour, bravery
Deliver Relieve, rescue, discharge
Destroy Demolish, ruin, raze
Dull Stupid, blunt, boring
Ecstasy Joy, bliss, enthusiasm
Gift. Present, donation, contribution
Ideal Model, perfect, example
Junk Rubbish, waste, refuse
      Antonyms: Word having opposite meaning.   more...
  Adjective and Adverb   Adjectives: An adjective is a word that describes other words. Look at the following examples.          1.            My house is very beautiful. 2.            This is an antique vase. 3.            This colour is so bright. 4.            You have grown so tall. 5.            The film looks interesting.   Adverbs:   An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Look at the following examples.   1.            He runs quickly. 2.            She walks slowly. 3.            She is very pretty. 4.            He behaved very badly 5.            I have read many books.  

  Articles, Prepositions and Conjunctions   Articles: ?A, 'an' and 'the' are called articles. Use of 'A?   1.            Before any singular noun that starts with a consonant. For example: A cat, a boy, a car, etc. 2.            Before any singular noun that starts with a vowel but produces the sound of a consonant. For example: A uniform, a European, a university, etc.   Use of 'An'   1.            Before any singular noun that starts with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u). For example: An apple, an elephant, an umbrella, etc. 2.            Before any singular noun that starts with a consonant but produces the sound of a vowel. For example: An engineer, an honest man, an hour, etc.   Use of ?The?   1.            Before the names of planets and stars. For example: The Sun, The Earth, etc.   2.            Before the names of direction. For example: The Sun rises in the East.   3.            Before the names of ships, trains, seas, oceans, canals, lakes, rivers, dams and deserts. For example: The Frontier mail.   4.            Before the names of a few countries. For example: The U.S.A, the U.K., etc.   5.            Before the names of books, newspapers, magazines. For example: The Gita, The Times of India, etc.   6.            Before the names of religions and castes. For example: The Hindu, the Muslim, etc.   7.            Before the names of historical places and monuments.               For example: The Taj Mahal, the Qutub Minar, etc.   Preposition   A preposition is a word which shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun with another word in a sentence. Read the following sentences:   1.            He is fond of tea. 2.            I walk to school daily. 3.            They reached home at ten o' clock. 4.            He looked through the window. 5.            I bought it for rupees ten. 6.            We were walking along the road. 7.            Mary put the cup on the shelf. 8.            The cat jumped off the chair.                               The words of, to, at, through, along, for, on, off are prepositions. Use of in, on, at IN Study the following examples:   1.            He works in a shop. 2.            He lives in Jalandhar. 3.            What do you have in your bag? 4.            Children are playing in the garden. 5.            The snow falls in winter. 6.            He was born in September in 1975. 7.  Verb   A verb describes an action. It tells us what someone or something is doing. A sentence is incomplete without verbs. Let us understand verbs better.     A mother is telling a story to her children. All the children are listening to the story very carefully. The children are sitting on the ground. The mother is sitting on the chair. She is holding a book. The children are looking at her. They are smiling. The underlined words are verbs and describe actions.    

  Pronoun   A pronoun is a word which replaces a noun. Singular Pronouns The girl is walking on the road. The word "girl" is a singular noun. She is walking on the road. "She" is the word which has replaced "girl?, therefore, "she" is a singular pronoun. Some more singular pronouns: I, me, you, he, she, her, him, it, this, that, etc.   Plural Pronouns                                  The girls are walking on the road. The word "girls" is a plural noun. They are walking on the road. "They" is the word which has replaced "girls", therefore, "they" is a plural pronoun. Some more plural pronouns: we, us, them, they, these, those, etc.  

  Noun   Noun: A noun is the name of a person, place or thing. There are five kinds of noun.   (i) Proper Noun                                       (ii) Common Noun          (iii) Collective Noun                                 (iv) Material Noun           (v) Abstract Noun   To identify the nouns let us look at some examples:   1.            Madhu was born on a Tuesday.    (Proper Noun) 'Madhu' is the name of a particular girl and Tuesday' is the name of a specific day Thus, proper nouns denote the name of a particular person, place or mina"   2.            Boys are playing in the field.       (Common Noun) 'Boys' denotes a common name shared by a group. Thus, common noun is the name shared in common by everyone in a class or a group   3.            The herd is grazing on the hill.    (Collective Noun) 'Herd? represents a number of things regarded as a group. Thus, the collective noun is the name given to the number of things regarded as a whole or a collection. 4.            Copper is a useful metal.           (Material Noun) 'Copper' is a metal used for making other substances. Thus, material noun is the word used for the substance of which things are made.   5.            Poverty is the greatest curse.       (Abstract Noun) ?Poverty' is the state of bad quality which we can only think or feel. Thus, an abstract noun is the name of some quality or idea which we can only think or feel but cannot touch or see.      

  Jumbled Words and Sentences   Jumbled Words A group of letters which makes a sense is called a word. In a Jumbled word, the letters of the alphabet are not in order. They are in mixed form. You have to arrange these letters to make a meaningful word.   Look at the following examples.   1.            TORYS    =   STORY   2.            RHICA     =  CHAIR   3.            LNGEISH =  ENGLISH   4.            TOURC    =   COURT   5.            GTNHI     =   NIGHT   Jumbled Sentences A group of words that makes a sense is called a sentence. In a jumbled sentence, the words are not in order and do not make any sense. You have to arrange these words to make a meaningful sentence. Look at the following examples.   1.            Teacher/mother/is/my/a My mother is a teacher.   2.            Him/I/know/well/very I know him very well.   3.            Sets/in the/Sun/the/West. The Sun sets in the West.    


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Word Antonyms Word Antonyms
Agree Disagree Alone