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  Introduction to Hardware and Software   Introduction Let us understand the difference between hardware and software with the help of our body. Our body is hard and we can touch it, move it but what about our feelings? We cannot touch our feelings. Computers are also made in the same way. It consists of two parts, one is hardware and another is software. One without the other is of no use. To run a computer both hardware and software are necessary. Hardware is the part that you can see and touch, parts which cannot be touched are called Software.   Physical parts of Computer (Hardware)   Hardware refers to the physical components of the computer that run the software such as the hard drive, motherboard, video and sound cards, monitor, printer, keyboard and mouse.       Logical parts of Computer (Software)         Software is a collection of code and instructions that tell a computer and/or hardware how to operate. Software is a set of programs that you install on your computer to help us to do different kinds of work including Games, Word Processing programs, WordPad, Notepad etc.   Relationship Between Hardware and Software There is a close relationship between computer hardware and software. If hardware is the body, then software is just like the soul in a body. Just as the body cannot live without the soul, the computer cannot perform without software.   Software is code and instructions that tell a computer and/or hardware how to operate. This code can be viewed and executed using a computer or other hardware device.   Software requirement for Hardware of Computer There are many hardware connected with the computer such as, hard drive, CD drive, RAM, etc. Every connected hardware of a computer requires software to run that is called driver software.   For example: When we connect Printer with the computer, it requires driver software for proper function of the Printer. The user uses computer resource with the help of operating system. Operating system contains system software and some application software also.   Look at the following picture of different types of Operating system:    

  What is Booting Up?   Introduction The booting of a computer is a process in which it checks all the connected hardware in the computer. The POST (Power on Self-Test) report appears during the booting of a computer. Booting process is done very fast, therefore, one of the key on the keyboard is used to view the process during the POST.   Computer requires user attention to minimize the error occurred. Computer room should also be moisture free for the proper functioning and long life of the computer.   Booting Up The term Booting is used to describe the process of powering on a computer.   It is a process or set of operations that loads and starts the operating system, starting from the point when user switches the powder button.   In your computer lab session in the school, your teacher has handed you an assignment. Once you enter the computer room, you must make your computer ready for doing work. When the computer is first turned on, the system performs a POST (Power On Self-Test.00;.). The computer Power-On Self-Test the computer to make sure it meets the necessary system requirements and that all the hardware is working properly before starting the remainder of the boot process.   The process of loading or copying the operating system is called Booting Process.   These are the following steps: 1. Switch on the Power Supply Button. 2. Switch on the UPS. 3. Switch on the CPU. 4. Switch on the Monitor. 5. Wait for the message on the Monitor. 6. Then wait for the cursor on the Monitor Screen. 7. Computer is ready to work.     You need to turn on the following switches to start a computer. 1. Power Supply Switch: Turn on the switch at the source of the power supply. The stabilizer will start receiving the current. 2. On/Off Switch of UPS: Turn on switch of UPS. The UPS is used to regulate the flow of current. 3. On/Off Switch of CPU: Turn on switch of CPU. The current will start passing through the system. 4. On/Off Switch of the Monitor: Turn on switch of monitor. Look at the monitor and you will see some messages. After these messages you will see the cursor on the monitor screen. Now you can begin working on the computer.   Thus we saw the entire Booting Up process to make the computer ready to work.   There are two types of Booting: 1. Cold booting 2. Warm booting   v  Cold booting: If we shut down the computer completely and properly, after a while it starts again on the computer is known as a cold booting. v  Warm booting: If we take the computer to restart button or a key by simply pressing it so Ctrl+Alt+Del is called a warm booting.  

Input and Output Devices   Introduction The computer will be of no use unless it is able to communicate with the outside world. Input/output devices are required for users to communicate with the computer. An input device send information to a computer system for processing. An input device tor a computer allows you to enter information. An output device can receive data from another device, but it cannot send data to another device. There are different devices of he computer that help it to do work.   Input Devices The devices which are used to input the data and the program in the computer are known as "Input Devices". For the text input, keyboard are used, microphone is used for audio or sound input.     Keyboard The keyboard is the most common input device. A 'keyboard' is a human interface device which is "-presented as a layout of buttons. It is a text based input device that allows the user to interact with the computer through a set of keys mounted on a board.     Mouse After the keyboard, the mouse is the most common type of input device. A mouse makes the process of navigating the screen much easier than trying to use just a keyboard. A mouse usually uses a ball, light or a laser to track movement.       Joystick A joystick is an input device consisting of a large pointed stick and input buttons on it. We can use this for playing games on the computer. The joystick is a vertical stick which moves the graphic cursor in a direction the stick is moved. It typically has a button on top that is used to select the option pointed by the cursor.       Optical Mark Reader (OMR) An OMR is a device which detects alpha numeric characters printed or written on a paper.   Magnetic Ink Character Reader (MICR) The MICR is an input device or a technology used to verify the original paper documents, especially cheques.   Bar Code Reader A bar code Reader also called a price scanner of point-of-scale (POS) Scanner, is a hand held or stationary input device, used to read information contained in a bar code.   Output Devices An output device is used to send data from a computer to another device used. They are pieces of hardware that process data sent from a computer and translate it into a form readable by human. This information can be inany form that includes text, sound, images, etc. Output devices such as a printer, video display or speaker present data from a computer to a user. Thus we see that output devices are things we use to get information of a computer that has been held o generated within a computer. more...

How Data is Stored in Computer   Introduction It would be inconvenient to study, work, cook, sleep, eat and relax, all in the one room of your house. It will be very difficult for you to trace the things which you want and work peacefully. However, a house is divided into different rooms such as the living room, dining room and study room, etc. with each room containing the required things so that it is comfortable for you to live there. In the same way computer uses its memory for storage information. The storage of a computer is divided into many parts that are called partioning of the storage. In the case of RAM, the particular memory location contains the information. The main storage of a computer is partitioned and formatted for making the smallest logical area that are called sectors.   What is a File? Computer files are the blocks for storage information. Imagine that you have only one notebook for doing homework and class work for all subjects. If you wish to study English notes, you will have to check the whole notebook page-by-page to find what you need. But if you make separate notebooks for class work and homework and separate notebooks for different subjects this job will become very easy. A file may contain text, image, sound, video information. Whereas, a folder- contains many files and another folders. If we consider the notebook is a folder then the English notes is a file and heading of English note may considered as the name of that file.     We know that the application software is used for performing the specific task, such as, MS Word is mainly used for editing text, Ms Excel is mainly used for editing numerical based work and Ms Powerpoint is mainly used for presentation of images. Each of the work done in the application is saved with the type of file in which work has one. For example: Word file is saved with .docx extension with name of that file. Excel file is saved with .xlsx extension along with name of that file and powerpoint file is saved with .pptx extension along with name of that file. Every file can be identified by its extension code to show from which type of application it belongs to. Files on a computer can be created, moved, modified and deleted. We cannot get back or restore a file, once we delete it from the Recycle Bin. In other words, a File is the actual space taken by the data on the disk. Information in a computer file can consist of smaller packets of information (often called 'records' or 'lines'). When you save any work done on the computer, it occupies some memory of the computer.   In Windows, a file is symbolized by the following icon:     What is Directory? Directories are like more...

  Better Ways of Using Computer   Introduction Sitting in front of computer for long time such as, 7 to 8 hours in a day may worse impact on your health later. The use of computers for long hours is a major issue of computer-related health risks which include repetitive stress injuries, eyestrain, obesity, back problems, etc. As for any task that means working in one position for sometime, it's important to make yourself as comfortable as possible when you use your computer. Correct postures pay off in later life and will help to minimize potential problems. In this chapter, we study about the correct posture while sitting in front of computer.   Correct Postures While Using Computers Weather you are using windows PC, Laptop, it is important to maintain proper body posture while using these devices. Sitting at a computer for long periods of time can take a toll on your body. By not sitting with the correct posture, it is easy to end up with back pain, neck pain, knee pains and a tingling of the hands and fingers. Correct postures play a large role hence we should follow the good habits. When we use the computer.   Do's and Don'ts Some of the computer's Do's and Don?ts are the following:   (1) You should Adjust your chair height so your feet are flat on the floor and your knees are in line with your hips. (2) You should sit up straight in front of computer. (3) Ensure the keyboard is close and directly in front of you. (4) To help your neck stay relaxed and in a neutral position, the monitor should be directly in front of you, a few inches above eye level. (5) Sit at least 20 inches (or an arm length) away from the computer screen. (6) Stand up and walk around a few minutes periodically. (7) Do not use phone kept on shoulder while you sit on the chair. Alternatively you may use headsets for comfortable phone conversation without causing any strain on shoulders. (8) Keep monitor clean and free from dust and greasy hand stains to prevent any strain on eyes while viewing displaying on the screen. (9) Try to keep arm at right angle at most times while using keyboard and mouse in the front of the computer. (10) Do not rest your palm on the keyboard while typing. (11) Avoid eye fatigue by resting and refocusing your eyes periodically look away from the monitor and focus on something in distance.   Maintaining your Monitor   Do:   v  Keep the brightness and contrast at minimum before switching on the system and increase it to the appropriate level thereafter.   Don't:   v  Try to open the VDU and touch the parts as these parts may carry high voltage.   Maintaining your keyboard   Do:   v more...

  Working With MS-Paint   Introduction Microsoft Paint is a drawing tool that can be used for simple drawings and basic image editing.   MS-Paint has been included in every version of Microsoft Windows, starting with Windows 10 which was released in 1985.   Starting Paint Brush Paint Brush is a program used to draw, color and edit pictures. You can use Paint Brush like a digital sketchpad to make simple pictures. Let us begin to work with Paint Brush.       To open Paint Brush   MS- Paint is a part of Windows. To open paint, the following steps should be follow:   v  Click "Windows" button and select "Windows Accessories" folder option from the start menu. v  Click Paint option which is listed under the Windows Accessories folder.     Or   To open MS-Paint, Type Paint in the Search box on the task bar, and then select paint from the list of result.   Using Tools Using the different tools, you can create different shapes and give an artistic effect to your drawings.    Shape Tools     The shapes use for Creating shapes in MS-Paint. The shape tool has 23 predefined shapes, 6 basic shapes, 6 polygon or star shapes, 4 arrows, 3 callouts shapes, 2 symbols.  The different shapes are selectable from the shapes group when the is active.    Basic shapes   v  Oval v  Rectangle v  Rounded Rectangle v  Diamond v  Triangle v  Right Angle Triangle   Rounded Rectangle Use Rounded Rectangle to draw rectangular shapes with rounded edges. Click Rectangle, click a Color in the Color box, and then click a fill style in the options box just below the toolbar.     The following are the steps:     v  Click on the home tab, in the shapes group, click on the rounded rectangle tool.   Pencil Tool Use the Pencil to draw thin, free-form lines or curves. Click Pencil, click a Color in the Color box, and then drag the pointer in the picture to draw. To draw using the background Color, right-click while you drag the pointer.     The following are the steps:     v  On the Home tab, in the Tools group, click the Pencil tool. v  In the Colors group, click Color 1 more...

Getting Familiar with Windows   Introduction Inside the computer there is one program that manages all other programs, just like a boss in an office. The Windows user interface elements that you encounter in every Windows session - the lock screen, the welcome screen, the desktop, the taskbar, the start screen and the start menu. In order to start and work, every computer needs an Operating System. The Operating System and the included tools such as File Explorer, to access and manage the apps and data files you use in your work and play. Many useful apps come with windows or are part of the "Windows family", such as Maps, Photos, Mail, Calendar, Music and Windows DVD player. Windows come in different versions (such as Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows 2010).   What is Operating System (OS) OS stands for Operating System. The Operating System is the most important software component of a computer system that is responsible for management and coordination of activities and sharing of the resource of computer. An Operating System is the resource manager that is, it can manage the resource of a computer system internally. The resources are processor, memory, files and I/O devices.   An OS is also responsible for the following tasks:   v  Creating and deleting files and directories. v  Mapping files onto Secondary storage.   Some Windows 10 Features:   v  Icons: In computer's GUI, an icon is a small picture that represent an object or program. Icons are very useful in application that use windows, because the click of a mouse button you can shrink an entire window into a small icon. v  Desktop: Desktop refers to the main background area. It is like your personal work area. Actually you get a feel of what is inside your computer. Several icons or small pictures are located on the left side of the Desktop. You can use your Desktop for many tasks such as opening programs, copying files, connecting to the Internet and so on. You may have used the Paint icon in your computer lab for drawing pictures. It is very easy to work with Windows because it uses a GUI (Graphical User Interface) and offers graphical icons and visual indicators instead of text and you need not had to remember any commands. At one end of the Taskbar you have the Start button which is very important. v  Taskbar: The Taskbar is by default located at the bottom of the screen, first introduced with Microsoft followed. It also displays the launch programs and monitor programs currently in use and shows notifications and update ' information.   Pin to Taskbar The pin option is used to create shortcut to various programs which display in taskbar. more...

  History of Computing Hardware   Introduction The development of modern computer is based on the invention of ancient counting devices. Ancient people used pieces of stone, drawing lines and pieces of ropes to record the information. Among the various method of calculation, Abacus is known as the first calculating device. But the computer, first time is better known as the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) developed by John Mauchly and Eckert in 1946. It was used to do mathematical operations and store data.   First Calculating Device- The Abacus It was the first calculating device which was discovered by the Mesopotamians and improved by the Chinese. It is also called a counting frame and is a calculating tool used primarily in parts of Asia for performing arithmetic processes. An Abacus is made of frames, beads and rods. Calculation is done by the position of beads in the abacus. It allows performing basic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It can also carry out operations like counting up to decimal places, calculates sums having negative numbers, etc.     Napier's bones Napier's bone was created by John Napier in 1617 for multiplication and division of numbers. Sir John Napier was a great mathematician of Scotland. It was a manual device made of rods. There are ten bones corresponding to the digits 0-9, and a special eleventh bone that is used to represent the multiplier. The multiplier bone is simply a list of the digits 1-9 arranged vertically downward.     Mechanical Device - The Pascaline The calculating machine Pascaline was a mechanical device which was designed and built by the French mathematician- philosopher Blaise Pascal between 1642 and 1644. It was made of chain and toothed wheels. It could add and subtract numbers and capable of carry transfer automatically.       Leibniz Calculator It was a mechanical calculator invented by German mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz around 1672 and completed in 1694. It also performed multiplication and division. It was made of copper and steel.     Punch Card in- Jacquard's Loom The Jacquard loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801 that simplified the process of manufacturing textiles with complex patterns. It was the first machine that used punch cards to control a sequence of operations.   Difference Engine This was an early calculator designed by Charles Babbage. The difference engine was made to calculate various mathematical functions and mathematical tables. This project was started in 1821 and it employed wheels and rods but failed its test in 1833 because the technology at that time was not so developed.     Analytical Engine The analytical engine was an important more...

Growth of Modern Computer   Introduction The growth of modern computer is the development of hardware and software development of ancient calculating devices. Enhanced capability of different generation of computer are based on the invention of new techniques and components. Ancient world did not imagine that a non-living matter can store data in its memory as a living being can store it. It was possible with the help of punch card. The enhanced version of storage was introduced with the help of magnetic drum. The magnetic drum storage technique is still in use as a platter of a hard drive is coated with magnetic material for storage.   Generation of Computers The first generation of computer had introduce with the development of storage media. Machine, that was invented before the first generation was only capable of performing arithmetic operation therefore, they were known as calculating machine. A generation refers to the state of improvement in the development of a product. This term is also used in the different advancements of computer technology. Each phase of computer development is known as a separate generation of computers.   The First Generation Computers (1949-55) The first generation computers were huge, slow, expensive and often undependable. In 1946, two Americans, Presper Eckert and John Mauchly built the ENIAC electronic computer which used very large and heavy electronic vacuum tubes, which took up a lot of space and gave off a great deal of heat like the light bulbs.       Limitations: First generation computer was a first step towards the invention of present form of computer, therefore, it had many limitations.   Some of them are the following: v  These computers were very big in size. The ENIAC machine was 30 x 50 feet in size and 30 tons in weight. Therefore, these machines required a very large space to work. v  Their power consumption was very high.   The Second Generation Computers (1956-65) The second generation computer started with the invention of transistors.. In 1947, three scientists, John Bardeen, William Shockley and Walter Brattain working at AT&T's Bell Labs invented the transistor which functioned like a vacuum tube. The transistor was faster, more reliable, smaller and much cheaper to build than a vacuum tube. The IBM 1401 was a computer developed during the second generation computer hired on rent by Nepal for Census.       Limitations: After removing the limitations of 1st generation computers, 2nd generation computers were developed. Despite of that, it had many limitations. Some of them are as follows: v  The use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes in the second generation computer required heat absorber because, transistors produced excess heat. Therefore, air conditioning was required for cooling the machine. v more...

  Odd One Out   Objective ·         To train the student to find things that are similar or different. ·         To distinctly identify things on the basis of their shape, size, colour etc. ·         To help the student make connections between the words and to know the process involved in it etc.       Introduction   Odd one out is the only one different from all in some manner. The student is required to choose this one item which does not fit into the given group.      Steps to Solve Step 1: Look carefully at each of the pictures, numbers, words and figures. Step 2: Find the common feature among them. Step 3: Choose the item which does not has common feature. Types of Odd One Out:     Type I:   Picture / Figure Based     Directions (Examples 1 to 5): Select the odd one out.     Example - 1 (a)          (b)      (c)            (d)     Ans. (d) Explanation: In each of the figures except option (d) the inner and outer figures are same.       Example - 2 (a)           (b)     (c)            (d)     Ans. (d) Explanation: Elements in (a), (b) and (c) are solid shapes.     Type II: Number Based     Example - 3 (a)            (b) (c)             (d)     Ans. (c) Explanation: Each of the numbers except 12 is an odd number     Type III: Alphabet Based     Example - 4 (a)             (b) (c)              (d)     Ans. (d) Explanation: As, \[H\xrightarrow{+1}I,L\xrightarrow{+1}M\]     \[O\xrightarrow{+1}P,R\xrightarrow{+1}Q\] So, RQ does not belong to the group     Type IV: Word Based     Example - 5 (a)       (b) (c)        (d)       Ans. (a) Explanation: The word "Jumble" starts with letter 'J'; all other words start with letter 'D'. So, "Jumble" is different from others.



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