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Current Affairs 8th Class

  Managing Windows 10   Introduction Just try to imagine the situation in the class where a teacher gives assignments and cheeks the activities of the students. In the class, one teacher manages all the students. Similarly inside the computer too, there is one program that manages all the other programs, just like a teacher. This program is called Operating System. Example of OS is Windows. Window can come in different versions (such as Windows 2000, Windows Vista and Windows 10). Windows 10 is the latest version from Microsoft Windows 10 is a personal computer operating system developed and released by Microsoft on July 2015 as part of the Windows NT This operating system includes improved support for biometric authentication through the Windows Hello. The full screen Start menu is used in this mode similar to Windows 8, but scrolls vertically instead of horizontally. The major change in Windows 10 is the introduction of the "Edge" Web browser, which is designed to replace Internet Explorer (IE).   Today, in the world Windows Operating System is one of the largest selling GUI (Graphical User Interface) based operating system. In order to suit the requirement of various kinds of users, the Windows operating system is available in various versions. The different types of versions are Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows X.P, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, 8.1 and Windows 10 as well.   Following are the features of Windows 10:  
  • The Start menu from the Windows 7 is back.
  • The ‘Edge’ web browser which has been designed to replace ‘Internet Explorer (IE).
  • Action center, which is similar to the notifications bar in OSX.
  • Windows 10 also supports multiple desktops on a single monitor. Alt + Tab is also used to switches between desktops.
  • In Windows 10 if you remove the keyboard / mouse, a notification will popup from the task bar at the bottom, asking if you want to active tablet mode. When you do so, you are greeted with the more touch-friendly profile.
  • In Windows 10, launching a Windows app on your PC opens it in a desktop window-, rather than dumping you into a full screen app.
  • Windows 10 has brought Microsoft’s voice - controlled digital assistant cortana to desktop computers.
  • In Windows 10 you will be able to manage your device from one place instead of hunting for a specific menu.

Briefing on Information Technology   Introduction Computers are everywhere! From office desks to kitchen tables, from library tables to people?s laps in coffee shops. Computer is an electronic device for performing arithmetic and logical operation.   What is Computer? Computer is an electronic device that processes data, converting it into information that is useful to people. Computers have changed the way we work, communicate, create and play Computers are important because information is so essential to our lives.   Advantages of Computers   Speed  
  • Computer is a very fast device capable of performing calculation of very large amount of data.
  • It can perform millions of calculations in a few
  • Computers are very accurate. They perform all jobs with 100% accuracy provided that the input is correct.
  Storage Capacity  
  • A computer has much more storage capacity than human beings. It can store any type of data such as images, videos, text, audio etc.
  • Unlike human beings, computer is free from monotony, tiredless, and lack of concentration. It can work continuously without any error and boredom.
  Disadvantages of Computers   No I.Q. A computer cannot take any decision on its own.   No feeling  Computers have no feelings or emotions. Unlike human beings computer cannot make Judgment based on feeling, taste, experience, and knowledge.   Classification of Computer On the basis of size, computers are classified as follows:   Micro Computers Micro Computer is a computer, more...

  Introduction to Computer Memory System   Introduction You can remember things because they are stored in your memory (brain). Similarly a computer has memory to store data and information for future use. This is the place where the data and programs get stored before being processed and the place where the results get stored before being sent as output. Suppose you are asked when your birthday is or the name of your friends, you will reply immediately because you remember them and this information is already in your memory A computer also has a memory which stores a lot of information inside it, A computer stores everything in its memory.   All the data that enters into the computer first get converted into the binary number system. One digit in binary number system is called bit and combination of eight bits is called byte. Bit is the smallest measuring unit of computer memory. It means binary digits. Just like we use kilograms and grams to measure weight, the computer's memory is organized as a collection of bytes.       Units to measure memory are given below:   v  Bit = 0 or 1 v  1 Nibble = 4 bits v  1 Byte (b) = 8 Bits v  1 Kilobyte (KB) = 1024 Bits v  1 Megabyte (MB) = 1024 KBytes v  1 Gigabyte (GB) = 1024 MBytes v  1 Terabytes (TB) = 1024 GBytes v  1 Petabytes (PB) = 1024 TByte more...

  Microsoft Office Word 2013   Introduction Microsoft Word 2013 is one of the most widely used word processing application, succeeded by later version of Microsoft Office. There are different features included in Microsoft word 2013. Margin table and Formatting are the useful tools in Word 2013. It is word processing software whose purpose is to help you to create text based documents such as letters, memos, reports, e-mail messages or other type of correspondence.   Undo & redo The easiest way to undo an action is with the key commands ctrl + z. To redo an action press ctrl + y. It is important to note that not all actions are undoable. Hence it is important to save before you make any major changes in your document so that you can revert back your saved document. There are also two icons (see figure) above the main toolbar near the save icon. The left icon is undo and the right icon is redo.     Formatting Text in Word 2013 Formatting change the appearance of a document. In the previous class, you have already read about some formatting features of MS-Word. Let us read some more formatting features in this chapter.   Change Text Case   You can use Change Case command under Home tab to change text case. For this,  
  • Select the text to be changed.
  • Click the Change Case command in the Font group under Home
  • A drop-down menu will appear, choose the desired case from the menu.
  •    4. The text case will be changed in the document.     To Insert a Symbol Word offers different types of symbols for language, currency, mathematics and many more. You can use any of them. To insert a symbol:    
  • Place the cursor where you want to insert a symbol.
  • Click the Symbol drop-down arrow in the Insert A symbol menu will appear.
  • Select the symbol you want.
  • more...

      Microsoft Excel 2013   Introduction Microsoft Excel is known as a program that deals with spreadsheet based application. Spreadsheet is an application software used for calculation based applications. In this application software, a user can edit and modify data and also calculate average, sum, difference, etc. A spreadsheet contains rows and columns which forms many cells in a spreadsheet. The Microsoft Excel is open with name. Book 1. By default Book 1 contain one sheet that can be renamed, and additional worksheet can also be added in a work book 1. In this chapter, we will study about working with Microsoft Excel application software.   Cell Reference There are three types of cell references that you can use in Excel 2013.  
    • Relative cell reference
    • Absolute cell reference
    • Mixed cell reference
    • Relative Cell Reference: The most commonly used cell reference type is the relative cell reference. When you type a cell reference using just the column letter and row number, you are using a relative reference. Relative references are important when you need to repeat the same calculation in multiple rows and column.
        For example:        The formula = A1 + B1 is typed into cell C1             Result of formula Type in C1 figure 5.1 is shown in figure 5.2              
    • Absolute Cell Reference: Absolute cell references are used with fixed cell reference in a formula. A dollar sign is typed before the column letter and before row number to indicate that the cell reference is an absolute reference (for example: $b$2)
                For Example:       
      Introduction to Data Representation   Introduction Classification of computers are basically divided according to their speed, memory capability, peripheral support etc. Different types of computers are used in different sectors. Microcomputer is the personal computer, whereas mini and super computers are more advanced and used in the sectors where big amount of data is processed. Number system in computing are used for coding characters in numbers. There are four type of number systems in digital system. They are Binary, Octal, Decimal and Hexadecimal. This chapter includes the classification of computer's number system.   Binary Number System A number system with a base-2 is known as binary number system. The whole binary number system depends on two digits, these are 0 and 1 respectively. By using these two digits, the numbers in binary number system are written. Thus the place value of a digit in a number increases in the power of 2 from right to left.   Characteristics  
    • A positional number system.
    • Has only 2 symbols or digits (0 and 1) hence its base = 2.
    • The maximum value of a single digit is 1 (one less than) value of the base.
    • Each position of a digit represents a specific power of base (2).
    • This number system is used in computers.
      The following example shows how to convert binary number 1010101 into decimal number:  
    Power of 6 5 4 3 2 more...
      More About on HTML       Introduction to HTML HTML language is developed by Tim Berner-Lee at CERN (Consiel European pour la Research Nuclear) to enable permit the researchers to share their research papers with the help of the Internet. Generally all the browsers support HTML, but basically it was used by Mosaic Browser. The HTML 1.0 is the first version of HTML, whereas continuous growth of Web extended HTML growth in several other ways. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the organization which did not specify the first version of HTML. This organization maintains the language and keeps evolving it in proper direction. Latest version of HTML is HTML 5.01 which is in general use and is the sub version of HTML 5.0. The errors which are occurring in HTML 5.0 have been fixed in this version. The whole HTML document comes under the <html>tag which is used as a container. The entire content of the HTML page comes under the opening and closing of the <html>tags. This <html>tag indicates the browser this is the starting of the document and the closing </html>tag indicates that it’s the ending of an HTML document.   The following is the syntax: <html> ……………... Contents mentioned in the page ……………... </html>   For the heading of the HTML document, the tag which is used is <head>tag. The information contains some certain headings regarding documents that come under this. There are only few tags which are valid under the heading section. These are the following:                            <link>tag : Defines reference for the resource. <base>tag : Defines a base URL for all the links present on a page. <meta>tag: Defines the Meta- Information such as keyword and descriptions for search engines and refresh rates about the page. <script>tag : The HTML page uses the script which is defined by this tag. <style>tag : Defines the internal style sheet for the HTML page. The contents of the HTML document describe under the <body>tag. The contents of a web page whatever they are defined between the opening and closing of the <body>tag, it may be a text, audio, video and images all conies under this tag.   HTML Lists To itemize the information in a concise format, the list makes it easy. It is used to present the elements in an attractive way and very clearly so that the user can read as well as understand it easily.   You can create three types of lists in HTML:
    • Ordered List.
    • Unordered List.
    • Definition List.
      Ordered List The list of items in which each item of the list has a specific numerical order comes under the ordered lists. The ordered list is also known as numbered lists. The order number can be alphabetical or numeric and that can be either a lower case or upper case. By using <ol> tag more...

     SERIES COMPLETION   A series is an uniform set of one or more digits, letters, figures, etc. follows a certain rule. To complete a series or identify a term, a student is required to identify the rule on which the given series has been established.     EXAMPLE     1.         Find the missing term to complete the given series.              0, 6, 24, 60, 120, 210, ?             (a) 336                          (b) 302                         (c) 290                          (d) 242 Explanation (a): Observing the given series, we conclude that 1st term = 13 -1 = 0; 2nd term = 23 - 2 = 6; 3rd term = 33 -3 = 24 Similarly, 7th term = 73 - 7 = Thus, the missing term is 336. So the correct option is (a).   2.         The following series consists of five figures named Problem Figures. Select a figure from amongst the options which will continue the series established by Problem Figures.                              (a)                    (b)             (c)                    (d)     Explanation (a): In the first step, the first (top most) and the third elements interchange their positions. In the second step, the second and the fourth elements interchange their positions and in the third step there is no change. These three steps occur alternately. Also, all the elements together move one space to the right. So, the correct option is (a).     INSERTING THE MISSING CHARACTER   A pattern is a design or a set of figures and it contains numbers or letters or both. Out o1 these characters a number/letter is missing. To identify the missing number/letter a student is required to decipher the pattern. The following example would be helpful for pattern based problems.   3.         Which number will replace the question mark?                            (a) 26                            (b) 27                           (c) 28                            (d) 29   Explanation (d): From figure (i) : From figure (ii): From figure (iii): Hence, the number 29 will replace the question mark. So, the correct option is (d).

       ANALOGY   Analogy refers to similar relationship between two or three numbers or letters or figures or words or things etc.   Relationships: The two numbers, letters, figures may be related in any of the various ways. Some of them are as follows:
    •          One number is twice or half the other one.
    •          One number is greater than or less than the other number.
    •          They are consecutive odd, even or prime numbers.
    •          One number is square or square root, cube or cube root of the other number.
    •          Letters at alternate positions in the English alphabet.
    •          Skipping of letters in the English alphabet.
    •          Movements or rotation of a figure or different elements of a figure in different directions. 
      EXAMPLE     1.         Choose that set of numbers from the options that is similar to the given set.              Given set: (3, 18, 36)             (a) (2, 7, 8)                    (b) (6, 42, 45)                   (c) (4, 24, 48)                 (d) (12, 72, 216)   Explanation (c): In the set, 2nd number = \[\left( {{1}^{st}}number\times 6 \right)\] and 3rd number = \[\left( {{2}^{nd}}number\times 2 \right).\]     2.         There is a definite relationship between the pair given on the either side of::. Identify the relationship between the pair and find the missing figure.                            (a)                      (b)                (c)                       (d)   Explanation (b): In the first figure of left pair small circles rotates \[180{}^\circ \] to get the second figure.     CLASSIFICATION   In "classification", we more...

    WHAT IS CODING? Coding is a method of expressing something in a secret way.   WHAT IS DECODING? Decoding is a process to understand a code language.   TYPES OF CODING 1.    Letter Coding: Letters are used in forward or backward or both the directions for making some code language. 2.    Direct Letter Coding: Letters of a word are directly replaced by other letters. 3.    Number/Symbol Coding: Numerals or symbols are assigned to words. 4.    Substitution Coding: Some particular words are assigned to certain names.     EXAMPLE     If OJAMYTIR is the code for MAJORITY, which word is coded as SERPEVRE? (a) PERSEVER               (b) PRESERVE       (c) PERSERVE               (d) PRESEVER   Explanation (b): Clearly, the code has been obtained by writing the first four and the last four letters of the word in the reverse order. Thus, we have: Hence, the correct option is (b).


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