Current Affairs 8th Class

  COLLOCATIONS           The knowledge of Collocations is very important for proper use of English Language. If we cannot use right collocations, a grammatically correct sentence will stand out awkward. English Collocations fall into the category of Phraseology which means a particular mode of expression, especially one characteristic of a particular speaker or subject area. It is the study of set or fixed expressions, such as idioms, phrasal verbs, and other types of multi-word lexical units (often collectively referred to as phrasemes). In this type of use the component parts of the expression take on a meaning more specific than or otherwise not predictable from the sum of their meanings when used independently. We can say Collocation is the way words are habitually used together to produce a specific meaning. This includes, among others, verbal phrases, verbs compounds, noun compounds, compounds with particles and adjective-noun collocates. In addition to producing specific meaning, collocations or its initiatory parts, increase the predictability of the message and anchor it in the context of communication by signaling to the listener or reader that a specific meaning is about to be proved.   There are several different types of collocations. Collocations can be:
  • Adjective Collocations
  • Adverbial Collocations
  • Verbal Collocations
  • Genitive Collocations
  Example of seven main types of collocations:
  • adverb + adjective
    • Invading that country was an utterly stupid thing to do.
    • We entered a richly decorated
    • Are you fully aware of the implications of your action?
  • adjective + noun
    • The doctor advised him to take regular exercise.
    • The Titanic sank on its maiden voyage.
    • He was writhing on the ground in excruciating pain.
  • noun + noun
    • Let's give Mr Sharma a round of applause.
    • The ceasefire agreement came into effect at 11 am.
    • I'd like to buy two bars of soap, please.
  •  noun + verb
    • The lion started to roar when it heard the dog barking.
    • Snow was falling as our plane took off.
    • The bomb went off when he started the car engine.
  • verb + noun The prisoner was hang
    • The prisoner was hanged for committing murder.
    • I always try to do my homework in the morning, after making my bed.
    • He has been asked to give a presentation about his work.
  • verb + expression with prep
    • We had to return home because we had run out of money.
    • At first her eyes filled with horror, and then she burst into tears.
    • Their behaviour was enough to drive anybody to crime.
  • verb + adverb
    • She placed her keys gently on the table and sat down.
    • Sweety whispered softly in Raj’s ear.
    • I vaguely remember that it was growing dark when we left.

            ANALOGY AND CLASSIFICATION             An analogy is a comparison in which an idea or a thing is compared to another thing that is quite different from it. It aims at explaining that idea or thing by comparing it to something that is familiar. Metaphors and similes are tools used to draw an analogy Therefore, analogy is more extensive and elaborate than either a simile or a metaphor.   Consider the following example:           "Structure of an atom is like a solar system. Nucleus is the sun and electrons are the planets revolving around the sun."                                                                                                       Here an atomic structure is compared to a solar system by using "like". Therefore, it is a simile. Metaphor is used to relate the nucleus to the sun and the electrons to the planets without using words "like" or "as'. Hence, similes and metaphors are employed to develop an analogy.           Examples of analogy from everyday life
  • We use analogy in our everyday conversation. Some common analogy examples are given below:
    • Life is like a race. The one who keeps running wins the race and the one who stops to catch a breath loses.
    • Just as a sword is the weapon of a warrior, a pen is the weapon of a writer.
    • How a doctor diagnoses diseases is like how a detective investigates crimes.
    • Just as a caterpillar comes out of its cocoon, so we must come out of our comfort zone.
    • You are as annoying as nails on a chalkboard.
              Writers use analogies to link an unfamiliar or a new idea with common and familiar objects. It is easier for you to comprehend a new idea, which may have been difficult for them to understand otherwise. Your comprehension of a new idea picks up the pace when you observe its similarity to something that is familiar to them. In addition, by employing this literary tool, writers catch the attention of their readers. Analogies help increase readers interest as analogies help them relate what they read in their life.   ANALOGY KINDS           Opposites Analogies           Opposites are exactly as the word suggests things that are opposite to each other. This is a common analogy type which you will encounter pretty often and since words have only one opposite this is a straightforward type which does not leave much room for discussion.           Examples: crying & laughing, fire & water, question & answer, etc.   Object and Related Object Analogies           As shown the words mentioned in the example are all related to each other in some way or another. Be careful not to confuse this type of analogy with the "things that go together" analogy type which is described below. The related object in this "object and related object" analogy is an obvious relation however the object are not inseparably intertwined to one another like for example a knife and a fork. The objects in this analogy more...

     ONE WORD SUBSTITUTION             ‘One Word Substitution' as the phrase indicates itself is the word that replaces group of words or a full sentence effectively without creating any kind of ambiguity in the meaning of the sentences. Like the word- Autobiography, can be used in place of the sentence 'The life story of a man written by himself. It is very important to write precisely and speak in a single word.           Generally, we speak or write in a garrulous way. But, it is seen that precise words are always understood easily by all. At times we become verbose which is not required and we are required to talk or speak precisely. This not only makes the language easily comprehensible but also makes it beautiful. The other way, we can say that these words are used to bring an effect of compression in any kind of writing. In English language there are a lot of single words for a group of words that can be used effectively to make the writing to the point, that too without losing the meaning of the context.   SPELLING           There are some tricky English words, like necessary. Mediterranean, or rhythm whose spelling you just have to learn. But plenty of others do follow special rules. Here are some straightforward guidelines to help you with the spelling of everyday words:   PLURALS OF NOUNS           Most nouns make their plurals by simply adding -s to the end (e.g., cat/cats, book/books, journey/journeys). Some do change their endings, though.             Nouns ending in –y           If the noun ends with a consonant plus -y, make the plural by changing -y to -ies:
    Singular Plural
    berry berries
    activity activities
    da is y da is ies
                If the noun ends with- ch, -s, -sh, -x, or –z, adds –es to form the plural.
    Singular Plural
    church churches
    bus buses
    fox foxes
                        There's one exception to this rule. If the –ch ending is pronounced with a 'k' sound, you add -s rather than -es:
    Singular Plural
    stomach stomachs
    epoch epochs
                Nouns ending in -for – fe           With nouns that end in a consonant or a single vowel plus -/or -fe, change the -/or -fe to -ves:
    Singular Plural
    IDIOMS AND PHRASES/PROVERBS              The term refers to a set expression or a phrase comprising two or more words. An interesting fact regarding the device is that the expression is not interpreted literally. The phrase is understood as to mean something quite different from what individual words of the phrase would imply. Alternatively, it can be said that the phrase is interpreted in a figurative sense.           We can say that idiom is a word or phrase which means different from its literal meaning. These are common phrases or terms whose meaning are not real, but can be understood by their popular use.           It is very necessary to use idioms properly; otherwise it will bring no sense. Some idioms are only used by some groups of people or at certain times. The idiom shape up or ship out, which is like saying improve your behaviour or leave if you don't, might be said by an employer or supervisor to an employee, but not to other people.           Idioms are made of normal words that have a special meaning known by almost everyone. To learn a language a person needs to learn the words in that language, and how and when to use them. But people also need to learn idioms separately because certain words together or at certain times can have different meanings.           To know the history of an idiom can be useful and interesting, but is not necessary to be able to use the idiom properly For example most native British English speakers know that "No room to swing a cat" means "there was not a lot of space" and can use the idiom properly, but few know it.           A better understanding of an idiom is that it is a phrase whose meaning cannot be understood from the dictionary definitions of each word taken separately.   Example           "Every cloud has its silver lining but it is sometimes a little difficult to get it to the mint."           The statement quoted above uses "silver lining" as an idiom which means some auspicious moment is lurking behind the cloud or the difficult time.   FUNCTIONS OF IDIOM           The purpose behind this vast use of idioms is to ornate their language, make it richer and spicier and help them in conveying subtle meanings to their intended audience.           Not only do idioms help in making the language beautiful, they also make things better or worse through making the expression good or bad. They are at times work exact and more correct than the literal words and sometimes a few words are enough to replace a full sentence. They help the writer make his sense clearer than it is, so that he could convey maximum meanings through minimum words and also keep the multiplicity of the meanings in the text intact.           It has also been seen that idioms not only convey subtle meanings but also convey a phenomenon that is not being conveyed through normal and more...

           CONTEXTUAL USAGE       One of the difficulties in learning English language is the vocabulary. Although the words may seem simple enough to memorize, the contextual use of these words proves to be quiet challenging at times.           Did you ever find yourself in a conversation where you have no idea what the other person is saying? May be it's the person at the car repair place using words like 'carburetor' or 'camshaft,' and you just nod your head and wait for the price. Or maybe you're taking a test, and you're supposed to analyze a passage. But there are certain words in the passage you are unable to understand. You have no access to a dictionary. What do you do?           Well, we're not going to teach your car terminology. It's all about determining the meaning of the word by using context. Context refers to the other words and sentences around the word in question.           There are several methods for using context to figure out what words mean. The first is to look and see if the definition of the word is right there. This can also be a restating of the word.           Consider this sentence: 'While planning the party, Reshma was prudent with the guest list, acting with great caution and care not to invite anyone with whom she wouldn't want to jump around in a bounce house.'           What does 'prudent' mean? In this sentence, the definition of the word is right there. Who is being prudent? Reshma. With what? The guest list. You don't need to know what prudent means to figure that out. And how else is Reshma's behaviour with the guest list described? She's acting with great caution and care. So what's the definition of prudent? Acting with great caution and care.           Other times, you'll see examples that help explain the word in question. This is very similar to finding the definition. Look at this sentence: 'Ravi procrastinated to avoid his homework all day, watching TV, playing video games and even writing thank you cards to his grandparents.'           What does 'procrastinate' mean? This time, it's not defined elsewhere in the sentence. But we do have examples of what it means. We know that watching TV, playing video games and writing thank you cards are all forms of procrastination. If Ravi should be doing his homework, but he's doing these other things instead, then procrastination must mean delaying or putting off. Now, those examples helped us figure it out.   WHAT IS CONTEXTUAL PASSAGE?           The contextual passage test in problem solving assessment (PSA) is aimed to assess children's different aspects of written communication of English language that include word spelling, grammar, idioms and phrases, spot the error, one word substitution, sentence improvement, English comprehension etc.           The contextual passage tests evaluate more...

      NOUNS/ PRONOUNS/VERBS/ ADVERBS     A noun is a word that identifies:
    • a person (woman, boy, doctor, neighbour)
    • a thing (dog, building, tree, country)
    • an idea, quality, or state (truth, danger, birth, happiness).
    There are several different types of nouns, which are as follows:   COMMON NOUN           A common noun is a noun that refers to people or things in general, e.g., boy, country, bridge, city, birth, day, happiness.   PROPER NOUN           A proper noun is a name that identifies a particular person, place, or thing, e.g., Rohit, Africa, Tower Bridge, London, Monday. In written English, proper nouns begin with capital letters.   CONCRETE NOUN           A concrete noun is a noun which refers to people and to things that exist physically and can be seen, touched, smelled, heard, or tasted. Examples include, dog, building, tree, rain, beach, tune, Tower Bridge.   ABSTRACT NOUN           An abstract noun is a noun which refers to ideas, qualities, and conditions - things that cannot be seen or touched and things which have no physical reality, e.g., truth, danger, happiness, time, friendship, humour.   COLLECTIVE NOUNS           Collective nouns refer to groups of people or things, e.g., audience, family, government, team, jury. Collective nouns can usually be treated as singular or plural, with either a singular or plural verb. Both the following sentences are grammatically correct:           The whole family was at the table.           The whole family were at the table.           A noun may belong to more than one category. For example, happiness is both a common noun and an abstract noun, while Tower Bridge is both a concrete noun and a proper noun.  COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS           Nouns can be either countable or uncountable. Countable nouns (or count nouns) are those that refer to something that can be counted. Uncountable nouns (or mass nouns) do not typically refer to things that can be counted and so they do not regularly have a plural form. PRONOUNS           Pronouns are used in place of a noun that has already been mentioned or that is already known, often to avoid repeating the noun.         For example:           Rita was tired so she went to bed.           Kiran sent the children with him.           Rajat's face was close to mine.           That is a good idea.           Anything might happen.  PERSONAL PRONOUNS           Personal pronouns are used in place of nouns referring to specific people or things, for example /, me, mine, you, yours, his, her, hers, we, they, or them. They can be divided into various different categories according to their role in a sentence, as follows:
    • subjective pronouns
    • objective pronouns
    • possessive pronouns
    • reflexive pronouns
    SUBJECTIVE PRONOUNS           The personal pronouns /, you, we, he, she, it, we, and they are known as subjective pronouns because they act as more...

        ADJECTIVES/ ARTICLES/ PREPOSITIONS/ CONJUNCTIONS   ADJECTIVES              An adjective is a word that describes a noun, giving extra information about it.              For example:              a sweet taste              a red apple              a technical problem              an Italian -woman   POSITIONS OF ADJECTIVES              Most adjectives can be used in two positions: attributive adjectives occur before the noun they describe while predicative adjectives are used after certain verbs:              a black cat                 [attributive]              The cat was black.    [predicative]   Comparative and superlative adjectives              Most adjectives have three forms: the positive (e.g. sad), the comparative (e.g. sadder and the superlative [e.g. saddest). The formation of comparative and superlative adjectives (and adverbs) is known as comparison.   Gradable and non-gradable adjectives              Most adjectives are gradable. This means that you can modify (strengthen, weaken, or otherwise change) their meanings by placing one or more adverbs in front of them (e.g. a very expensive car). Non-gradable adjectives are those with meanings which cannot be modified by adverbs (e.g., western electric) Qualitative and classifying adjectives Adjectives can also be divided into two other types:
    • Qualitative adjectives describe the qualities of someone or something (e.g. tall, long, hot)
    • Classifying adjectives are used to put people or things into categories or classes (e.g. Weekly, northern external)
    ARTICLES              An article belongs to the group of words called determiners. There are two types of article: the definite article and the indefinite article.              Articles in English are complicated, and there are many rules for their use. However, learning a few general article about the use of the articles is helpful; the logic of these rules can be transferred to most uses of the article. In addition to learning the rules, you can gain a good working use of the articles through reading and listening. TABLE OF ARTICLES
    Number Indefinite Definite
    Singular a/an the
    Plural nothing the
    Non-Count nothing the
      Quick Hints              a before consonants (a book)              an before vowels (an exam)
    • Pronunciation is what matters.
                 an hour ('h' is silent and it's pronounced: an our)
    • Temporary illnesses: (I have a headache, a cold, a fever, a backache)
    • "The" with superlative forms (He is the smartest kid I have seen.)
                 Some Rules using Articles  Singular count nouns:
    • indefinite: use 'a'
    • definite: use "the"
                 My daughter wants to buy a dog this weekend. (Indefinite-Could be any dog)              The dog in the backyard is very cute. (Definite-The one in the backyard)              He requested a puppy for his birthday.              He wanted the puppy he played with more...

        VOICES AND NARRATIONS          Depending on the way in which you word a sentence, a verb can be either active or passive.           When the verb is active, the subject of the verb is doing the action, as in these examples:           France                  beat Brazil in the final.           [subject]   [active verb]           More than 300 million people speak Spanish.           [subject]   [active verb]           Ravi                      will take the matter forward.           [subject]   [active verb]           When the verb is passive, the subject undergoes the action rather than doing it:           Brazil        was beaten by France in the final.           [subject]   [passive verb]           Spanish   is spoken by more than 300 million people worldwide.           [subject]   [passive verb]           The matter            will be taken forward by Ravi.           [subject]   [passive verb]           Here, the sentences' points of view have changed: Brazil, Spanish, and the matter have become the subjects of the passive verbs was beaten, is spoken, and mil be taken. In the first example, you can see that the subject of the active verb (France) does not appear in the corresponding passive version of the sentence. In the other two passive examples, the former subjects of the active verbs {more than 300 million people; Ravi) are now introduced with the word 'by'.           The person or thing in a passive sentence that does or causes something is called the agent: more than 300 million people and Ravi are the agents of the second and third passive examples.           These two different ways of using verbs are known as voices. In everyday writing, the active voice is much more common than the passive. The passive tends to be used in formal documents such as official reports or scientific papers, often where an action or situation is regarded as more significant than who or what did or caused it:           The results were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.           A fair grading system was found to be important to all students.   PASSIVE VERB FORMS The passive is formed with tenses of the auxiliary verb 'to be' and the past participle of the main verb. Here is a table showing the passive forms for most English verbs:  
    Tense Passive Example
    present simple am/are/is+ past participle He is taken to school by his mother.
    present continuous am/are/is being+ past participle They are being bullied.
    present perfect have/has been+ past participle Have you been interviewed for many jobs?
    past simple more...
      TENSES   The concept of time can be split into:
  • The Present - What you are currently doing.
  •           I eat, I am eating
  • The Past - What you did some time back.
  •           I ate, I was eating
  • The Future - What you will do later.
  •           I will eat, I will be eating In the English language, tenses play an important role in sentence formation. The tense of a verb shows the time of an event or action. There are four types of tenses. Simple, Perfect, Continuous and Present Perfect Continuous and each of these has a present, past and future form.   PRESENT TENSES SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE In Simple Present, the action is simply mentioned and there is nothing being said about its completeness.
    • I eat.
    • I sleep.
    • I play
      PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE In Present Continuous, the action is on-going/ still going on and hence continuous.
    • I am eating.
    • I am sleeping.
    • I am playing.
      PRESENT PERFECT TENSE In Present Perfect, the action is complete or has ended and hence termed Perfect.
    • I have eaten.
    • I have slept.
    • I have played.
      PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE In Present Perfect Continuous, the action has been taking place for some time and is still ongoing.
    • I have been eating.
    • I have been sleeping.
    • I have been playing.
      PAST TENSES SIMPLE PAST TENSE In Simple Past, the action is simply mentioned and understood to have taken place in the past.
    • I ate.
    • I slept.
    • I played.
      PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE In Past Continuous, the action was ongoing till a certain time in the past.
    • I was eating.
    • I was sleeping.
    • I was playing.
      PAST PERFECT TENSE Past Perfect is used to express something that happened before another action in the past.
    • I had eaten.
    • I had slept.
    • I had played.
      PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE Past Perfect Continuous is used to express something that started in the past and continued until another time in the past.
    • I had been eating.
    • I had been sleeping.
    • I had been playing.
      FUTURE TENSES SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE Simple Future is used when we plan or make a decision to do something. Nothing is said about the time in the future.
    • I will eat.
    • I will sleep.
    • I will play.
      FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE The future continuous tense is used to express action at a particular moment in the future. However, the action will not have finished at the moment.
    • I will be eating at 9 a.m.
    • I will be sleeping when you arrive.
    • I will be playing at 5 p.m.
      FUTURE PERFECT TENSE Future Perfect expresses action that will occur more...

      COMPREHENSION (PROSE & POETRY)   READING COMPREHENSION                Being an area that tests a candidate's understanding of the language, comprehension consists of questions based on given text (a passage, one or more paragraphs). Questions may even be based on certain real-life situations to test how good a candidate is at fact-finding, sifting through information, interpreting text, concluding from given information and discerning between stated and implied meanings of the given information. Understanding of vocabulary, rhetorical tools, hunting for the required information while keeping the holistic picture in mind, etc., are essential comprehension skills at play in this area.                Poetry comprehension requires deeper understanding of the poetic devices and literary expressions. You have to be acquainted with these areas practising small passages first.   TIPS FOR POETRY COMPREHENSION
  • Realize complete understanding, as with any poem, will not come after one reading.
  • Use clues from the poem's title to identify the topic. Often the topic will not be stated explicitly in the poem.
  • Read through the poem once to get a general idea of what the poem's about. Don't try to figure it out the first time through.
  • Pay attention to punctuation and the physical structure of the poem.
  •           Consider, first, the literal meaning of the poem; that is, what is the concrete object or idea being discussed.           Once that is identified, concern yourself with analysis and symbolic meaning.
  • Analyze imagery and figurative language. What is the author's purpose?
  • Identify parts of the poem that confuse you. Can you use the poem's context to interpret confusing parts?
  • Consider multiple ways of interpreting the poem. There may be more than one correct interpretation.
  • Read the poem aloud. Sound devices are often clues to the poem's meaning.
  • The role of vocabulary development and instruction play an important role in helping students to understand the complex cognitive process of reading.
  • The reader must be actively involved with the text by intentionally thinking about what he or she is reading.
  •           To comprehend means 'to understand and grasp'. A comprehension exercise is, therefore, meant to test a candidate's ability to understand and retain the contents of a given passage.   Trend of Questions: In this type of questions, generally a long passage consisting of certain paragraphs is given, followed by 10-15 questions based on it. The questions may be based on:           (i) Theme of the passage           (ii) Choosing the correct or wrong statement on the basis of the given passage           (iii) View of the author regarding the main point discussed in the passage           (iv) Synonyms or Antonyms of some selected words in the passage   The technique of Solving:
  • Read the passage carefully once and detect its theme.
  • Note what the questions are about.
  • Answer the questions.
  • "In Questions on Synonyms & Antonyms, what is to be remembered is that the answer is to be given according to the more...

    You need to login to perform this action.
    You will be redirected in 3 sec spinner