Current Affairs 8th Class

  ADVERTISEMENTS GRAPHS/IMAGES   DEFINITION           Advertising brings a product (or service) to the attention of potential and current customers. Advertising is focused on one particular product or service. Thus, an advertising plan for one product might be very different from that for another product. Advertising is typically done with signs, brochures, commercials, direct mailings or e-mail messages, personal contact, etc.           Advertising is the activity of drawing public attention to a product or service in order to encourage people to buy it.   CREATING AN ADVERTISEMENT           It seems very difficult to craft a perfect advertisement to entice potential consumers or influence public opinion.           But the right way to make a good advertisement is to keep simple. An ad sums up everything that is smart, innovative, and distinguished about your brand, and is almost indispensable in today's economic marketplace.   WRITING THE ADVERTISEMENT           Advertisers create ads for an intended audience. They have a purpose behind designing an advertisement and publishing it in a particular way. Advertising affects people in different ways. People today are exposed to a large amount of advertising.           A catchy, snappy tagline is the sole of an advertisement. Keeping short and sweet within six or seven words might serve the purpose. Loud sounding advertisements appeal less to our senses. The immediate purpose of advertisement is to garb the consumer's attention and convince him or her that your product is different from others.   AVOID THE SAME OLD CLICHES           Being memorable is the key to good advertisement. Avoid terms like-new and improved, guaranteed, or free gift-is there any other kind?
  • Startle the reader to pay attention because it is especially useful if you have a lot to say. For example long announcement wouldn't turn many heads if it weren't for the unusual, confrontational tagline; if the reader wants to get the joke, she or he has to read more.
  • Know how to walk the line between controversial and entertaining. Pushing the limits of good taste to help your ad grab attention is common practice, but don't go too far — you want your product to be recognised on its own merits, not because it was tied to a tasteless advertisement.
  • Use a persuasive technique. There are tried and true methods that advertisers rely on to make their ads stick.
These include:
  • Common sense: Challenging the consumer to think of a good reason why not to purchase a your product or service.
  • Humour: Making the consumer laugh, make you more likeable and memorable. Your advertised lines should be short.
  • Repetition: Repeating key elements will bring good results.
  • Exigency: Convincing the consumer that time is of the essence. Limited-time only offers, fire sales, and the likes are the commonest ways to do this, but again, avoid meaningless phrases that will slip under your customers' radar.
  • Know the customer. Even the cleverest more...

  DRAWING CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES   DEFINITION           When we read a text, the author does not always tell us everything. The author may leave out details on purpose. He may also depend on the reader’s general knowledge to fill in the blanks.           Inference: an idea that is suggested by the facts or details in a passage.           Conclusion: a decision about what may happen or about the result an event may have           Making an inference and drawing a conclusion are very similar skills. Ach requires the reader to fill in the blanks left out by the author. An author may not include information for several reasons: they may think you already know it, it may not seem important to them, or they may want you to find the result.   How to make an inference or draw a conclusion
  • Observe all the facts, arguments, and information given by the author
  • Consider what you already know from you own experience
  • When faced with multiple choice answers, determine whether each is true or false based on the information in the passage
Example           The woman waited nervously in the line. When the counter was empty, she carefully unloaded her items from her cart. Lines creased her forehead as if to show the calculations ringing up in her head. Finally, the cashier began ringing up the items as the woman clutched her purse.           Inference/ conclusion: The woman may not have enough money to cover the cost of her groceries
  • Think about the fact of the passage and what may result from them
  • Think about causes and effects
          The writer may only provide a list of effects, so you have to figure out the cause.           The child stood on the sidewalk clenching her ice cream cone. Beads of sweat collected on her little nose as she furiously licked at the ice cream dripping down her hand.           Inference/ conclusion: IT must be hot day because her ice cream is melting, and she is sweating.
  • Try saying “If…. then"
          If the girl is sweating, then it may be warm outside.   Remember
  • Most writing suggests more than it says
  • By making inference, you get more from the story.
  • Conclusions may be missing from the things you read, so you have to draw your own
  PRACTICE ACTIVITIES           Sujata almost wished that she hadn't listened to the radio. She went to the closet and grabbed her umbrella. She would feel silly carrying it to the bus stop on such a sunny morning.
  • What probably happened?
  •                (a) Sujata realised that she had an unnatural fear of falling radio parts.                (b) Sujata had promised herself to do something silly that morning.                (c) Sujata had heard a weather forecast that predicted rain.                more...

      PARA JUMBLES   DEFINITION The section deals with the problems of Jumbled paragraph and sentences and sentence and phrase arrangement of the given phrases or sentences. The student has to choose a logical sequence to make a meaningful sentence or paragraph. This form of exercise tests the student's ability to           (a) Figure out the logic of the events           (b) Sequence of different parts of a combination according to correct grammatical usage. In either sentence or paragraph structuring, the student has to check which part follows the other according to the logical theme of the sentence/paragraph.           (a) Phrase arrangement or Jumbled Sentence.           (b) Sentence arrangement or Jumbled Paragraph.           In a jumbled sentence, a sentence is broken into four parts and the student has to figure out, the right sequence to form a logical, sensible sentence. Consider the following example.   Example I.           P: by her indulgent parents           Q: the child was so spoiled           R: when she did not receive all of their attention           S: that she pouted and became sullen           (a) RQPS                          (b) QRPS           (c) QPSR                          (d) QSPR             In this question, a single sentence has been broken into four different parts and the student has to find out the logical sequence of the sentence. In order to do that, consider the following.         Strategy I: Decide on the opening phrase, first. The opening part of the sentence will usually contain the subject of the sentence. So locate the subject and select that part as the first in sequence. Now, select all options in the answer that begin with the part you have chosen as the first.           In example 1, the subject is the child and the opening part will be Q, thus, we can eliminate option (a). Now, since the subject is passive, the verb form will be followed by 'by' and the doer. So, find the second part beginning with by and containing the doer of the action which in this case is P. Thus, we can reach the right answer, option (c).         Strategy II: If the Subject is passive, mostly, the following part will begin with 'by and contain the doer of the action in the sentence.   Example II.           Unsurpassed power (P)/modern society (Q)/in (R)/ women enjoy (S)           (a) RQPS                          (b) SRPQ           (c) SPRQ                          (d) PSRQ             The subject of the sentence is women so the opening part would be S. Thus, we have to choose between options (b) and (c). The subject in this sentence is active. So, we must find the object which will be the next Part. In the given question, the object is unsurpassed power. Thus, the answer is (c).         Strategy III: When the subject is active, follow the sequence- SUBJECT - VERB - OBJECT         Strategy IV: Preposition is more...

      PARAGRAPH COMPLETION   DEFINITION             Paragraph Completion has been an important component of the verbal section. For those who have not had any encounter with paragraph completion in the past, it refers to the question type where a paragraph is given and a sentence from the given paragraph is removed (In most of the cases, the last sentence is removed).             All you have to do is to complete the paragraph i.e., you have to choose the option which completes the given paragraph in the best manner from the given options.             Solving Passage Completion questions is all about how much one can comprehend from the given paragraph. The more you understand the paragraph, the easier it becomes for you to solve the question. It becomes easier for you to solve these types of questions if you are a good reader.             Go through the paragraph and try to catch the essence of the paragraph. Figure out what the paragraph is all about. Try to understand the keywords used in the passage.             Some Important Pointers to keep in mind while solving a PC question             There are no pre-defined formulaes to solve Passage Completion type questions. But there are some important points we need to remember while solving them.             (1) Find the essence of the passage             Once you are able to find it, Passage Completion would become an easy affair.             (2) Notice the tone of the passage             Think about it. If an author is being sarcastic in his writing, wouldn't it be logical to choose the option which has sarcasm in it? Remember however that there might be multiple options that comply with the author's tone.             Hence, always keep in mind that Tone is Important but not the only criteria.             (3) Do not pick an option that brings an external idea             Never pick an option which talks about things that are not mentioned in the paragraph. The correct option will be the one which relates itself to the core information mentioned in the paragraph.             (4) Reject the options that are contradictory             Whenever you see an option which contradicts the idea of passage, eliminate it.             (5) Maintain the flow of the paragraph             Always make sure you are maintaining the flow of ideas in the passage. Never pick an option which breaks or suddenly changes the flow to some other direction.             (6) Pay Special Attention to the line before the blank             The line before the blank pays an important role in PC. Sometimes, the correct option is the one which is in agreement with that line. So it would be wise if one also pays close attention to what that line is talking about.

     SITUATION REACTION TEST   DEFINITION             Situation Reaction Tests (SRTs) are a type of psychological test which present the test-taker with realistic, hypothetical scenarios and ask the individual to identify the most appropriate response or to rank the responses in the order they feel is most effective. SRTs can be presented to test-takers through a variety of modalities, such as booklets, films, or audio recordings. SRTs represent a distinct psychometric approach from the common knowledge-based multiple choice item.             SRTs tend to determine behavioural tendencies, assessing how an individual will behave in a certain situation, and knowledge instruction, which evaluates the effectiveness of possible responses. These tests could also reinforce the status quo with an organization.             Unlike most psychological tests SRTs are not acquired 'off-the-shelf, but are in fact designed as a bespoke tool, tailor-made to suit the individual role requirements. This is because SRTs are not a type of test with respect to their content, but are a method of designing tests.             The validity of the test corresponds to the types of questions being asked. Knowledge instruction questions correlate more highly with general mental ability while behavioural tendency questions correlate more highly with personality.             Students' knowledge of interpersonal behaviour showed progressive validity over cognitive factors for predicting academic and post academic success. There are many problems within scoring SRTs. "Attempts to address this issue include expert-novice differences, where an item is scored in the direction favouring the experts after the average ratings of experts and novices on each item are compared; expert judgment, where a team of experts decides the best answer to each question; target scoring, where the test author determines the correct answer; and consensual scoring, where a score is allocated to each option according to the percentage of people choosing that option."             No special training, knowledge, or experience is required in order to take this type of test. A candidate's answers should draw on general knowledge and life experience only.             During the test it is important that you read each scenario and each possible response, before answering the question or assigning rankings. The first option available may seem very sensible, but it is important to avoid assigning any rankings until you have considered each option carefully. For example, the last option available may be an even more sensible option and the most effective response.             Bear in mind that you are not being asked to judge if an option is right or wrong, just to evaluate which is the best (and worst) option available to you from those provided. For questions that ask you to rank responses in number order, it is important to note that the ranking is relative. All the available options may be effective, or they may all be ineffective. It is your job to decide on the relative rank, rather than to decide if each option more...

    SYNONYMS & ANTONYMS       This is another very important of the vocabulary section. This section tests widely and exhaustively one’s knowledge of the language and word power, but goes beyond that to test your ability to remember words with similar meanings  or opposite meanings. Or, alternately, to discover the similarity or proximity between the meaning of the given word with one of those in the options.   STRATEGY-1           If you do not know the meaning of the word, think of context in which you might have used it, that may help you to figure out the meaning, for example, in the question find the word nearest in meaning to   MAGNIFY           (a) Forgive (b) diminish (c) swell (d) extract           Now if you do not know what magnify means think of a magnifying glass and what it does. It expands or makes a thing look bigger. So the right answer will be (c).   STRATEGY-2           If you cannot find a correct antonym in the given option think of the antonyms you know of and subsequently check if there is any word in the given options which is synonymous to the antonyms in your mind. For example   INDUSTRIOUS           (a) stupid (b) harsh (c) indolent (d) complex.           If you don’t know any of the words given as options think of antonyms you could think of, like lazy, idle. Now think of synonyms of lazy and you will know indolent is a synonym of lazy. So it will be the antonym to industrious. Formula\[\to \] SYNONYM of ANTONYM is another ANTONYM.   STRATEGY-3           Look at the part of speech of the given verb. A word may exist in various parts of speech. For example precipitate exists a verb which means send rapidly into a certain state and also as a noun, precipitate, which means a substance deposited from a solution.   POLISH           (a) ruthlessness               (b) honesty           (c) indolence                  (d) gaucheness             Now is this the verb polish or noun polish. Since all options are nouns, this cannot be the verb polish related to shoes but noun polish which means culture and sophistication and the antonym to this would be gaucheness.   HOMONYMS AND HOMOPHONES           A homonym is a word that has different meanings. In the strict sense, one of a group of words that share the same spelling and pronunciation but have different meanings. Homonyms also called homophones are words that sound like one another but have different meanings. Some homonyms are spelled the same, like, bark the sound a dog makes and bark- the outer layer of tree trunk. Some homonyms are spelled differently, like one (the number) and won (having been victorious). Homonym and homophone both include words that are pronounced alike and have different spellings, and also words that are spelled alike and have different meanings. Homonyms, or multiple meaning words, more...

     Rational Numbers  
    • Natural numbers (N)
    1, 2, 3, 4,.... etc., are called natural numbers, denoted by N.  
    • Whole numbers (W)
    All natural numbers together with zero are called whole numbers, denoted by W. W = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4,......}  
    • Integers (Z)
    All whole numbers together with negatives of natural numbers are called integers, denoted by Z. Z = {.....-4,-3,-2,-1, 0.1.2, 3, 4,...} (i) -1, -2, -3, - 4,…..  are called negative integers. (ii) 1,2,3,4 ... are called positive integers.             Note: Zero is neither positive nor negative.  
    • The numbers of the form -\[\frac{a}{b}\], where 'a' and 'b' are natural numbers are called fractions.
    e.g., \[\frac{3}{5},\frac{7}{11},\frac{13}{213}\],….etc.  
    • The numbers of the form \[\frac{p}{q}\], where 'p' and 'q' are integers and 'q'\[\ne \]0 are called rational numbers, denoted by Q.
    \[\frac{-3}{5},\frac{7-}{-11},\frac{-13}{-213}\],….etc.   Properties of rational numbers
    • Closure property of addition: The sum of two rational numbers is always a rational number.
    • Commutative law of addition: For any two rational numbers \['a'\] and 'b', a + b = b + a.
    • Associative law of addition: For any three rational numbers 'a'. 'b' and 'c', (a + b) + c = a + (b + c).
    • Existence of additive identity: Zero is the additive identity.
    For any rational number 'a', a + 0 = 0 + a = a  
    • Existence of additive inverse: For each rational number \['a'\], there exists a rational number \['-a'\] such that +(-a) =(-a) +a is the additive inverse of \['a'\]
    • Closure property for multiplications: The product of two rational numbers.
    • Commutative law of multiplication: For any three rational numbers \['a'\],\['b'\]and \['c'\](ab)c For any rational                                                                                                                                                                                                                                number \['a'\],1.a=a.1=a.
    • Existence of multiplication identity: 1 is called the multiplication identity.
    • Existence of multiplicative inverse: Every non – Zero rational number \['a'\] has its multiplicative inverse\[\frac{1}{a}\].
    Note: Zero is a rational number which has no multiplicative inverse.
    • Distributive law
    • of multiplication over addition:
      For rational numbers \['a'\,and\,'b'\]and \['c'\]a (b + c) = ab+ ac  
    • Rational numbers can be represented on a number line.
    • Between any two rational numbers, there exist infinitely many rational numbers.
    • To find rational numbers between any two given rational numbers, we find average or mean.    

     Linear Equations in One Variable  
    • Equation: An equation is a statement of equality of two algebraic expressions involving one or more unknown quantities (variables).
    • Linear equation in one variable: If an equation involves only one variable and the highest index of power of that variable is 1, the equation is called a linear equation in one variable.
    The general form of a linear equation in variable x is a\[x\]+ b = 0, a\[\ne \]0 or px = q, p \[\ne \]0  
    • Laws of Equality
    (i) The same quantity may be added to or subtracted from both sides of an equation without changing the equality. Thus, if a = b, a +c= b +c a - c= b – c (ii) If a = b then a - b = 0 (or b - a = 0). That is, given an equality any term from one side may be transfered to the other side by changing its sign. (Law of transposition)   (iii) lf a= b then ac = be \[\frac{a}{c}=\frac{b}{c}\],(c\[\ne \]0). That is, given an equality, both the sides can be multiplied by the same number or divided by the same nonzero number. If \[\frac{a}{c}=\frac{b}{c}\]then multiplying both sides by bd we have ad = bc. (rule of crosswise multiplication) (iv) If ac = be a = b provided c\[\ne \] 0. (Law of cancellation) That is, both sides of an equality can be divided by the same nonzero number.  
    • The solution of a linear equation may be any rational number.
    • The expressions forming equations have to be simplified before solving them. Some equations may not be linear but can be brought to a linear form by multiplying both its sides by a suitable expression.

     Understanding Quadrilaterals  
    • Quadrilateral: A closed figure bounded by four line segments is called a quadrilateral. It has four angles and four sides.
    • Classification of polygons
    Sample Figure
    Numbers of sides, Vertices of the shape 3,3,0. Triagle 4,4,2 Quadrilateral 5,5,5 Pentagon 6,6,9 Hexagon more...
    Data Handling  
    • Data: The word data means information in the form of numerical figures or a set of given information.
    • Raw data: Data obtained in the original form is called a raw data.
    • Array: Arranging the numerical figures of a data in ascending or descending order is called an array.
    • Tabulation: Arranging the data in a systematic tabular form is called tabulation or presentation of the data.
    • Observation: Each numerical figure in a data is called an observation.
    • Frequency: The number of times a particular observation occurs is called its frequency.
    • Range: The difference between the highest and the lowest values of the observations in a given data is called its range.
    • Frequency distribution: A table showing the frequencies of various observations of data is called a frequency distribution or simply a frequency table.
    • Tally marks
    (i) When the number of observations is large, we make use of tally marks to find the frequencies. (ii) Tallies are usually marked in a bunch of five for the sake of easy counting.  
    • Grouped data
    (i) When the list of observations is long, the data is usually organised into groups called class intervals and the data so obtained is called a grouped data. (ii) The lower value of a class interval is called its lower limit and the upper value is called its upper limit. (iii) The difference between the upper and lower class limits is called the width or the size of the class interval. (iv) The mid-value of a class interval is called its class mark.  
    • Graphical representation
    (i) Histogram: A histogram is a pictorial representation of the grouped data in which class intervals are taken along the horizontal axis and class frequencies along the vertical axis and for each class a rectangle is constructed with the class interval as the base and the class frequency as the height. There is no gap between the bars in a histogram as there is no gap between the class intervals. (ii) Bar graph: In a bar graph, bars of uniform width are drawn with various heights. The height of a column represents the frequency of the corresponding observation.   (iii) Double bar graph: A double bar graph shows two sets of data simultaneously. It is useful to compare data related to two variables.                                                                             
    • In a pie-chart, the values of different components are represented by the sectors of a circle. The total angle of \[{{360}^{o}}\] at the centre of a circle is divided according to the values of the components.
    \[\operatorname{Central}\,\,angle\,for\,a\,\,component=\frac{Value\,of\,the\,component}{Total\,value} 36{{0}^{o}}\]
    • Experiment: An experiment is a more...

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