Current Affairs 8th Class

Classification

Classification   Learning Objectives
• Classification
• Classification based on letters
• Classification based on words
• Classification based on numbers
• Classification based on general knowledge
• Miscellaneous classification
What is classification? Classification can be defined as a process of grouping various objects on the basis of their common properties. It helps in sorting out an odd thing or object from a group. In I reasoning, the questions asked on classification are generally are of following types:
• Classification based on letters
• Classification based on words
• Classification based on numbers
• Classification based on general knowledge
• Miscellaneous classification
Classification based on letters Such classification is based on letters of English alphabet. So many groups of letters are given in the question in which one group is different from remaining group and hence, the different group will be our answer.   Example 1
• Find the odd man out of the following options.
• (a) OPQTU                    (b) TUVYZ         (c) CD EH I                   (d) HIJ NO (e) EFGJK Answer: (d) Explanation: (a)        (b)                   (c)          (d)                   (e)      As it is clear that except option is (d), all the other options have a gap of 2 letters between 3rd and 4th letter and the 1st three and last two letters are in consecutive order. While in case of option (d), 1st three letters and last two letters are in consecutive order but there is a gap of 3 letters between 3rd and 4th letter. This is the reason why option (d) separates itself out of the remaining options. Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.
• Example 2
• Find out the option which does not fit into this group.
• (a) TCDBL-LBDCT                     (b) ZPTGE-EGTPZ (c) MPGLMA-AMLMPG              (d) CDPQ-QPDC (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: In this case option (c) is different from others because except (c), in other options, the 2nd part is reverse of the 1st part. Therefore, it is clear that (c) does not fit into the group.   Commonly Asked Questions
• Find the odd one out.
• (a) E O I                        (b) A I U (c) E U A                       (d) P Q R (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: Option (d) is correct because it is a group of consonants while options (a), (b) and (c) are groups of vowels. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d)
• Which of the following does not match with the group?
• (a) TPQQPT                  (b) MGRRGM (c) NCRNCR                   (d) BEFFEB (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: Option (c) is correct because in all other options, the last three letters are more...

Directoin Test

Direction Test   Learning Objectives
• Direction
• Types of question based on direction
Direction There are four main directions - East, West, North and South as shown below; There are four cardinal directions - North-East (N-E), North-West, (N-W), South-East (S-E) and South-West (S-W) as shown below:
• At the time of sunrise, if a man stands facing the east, his shadow will be toward west.
• At the time of sunset the shadow of an object is always in the east.
• If a man stands facing the North, at the time of sunrise his shadow will be towards his left and at the time of sunset it will be towards his right.
• At 12: 00 noon, the rays of the sun are vertically downward hence there will be no shadow.
• In this part of reasoning, questions can be asked about the direction of a person or the distance travelled by a person in a particular direction. On this basis, generally, following types of questions can be asked.   Type - I
• Example 1
• After walking 6 km in a direction, I tuned to the right and then walked 2 km. After then I turned to the left and walked 10 km. In the end, I was moving towards the North. I started my journey moving in which direction?
• (a) North                        (b) South (c) East                          (d) West (e) None of these Answer: (a) Explanation: The following path can be drawn on the basis of given information. It is clear from the figure that I started my journey moving in the North direction.
• Example 2
• Rohan walks a distance of 3 km towards north, then turns to his left and walks 2 km. He again turns left and walks for 3 km. At this pint he turns to his left again and walks for 3 km. How far is he from the starting point?
• (a) 1 km                                    (b) 2 km (c) 3 km                                     (d) 4 km (e) None of these Answer: (a) Explanation: From figure, it is clear that OD is required distance which is 1 km.
• Example 3
• One morning Sujata started to walk towards the Sun. After covering some distance she turned to right. She move for a while and again turns to the right. Now in which direction is she facing?
• (a) North                                  (b) South (c) East                                      (d) West (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: Hence, finally Sujata will face towards West,   Type - II PASSAGE Each of the following questions is based on the given information:
• Six flats on a floor more...

• Coding Decoding

Coding - Decoding   Learning Objectives
• Introduction
• Coding - Decoding
• Types of Questions
Introduction The term Coding-Decoding primarily relates with message sent in secret form which cannot be understood by others easily. Coding, therefore, means rule or method used to hide the actual meaning of a word or group of words and decoding means the methods of finding out the actual message that is disguised in the code.   Coding-Decoding Coding is done by changing a word or a term or a name or any value into a secret language. The process of finding the original term or word from the coded form of a word is called decoding. The questions asked in examinations are generally based on decoding a code on the basis of a given code or generating a code on the basis of a code for another word. Let’s discuss the questions.   Type - I In this type of question, a code is to be generated for a word or a term on the basis of the code of the given word.
• Example 1
• If SABOTAGE is coded as UADOVAIE, how will EMERGENCY be coded in the same manner?
• (a) GMGRIEPCA           (b) GMGREPCA (c) BNBQFDOBZ            (d) EOETGGNEY (e) None of these    Answer: (a)                                                          Explanation: The word is coded by only moving the alphabets at odd position two steps forward.   Similarly,
• Example 2
• In a certain code FINGER is written as DGLECP, what will be the code for KIDNEY?
• (a) IGBLCW                  (b) IGCLBW (c) IBCGLE                   (d) IGBKCV (e) None of these Answer: (a) Explanation: The word is coded by moving the letters two steps backward. Similarly, Commonly Asked Questions
• In a certain code 'QUESTION' is written as 'NXBVQLLQ'. How will 'REPLY' be coded?
• (a) YHMOV                  (b) OBMVI (c) VHSOB                                (d) OHMOV (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: The letters of the word are coded by moving three steps backward and three steps forward alternately. Similarly,   SCIENTIST is coded in a certain language as ICSTNETSI. AMBULANCE will be coded in the same language as: (a) MBUALNACA           (b) BMAALUECN (c) MAUBALCNE           (d) UBMLAECNA (e) None of these Answer: (b) Explanation: The word is divided into three equal sections, and the letters in each section are moved backward. Similarly,             Type - II In this type of questions, coding of words is done by writing their letters in reverse order.
• Example 1
If in a certain language KINDLE is coded as more...

Inserting Missing Number

Inserting Missing Number   Learning Objectives
• Inserting the Missing Numbers
Inserting the Missing Numbers   In such type of questions, a figure, a set of figures or a matrix is given, each of which bears certain characters, and be it numbers, letters or a group of letters / numbers following a certain pattern. The candidate is required to decipher this pattern and accordingly find the missing character in the figure.   Example 1 (a) 5                                          (b) 6 (c) 8                                          (d) 9 (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: The sum of numbers on right and centre subtracted from the number on the left gives the number at the bottom, i.e. $93-\left( 27+63 \right)=3;\text{ }79-\left( 38+37 \right)=4,$ Similarly, $67-\left( 16+42 \right)=9$
• Example 2
(a) 3                             (b) 8 (c) 10                                        (d) 14 (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: Letter R is 18th in order of alphabetical series. So the product of vertically opposite numbers + 18 (R) = the sum of two horizontally opposite number, i.e., $(28\times ~23)+18=173+489$ $644+18=662$ $662=662$ Letter C is 3rd in order, so $(54~\times 15)+3=342+471$ $810+3=813$ $813=813$ Similarly, letter D is 4th in order $(1\times ~11)+4=5+?$ $11+4=5+?$ $15=5+?$ or  $5+?=15$ So'           $?=15-5=10$     Commonly Asked Question   (a) 31                            (b) 229 (c) 234                          (d) 312 (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: The number at the bottom is the product of two numbers at the top, i.e., $13~\times 17=221$ $12\times ~19=228,$ Similarly, $13~\times 18=234$   (a) 693                                      (b) 939 (c) 981                                      (d) 993 (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: The squares of two numbers on the top placed side by side gives the number inside the bottom triangle, i.e., ${{6}^{2}}$ and ${{3}^{2}}=369$ ${{2}^{2}}$ and ${{5}^{2}}=425,$ Similarly, ${{3}^{2}}$ and ${{9}^{2}}=981.$

Statement Analysis

Statement Analysis   Learning Objectives
• Statement Analysis
• Solved Examples
Statement Analysis In this action of reasoning certain facts are broken up in few sentences. One should read the statement carefully, so as to arrange them and sort out the given facts.
• Example 1
Ashok is heavier than Gopal. Mahesh is lighter than Jayesh. Prashant is heavier than Jayesh but lighter than Gopal. Who among them is the heaviest? (a) Gopal                       (b) Jayesh (c) Prashant                               (d) Ashok (e) Mahesh Answer; (d) Explanation: On the basis of weight, the descending order will be: Ashok, Gopal, Prashant, Jayesh, Mahesh.   Direction (For example 2 - 3): Read the following information and answer the question that follow it: Paul is taller than Michel, but shorter than Andy. Sam is taller than Michael but shorter than Gary.
• Example 2
Who is the tallest? (a) Andy                        (b) Gary (c) Andy or Gary            (d) Can not be determined (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: On arranging: Andy > Paul > Michael Gary > Sam > Michael So, data is insufficient to determine that who is the tallest.
• Example 3
Who is the shortest? (a) Paul                         (b) Sam (c) Gary                         (d) Michael (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: Michael is the shortest.
• Example 4
Ajay works more than Ram. Alok works as much as Raju. Pankaj works less than Alok. Ram works more than Alok. Who works the most of all? (a) Ajay                         (b) Pankaj (c) Alok                                     (d) Raju (e) None of these Answer: (a) Explanation: On the basis of work done/ the descending order will be: Ajay, Ram, Alok/Raju, Pankaj.   Direction (For example 5-7): Study the following information carefully and then answer the questions given below it:   (i)   Six persons P, Q, R, S, T, and U are residing in the same apartment. (ii)   Out of six persons, three are Judges, one Painter and one Dramatist. (iii)   In the group, there are two married couples. No male member in the group is a Painter or a Dramatist. (iv)   U is in his old age and he lives with his married son R. (v)   Among the three Judges, husband of S, with whom his old aged father lives, earn more than T, who in turn gets more pay than Q. (vi)   The wife of one of the Judges is a Dramatist. (vii)  The Painter earns less than her husband, who in turn earns the least among the Judges. (viii) The Dramatist earns least in the group.
• Example 5
Who is unmarried Judge in the group? (a) Q                             (b) T (c) C                                         (d) Cannot be determined (e) None of these
• Example 6
Who among the following gets the highest salary? (a) more...

Statement Conclusion

Statement - Conclusion   Learning Objectives
• Statement - Conclusion
• Rules
Conclusions Conclusions are inferences that can be drawn on the basis of the information given in the statement. In these type of questions, a candidate is asked to decide whether a given inference follows or not in the light of the given statement or passage. For example, Shravan - Let's go to a restaurant. Prakash - I have only Rs. 100. What is your conclusion? - Shravan and Prakash cannot go to a restaurant. But why? Because nothing comes in Rs. 100 in a restaurant. But how do you know this? You don't. You should keep in mind that never bring outside information into your reading of a decision making problem. Let's understand how should we reach a conclusion. For this, follow the simple rules given below:   Rule 1 Don't assume information, facts unless it is a universal truth.
• Example 1
Statement: People should not give false information to an officer of law. Conclusion: They should be honest. Explanation: The conclusion here is based on universal accepted fact that 'honesty is the best policy'. So, it follows the statement.   Rule 2 A probably true conclusion has no place and you should treat that as 'does not follow'.
• Example 2
Statement: If we bring black money back from abroad, it will lead to country's development. Conclusion: Black money will help in funding our ongoing development projects. Explanation: Here, the conclusion may be true and may not be true. So, it is a case of 'probable true' conclusions. Hence, it does not follow the statement.   Rule 3 Make sure you are not bringing outside information into your questions.
• Example 3
Statement: A player should have the capacity to deal with pressure and control aggression. Conclusion: Mary Kom, who is a great boxer, has all the above qualities. Explanation: In the above conclusion, the author is bringing outside information (about Mary Kom), so it does not follow the statement.   Rule 4 Pay attention to the keywords such as - 'only', 'any' 'if and only if, 'either', 'neither', 'all', 'must', 'never', 'always' etc.
• Example 4
Statement: Parents are ready to pay any price for admission in a good public school for their children. Conclusion: All the parents are well-off these days. Explanation: Since all parents are not very well off, so the conclusion is not true/ use of all makes it invalid. If 'some' would have been used, instead of 'all’ then it might have been true.   Rule 5 For any new scheme, policy, even for an organisation which has been newly introduced, it can be concluded that there is a need for that scheme, or policy or an organisation. It can also be concluded that people will welcome it and there are all the essential more...

Rule Detection

Rule Detection   Learning Objectives
• Rule Detection
• Types of Questions
Rule Detection   In this type of question, a set of figures is given which follow the same rule. On the basis of this rule, the answer figure is to be selected. There are mainly two types of questions asked on this topic.   Type - I In this kind of questions, a rule has been given in the form of a statement and on the basis of this rule a set of figures is to be detected following the rule.   Example 1 Rule: Closed figure becomes more and more open. (a)      (b)      (c)      (d)      (e) None of these Answer: (a) Explanation: The number of lines making the closed figure decreases at every step.   Example 2 Rule: Closed figure becomes more and more open and open figure becomes more and more closed. (a)      (b)      (c)      (d)      (e) None of these Answer: (a) Explanation: The square which is a closed figure looses one side at each step and the arc which is an open figure gradually becomes a circle.   Commonly Asked Questions   Rule: The number of straight lines forming the geometrical pattern goes on increasing. (a)     (b)      (c)      (d)     (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: The number of straight line forming the geometrical pattern is 3, 4, 5 and 6.   Rule: The series become complex as it proceeds. (a)      (b)     (c)      (d)      (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: The number of lines inside the square is increased at each step making the series complex as it proceeds.   Type - II In this type of questions, a set of figures is given in a matrix. All figures in the matrix follows the same rule. To solve these questions, one should look at the figures in matrix carefully and on the basis of this rule, find the figure that fits in the blank box.   Example 1 (a)              (b) more...

Coal and Petroleum

Coal and Petroleum   Coal Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock. It is a fossil fuel. It is composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen along with small quantities of other elements, notably sulphur. It is a nonrenewable resource.   Coal Formation                                                                   Coal is a sedimentary rock formed from plants that flourished millions of years (about 300 million) ago when tropical swamps covered large areas of the world. Lush vegetation, such as early club mosses, horsetails, and enormous ferns, thrived in these swamps. Generations of this vegetation died and settled to the swamp bottom and over time the organic material lost oxygen and hydrogen, leaving the material with a high percentage of carbon. Layers of mud and sand accumulated over the decomposed plant matter, compressing and hardening the organic material as the sediments deepened. Over millions of years, deepening sediment layers, known as overburden, exerted tremendous heat and pressure on the underlying plant matter, which eventually became coal.   Types of Coal                                                                Peat               Lignite     Bituminous    Anthracite   As geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic matter over time, under suitable conditions it is transformed successively into: Peat: It is considered to be a precursor of coal, has industrial importance as a fuel in some regions, for example, Ireland and Finland. Lignite: It is also referred as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for electric power generation. Bituminous: It is dense rock which is usually black but sometimes dark brown, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke. Anthracite: It is the highest rank of coal; a harder, glossy, black coal used primarily for give some other use.   Petroleum It is naturally occurring liquid. It is, also known as crude oil, a fossil fuel, formed over a period of millions of years, from organisms that lived in the sea at that time. Their dead bodies sank to the bottom of sea and were covered with mud and sand. Due to high pressure, heat, in the absence of air, the dead remains of tiny plants and animals were slowly converted into petroleum. The process of separating crude petroleum oil into more useful fractions is called refining. The various useful fractions obtained by the refining of petroleum are: Petroleum gas. Petrol, Kerosene, Diesel, Lubricating oil. Paraffin wax and bitumen.   Combustion It is a process of rapid oxidation or burning of a substance in the presence of oxygen to produce heat and light. Requirements for the occurrence of combustion are:
• Presence of combustible substance
• Presence of supporter of combustion (like air or oxygen).
• Heating the combustible substance to its ignition temperature.
Fuel Fuel, substance that reacts chemically with another more...

Conservation Plants and Animals

Conservation of Plants and Animals   Conservation It is the protection of natural resources like plants, animals, soil, water, fossil fuels etc. and the sustainable use of such resources. Natural resources are grouped into two categories: renewable resource is the one that may be replaced over the time by natural processes such as fish populations, natural vegetation or is inexhaustible such as the solar energy. Nonrenewable resources are those which are limited in supply and cannot be replaced even over extremely long period of time. The nonrenewable resources include fossil fuels and mineral deposits, such as iron ore and gold ore. Conservational activities for the nonrenewable resources focus on maintaining an adequate supply of these resources well in the future.                 Natural resources are conserved for their biological, economical and recreational values, as well as their natural beauty and importance to the local cultures. For example, tropical rainforests are protected for their important role in both the global ecology and the economic livelihood of the local culture. A coral reef may be protected for its recreational value for scuba divers and a scenic river may be protected for its natural beauty.   Biodiversity A wild range of different types of organisms which grow, multiply and thrive naturally, are found at any given time in a particular habitat. We should conserve forests and wildlife to preserve biodiversity to prevent endangered species from becoming extinct and to maintain ecological balance in nature.   Deforestation     Deforestation means large scale removal of forest prior to its replacement by other land uses Forests are removed for a variety of reasons, including agriculture, timber harvesting, mining and to make way for roads, dams and human settlements.   Protected Areas Protected areas are the areas of land or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biodiversity. These are managed through legal means and have been set up within the legal frame work of Indian wildlife (Protection) Act.1972. Examples of protected areas are national parks and wildlife sanctuaries.   National Parks A national park is a large area dedicated to conserve the environment, natural resources and the wildlife therein. In a national park,
• Private rights are non-existent.
• Forestry operations, grazing of animals and hunting of animals are prohibited.
• Visitors are allowed to enter only for study, cultural and re-creative purposes.
• Exploitation of habitat or wildlife is banned.
Wildlife Sanctuaries
• A wildlife sanctuary is similar to a national park. However, it aims only at conservation of species. The wildlife sanctuaries have the following features:
• The boundary of a sanctuary is not limited by state legislation.
• The killing, hunting or capturing of any species is prohibited.
• Private ownership may be allowed to continue in a sanctuary.
• Forestry and other usages may be permitted, but to the extent that they do not affect wildlife adversely.
Forest Reserves These more...

Cell Structure and Functions

Cell Structure and Functions   Cell Structure Cells are of two Types prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell, found only in bacteria and archaebacteria, all the components, including the DNA, mingle freely in the cell's interior, a single compartment. Eukaryotic cells, which make up the plants, animals, fungi and all other life forms contain numerous compartments or organelles within each cell. The DNA in eukaryotic cells is enclosed in a special organelle called the nucleus, which serves as the cell's command centre and information library. The term prokaryote comes from Greek word that mean “before nucleus” or “prenucleus,” while eukaryote means "true nucleus."   Prokaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cells are among the thinnest of all cells, ranging in size from 0.0001 to 0.003mm in diameter. These cells, which can be rodlike, spherical or spiral in shape are surrounded by a protective cell wall.     Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells are typically about ten times larger than the prokaryotic cells. In animal cells, the plasma membrane rather than a cell wall, forms the cell's outer boundary. With a design similar to the plasma membrane of prokaryotic cells, it separates the cell from its surroundings and regulates the traffic across the membrane.    The eukaryotic cell cytoplasm is similar to that of the prokaryotic cell except for one major difference. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and numerous other membrane enclosed organelles. Like separate rooms of a house, these organelles enable specialized function to be carried out efficiently. For example, the building of proteins and lipids take place in separate organelles where specialized enzymes geared for each job are located. The nucleus is the largest organelle in an animal cell. It contains numerous strands of DNA the length of each strand being many times the diameter of the cell. Unlike the circular prokaryotic DNA, long sections of eukaryotic DNA pack into the nucleus by wrapping around proteins. As a cell begins to divide, each DNA strand folds over onto itself several times, forming a rod-shaped chromosome.   Cell Functions To stay alive, cells must be able to carry out a variety of functions. Some cells must be able to move and most cells must be able to divide. All cells must maintain the right concentration of chemicals in their cytoplasm, ingest food and use it for energy, recycle molecules, expel wastes and construct proteins. Cells must also be able to respond to ranges in their environment.   Movement Many unicellular organisms swim, glide, thrash or crawl in search for food and escape from enemies. Swimming organisms often move by means of a flagellum, a long tail-like structure made of protein. For example, many bacteria have one, two or many flagella that rotate like propellers to drive the organism along. Some single-celled eukaryotic organisms such as euglena also have a flagellum, but it is longer and thicker than the prokaryotic flagellum. The eukaryotic flagellum works more...

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