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Categories of Computers   Introduction Computers are categorized on the basis of types of input signal processed by its peripherals, purpose of their use, physical structure, speed and reliability. Two types of signal are usually processed by the computer, these are digital and analog signal. Some types of computer processes both analog and digital signal. Therefore, depending on the types of input signal processed by computer, they are categorized into three groups.   v  Digital computers work on digital signal. v  Analog computers work on analog signal. v  Hybrid computers work on both digital and analog signal.   In this chapter we will study more about these classification.   Digital Computer   A digital computer is a computer that stores data in terms of binary digits (digital) and proceeds in discrete steps from one state to the next. The word 'digital' stands for discrete (step-by-step) and hence, digital computers can take only discrete values. A digital computer gives accurate information than an analog computer.   Types of Digital Computer   Types of Digital computer are based on their size and performance, purpose of their use, etc.   Depending upon the size and performance, digital computers are categorized into five tvpes. They are the followings.   Embedded Computer   An Embedded computer is one that has computer hardware with software embedded in it as one its important components. Smallest Embedded computers are equipped within the circuit and they are programmed for performing the specific task. An example of embedded computer is soldered on the television circuit which performs the task during the tuning to a particular television frequency.   Look at the following picture of Embedded computers as a TV tuner card:     Microcomputer A Microcomputer contain a microprocessor which works as a CPU. It accepts input, stores large quantities of data, execute complex instructions which direct it to perform mathematical and logical operations and outputs the answer in a human readable form. The microcomputers are basically used in educational training, playing games, etc. The microcomputer are further divided into Desktop computer, workstation and PDAs.   Minicomputers A Minicomputer is midsized computer. A multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to 100 of users simultaneously. In terms of size and power, minicomputers lie between microcomputer and mainframe. They have capability to connected more input and output devices than microcomputer and also known as multiuser computer.   Mainframe Computers A Mainframe computers are large-sized, powerful multi-user computers that can support concurrent programs. It can be used by as many as hundreds or thousands of users at the same time. Large organisations may use a mainframe computer to execute large-scale processes such as processing the organisation's payroll. It is designed to handle large volume of data and information and also has great processing speed as compare to the minicomputer. more...

Working With MS-Word 2013   Introduction Microsoft word 2013 is a popular computer program that allows you to create documents, letters, reports, resumes, brochures and research papers can be created with professional result in a user friendly interface. MS Word has a vast number of functions and tools.   v  Start using word. v  Format your documents. v  Cut, copy and paste content from-the same/other documents. v  Insert pictures and clip arts. v  Create Tables and lists. v  Edit Headers and Footers. v  Check Spelling, Grammar and word count. v  Print Documents. v  Insert Page break and section breaks. v  Track changes. v  Mail merges.   The MS Word 2013 has the menu options (File, Home, Insert, Design, Page Layout, Reference, Mailing, Review, View)   Using Word's Menu   Word 2013 Window With naming/labelling each menu item will be defined and will provide reasons to use that particular menu option.   Title bar This is placed at the top of the word window. This bar lists the name of the program 'and the title of the current document. In the upper right hand corner of the title bar you will notice set of 3 buttons.    : Minimize button  : Maximize or resize button  : Cancel or close button   Menu bar The Menu bar is below the Title bar. There are nine menu option on the Menu bar. When you click any of these option (File, Home, Insert, Design, Page layout, References, Mailings, Review, View) a related list of command will appear below it.       Standard toolbar The toolbar usually appears at the above of the Menu bar and just right corner of the ::rle bar is called Standard toolbar. This toolbar contains short cuts to some of the most frequently used commands from the Menu bar.       Status bar At the bottom of the word window is the Status bar. This bar displays information about your document such as the page that is currently displayed on the screen (page: the total number of pages in the document (2/3 i.e. 2 of 3) and the word (word 2) which means there are total 2 words in the page. The right side of the Status bar shows whether keys such as OVERTYPE are active or unactive.   more...

Understanding Windows 10   Introduction Microsoft windows is a Graphical User Interface operating system. If has features which guides the user to perform the specific task using the operating system. An operating system is a software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management of various activities of the computer and the sharing of computer resources. Generally, a computer uses two types of programs, application and system program users and application programs access the services offered by the operating -system, by means system calls and application programming interfaces. Users interact with a computer operating system though Command Line Interfaces (CLI) or Graphical User Interface (GUI). Some of the common operating systems are Linux, Windows etc.   Start menu When click on the start button, start menu appears on the screen giving all the available options to start using the Windows. Overview of the options available in the start menu.
Task Described
All apps Displays a list of installed program, which a user can start or use.  
File explorer Displays a list of documents used by the current user
Window setting Displays a list of utilities to configure the computer system and install software and hardware.
Power Displays three options:   :               Sleep Shut down Restart
Sleep Sleep is a power saving state that allows a computer quickly resume full-power operation (typically within several seconds) when you want more...
Working With Spread Sheet 2013   Introduction Microsoft Excel provides a spreadsheet is essentially a matrix of rows and columns. A 'spreadsheet is the computerized equivalent of a general ledger. Intersection of rows and columns is called cell. Each cell can hold text, a number of a mathematical formula. You -?: use Excel to enter all sorts of data and perform financial, mathematical or statistical calculations. A cell is referred to by column and row e.g., the upper left cell is cell Al. The cell right below that is A2 etc.   Microsoft Excel enables you to:   v  Format you data v  Organize your data by sorting it. v  Name ranges of data and use the range names in formulas and navigation for automatic updating. v  Generate charts and graphs illustration your data. v  Automate and customize procedures by using macros.         Starting Excel 2013 in Windows 10   v  Click on Windows button at the bottom left of the screen v  Select Microsoft Office 2013. v  Select Excel 2013 as shown in the figure.   Excel Toolbars   v  Title bar: Displays the title of the workbook you are currently in. v  Menu bar: Group or collection of different toolbars which are used for specific or particular use. v  Formatting Toolbar: Used for different formatting styles. v  Standard Toolbar: This toolbar usually appears at the above of the menu bar and just right of the title bar. This toolbar contains short cuts of some of the most frequently used commands from the menu bar. v  Status bar: At the bottom of the window is the status bar. This bar displays information about your document, such as if you entering some data or text in the cell, "Enter" option will display in the status bar. v  Worksheet Tabs: Show the worksheet or chart names, By default new files haveone worksheet. v  Scroll bars: Navigates to different areas of the active worksheet, located on the right and bottom of the worksheet.   Inserting Column/Rows   v  Click Home menu. v  Click Insert option under Home tab and select insert sheet rows/columns options.   Deleting column   v  Move the more...

Applications of Multimedia   Introduction Multimedia is form of multiple media. It contains all types of media to play. The traditional cassette players have been replaced by MP3 players with music video capabilities. Multimedia is one of the most fascinating and fastest growing areas in the field of information technology. It is a combination of text, pictures, animation, movies and sound. Multimedia finds its application in various areas such as advertisements, art, education, entertainment, engineering, medicine, mathematics, business and scientific research. In this chapter, we will study about the application of multimedia in different fields.   Multimedia in Education           In the field of education, teachers incorporate multimedia to replace actual lecture and practical demonstration. Multimedia brings the power of interactivity into learning. In this way, multimedia is different from the television.   In education, multimedia is used to produce computer-based training courses (popularly called CBTs) and reference books like encyclopedias and almanacs which are very popular. CBTs make use of text, graphics, sound and animation.     Multimedia in Entertainment The Entertainment industry is one of the largest sectors of multimedia and growth in this industry has evolved collectively with technology in the production of film, commercials, games and many other areas of entertainment. Multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment industry, especially to develop special effects in movies and animations. Some examples are Avatar, Jurassic Park and Lion King. Multimedia games are a popular pastime and the same goes for software programs available either as CD-ROMs or online. Some video games also use multimedia features.     Multimedia applications that allow users to actively participate instead of just sitting by as passive recipients of information are called Interactive Multimedia.   Multimedia in Games Today, Multimedia games are big business. The concept of gaming is an essential part of entertainment in our everyday lives. Gaming allows humans to interact with a machine. The joystick is a device which is mainly used to play games on the computer. These days, children resort to game consoles such as play stations and Xboxes rather than physical games with active interaction with other kids.     Multimedia in Business Multimedia in business is very effective presentation and sales tools. Business applications for multimedia include presentations, training, marketing, advertising, product demos, simulation, database, catalogs, instant messaging and network communications voice mails and video conferencing are provided. Internet marketing, website hosting and the coding of websites are all big business these days and they are grew out of the business. It used to extend list of clients using various technology such as E-mail, SMS, MMS, Conference call and Chatting etc.   Even basic office applications like a word processing package or a spreadsheet tool becomes a powerful tool with the aid of multimedia business. Pictures, animation and sound can be added to these applications to emphasize important points more...

Introduction to Internet   Introduction Internet is defined as a collection of various services and resources. It offers a world of information in one place. It is helpful tool in communication and researching all different subjects. The internet can be a huge source for information around the world.   Internet is the network of network i.e. a global network which makes WWW (World Wide Web).   With the internet, one can send messages, find information on any subject, chat with friends and do many other things. The Internet or the Net or the World Wide Web is a network of computers spanning the globe. In a network, two or more computers are linked together with or without cables to share information. Thus, the Internet is the largest network of computers in this world because it has millions of computers connected to each other. We will get acquainted with some Internet related terms and study about the working of the Internet in this chapter.   Frequently used terms in Internet   v  WWW (World Wide Web): The WWW is a collection of electronic documents (called web pages) that are linked together like a spider web. v  Web Server: A web server is a computer that stores web pages. It is responsible for accepting requests from users and serves them with web pages. v  Hyperlink: It is an element in an electronic document that links to another place in the same document or to an entirely different document or other resource. Hyperlinks usually appear as underlined text and in different color, but they may also appear as graphics, such as buttons to click. Hyperlinks may be used to link another place in the same place, or another page, to play an audio or video file, to download file, to set up a message to an e-mail address, and to link to other Internet resources. v  Web Page: A web page is an electronic document written in a computer language called HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language). Web pages can contain text, graphics video, animation and sound as well as interactive features such as data entry forms. Web pages usually contain hyperlinks to other web pages. v  Web Site: A website is one or more web pages, belonging to a particular company, institute, government or an individual, the firs page is called Home page, which acts like an index, indicating the content on the site. v  URL (Uniform Resource Locator): Every page on the web has a unique address, called uniform Resources locator, (URL). A URL indicates where the web pages is stored on the internet.     Internet Address Addresses are just what they sound like a way to identify unique an area of the Net or more...

Networking   Introduction Do you know every person has its own network? Network are everywhere or so it seems. You can hardly do anything with data that does not involve a network. Like the human networks that we are all part of computer network let us share information and resources. Networks help individuals and business alike save money, but they also help create income. A computer network is a network of computers that are geographically distributed, but connected in a manner to enable meaningful transmission and exchange of data among them.   The purpose of networking   v  Get the information you need to develop yourself and your career or business. v  To let people know what you are doing and what you are interested in.   Also networking in increasingly viewed as important to the achievement of personal and work-related goals. For example personal network include with family, friends and everyone we know.   Today's, information technology provides us with one of our most important sources of information for networking.   A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other. An example of a network in a school comprising of a local area network or LAN connecting computers with each other.       Different Types of Networks The network is divided into 3 main categories:     LAN A LAN is used to connect the computers and other network devices so that the devices can communicate with each other to share the resources. The resources to be shared can be a hardware device like printer, software like an application program or data. The size of LAN is usually small. The various devices in LAN are connected to central devices called Hub or switch using a cable. If the network is contained with a relatively small area, such as a classroom, school, or single, building as shown in the figure, it is commonly referred to as a local area network (LAN). This type of network has the lowest cost.   Advantages of LAN   v  Ability to share hardware and software resources. v  Individual workstation might survive network failure. v  Components and system evolution are possible. v  Support for heterogeneous forms hardware and software. v  Access to other LAN's and WAN's. v  Private ownership. v  Secure transfers at high speeds with low error rates.   Disadvantages of LAN   v more...

  Analogy and Classification       Objectives   ·                  Students will be able to study the similar patterns. ·                  They will be able to sort out objects on the basis of similarity. ·                  Classification based questions list the abilities of the students to observe the differences and similarities among objects or things. ·                  Students will learn assorting the items of a given group on the basis of certain common quality.     Introduction   Analogy In 'analogy', a pair of figures/letters/words/numbers is provided and a similar relationship is followed by another pair of figures/letters/words/numbers. This is also known as 'Similarity' or 'Matching pairs'.       Types of Analogy       Word Analogy   In word analogy, a group of three words is given, followed by four alternatives. The student is required to choose the alternative, which is similar to the given group of words.   Example 1: Astronomy: Stars:: Geology : ? (a) Sky                         (b) Geometry               (c) Science                   (d) Earth   Ans. (d) Explanation: Astronomy is the branch of science which deals with celestial objects such as moon, planets, stars, galaxies etc. While Geology is the science which deals with the physical and substance of the earth, their History and the processes which act on them.     Example 2: Flower is related to Petal, in the same way as Book is related to.............. ? (a) Pages (b) Content more...

  Patterns                                                                                                                                                    Objectives   ·                     Students will learn to develop and extend patterns. ·                     Students will learn to discover how patterns arise in a variety of mathematical and everyday contexts, and to establish the rules which govern them.       Introduction             Patterns are ·         repeated designs or recurring sequences. ·         an ordered set of letters, words, numbers, shapes or other mathematical objects, arranged according to a particular rule.               Type I: To find the missing term or next term (number or letter) ·         Identify the rule followed in rest of the given terms using mathematical operation: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, skip counting and reverse counting. ·         Identify the order of alphabetical series either from A to Z or Z to A. ·         Skipping letters.                                                  Type II: To find the missing part in the figure pattern. ·         Complete the figure pattern by drawing its incomplete part in the pattern.                       Example 1:             In the number pattern below, what are the values of A and B respectively?                         (a) 9, 49                      (b) 49, 9                                   (c) 9, 64                       (d) 81, 49                     Ans. (a)           Explanation: Pattern followed in the above series is more...

  Alphabet Test         Objectives   ·                     Students will learn how to arrange a single series of alphabets. ·                     They will learn to decode the logic involved in the alphabetical sequence.         Introduction   Alphabet is a group of English letters. Alphabet test is a test to solve the problems based on letters of English alphabet. Some basic facts related to Alphabet Test are given below:   I. The Alphabet Series: The English alphabet contain 26 letters as shown below:                 II. Letters positions in forward alphabetical order:       III. Letters positions in backward or reverse alphabetical order:     ·                     Remember the word E J 0 T Y            IV. A, E, I, 0, U are vowels and remaining letters are consonants of English alphabet.   V. A-M (1-13) letters are the first half of English alphabet.   VI. N-Z (14-26) letters are the second half of English alphabet.                    Types of Questions         Type I: Alphabetical Order of Words   Arranging words in alphabetical order implies 'to arrange them in the order as they appear in a dictionary'. First consider the first letter of each word. Arrange the words in the order in which more...



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