Current Affairs 6th Class

This test is mainly to judge a candidate's ability to use his presence of mind to tackle a given situation he may come across any time in life. The candidate is, thus, expected to choose the best response which will stand him in good stead.   TIPS FOR SITUATION REACTION TEST:
  • Be calm and natural, give intelligent and fair reasons for you answers.
  • Never try to attempt all (you actually can't do this), just try to give your best answers and proper reasons. An average of 40 - 45 questions is good.
  • Never leave any questions in between as leaving a questions among attempted ones show that you were unable to think upon that situation.
  • Always remember that you are a normal human being not Superman. You have limits and think wisely.
Example 1: In a bus you realize that someone has left his/her wallet. You would (a) Given the money to the beggar (b) Hand it over to the bus conductor (c) Try to find his/her contact number and infora the owner (d) Leave the wallet as it is Solutions: If you are an honest man then, you will try to find his/her contact number and inform the owner of the wallet. In this way, that wallet will be reached in right hands. So option (c) is our answer. Example 2: Do you think that one should change his job often and face new situation? (a) No, unless compelled one should not leave his old job (b) Yes, every new job is is challenging and one should accept the challenge (c) No, as it takes time to get adjusted (d) No, as the new situation may no suit you Solutions: Most appropriate answer will be option (b). Because every new job is challenging and one should accept the challenge. Unless you accept the challenges you cannot get different views of life, Example 3: You are a team leader and two of your collegues are having a strained relationship with each other. As a result, they are not contributing well in group activities. How will you handle such a situation? (a) How can I be bothered with such petty issues? At least the task is being done by other; so it is fine (b) You will make an explicit effort to help them shake hands (c) You will give them complementary tasks in which both have to work together (d) You will punish then for not contributing by keeping them cut of the team Solution: (b) As both you colleagues are having a strained relationship with each other, they are not contributing well in group activities. But you are a team leader. So, it is your responsibility that work should be done in good manner and in time. It can be possible is both your colleagues to works together. In this case, you should make an explicit effort to help them shake hands.

Passage Completion has been an important component of the verbal section. It refers to the question type where a paragraph is given and a sentence from the given paragraph is removed (In most of the cases, the last sentence is removed). All you have to do is to complete the paragraph i.e., you have to choose the option which completes the given paragraph in the best manner from the given options. Solving Passage Completion questions is all about how much one can comprehend from the given paragraph. The more you understand the paragraph, the easier it becomes for you to solve the question. It becomes easier for you to solve these types of questions if you are a good reader. Go through the paragraph and try to catch the essence of the paragraph. Figure out what the paragraph is all about. Try to understand the keywords used in the passage. Some Important Pointers to keep in mind while solving a passage completion question There are no pre-defined formulas to solve Passage Completion type questions. But there are some important points we need to remember while solving them.
  • Find the essence of the passage
Once you are able to find it, Passage Completion would become an easy affair.
  • Notice the tone of the passage
Think about it. If an author is being sarcastic in his writing, wouldn't it be logical to choose the option which has sarcasm in it? Remember however that there might be multiple options that comply with the author's tone. Hence, always keep in mind that Tone is Important but not the only criteria.
  • Do not pick an option that brings an external idea
Never pick an option which talks about things that are not mentioned in the paragraph. The correct option will be the one which relates itself to the core information mentioned in the paragraph.
  • Reject the options that are contradictory
Whenever you see an option which contradicts the idea of passage, eliminate it.
  • Maintain the flow of the paragraph
Always make sure you are maintaining the flow of ideas in the passage. Never pick an option which breaks or suddenly changes the flow to some other direction.
  • Pay Special Attention to the line before the blank
The line before the blank pays an important role in PC. Sometimes, the correct option is the one which is in agreement with that line. So it would be wise if one also pays close attention to what that line is talking about.

The chapter deals with the questions of Jumbled paragraph and sentences and sentence and phrase arrangement of the given phrases or sentences. The student has to choose a logical sequence to make a meaningful sentence or paragraph. This form of exercise tests the student's ability to (a) figure out the logic of the events (b) sequence of different parts of a combination according to correct grammatical usage. In either sentence or paragraph structuring, the student has to check which part follows the other according to the logical theme of the sentence/paragraph. (a) Phrase arrangement or Jumbled Sentence. (b) Sentence arrangement or Jumbled Paragraph.   In a jumbled sentence, a sentence is broken into four parts and the student has to figure out, the right sequence to form a logical, sensible sentence. Consider the following example. Example 1: P : by her indulgent parents Q : the child was so spoiled R: when she did not receive all of their attention S : that she pouted and became sullen (a) RQPS                              (b) QRPS (c) QPSR                               (d) QSPR In this question, a single sentence has been broken into four different parts and the student has to find out the logical sequence of the sentence. In order to do that, consider the following. Strategy I: Decide on the opening phrase, first. The opening part of the sentence will usually contain the subject of the sentence. So locate the subject and select that part as the first in sequence. Now, select all options in the answer that begin with the part you have chosen as the first. In example 1, the subject is the child and the opening part will be Q, thus, we can eliminate option (a). Now, since the subject is passive, the verb form will be followed by 'by9 and the doer. So, find the second part beginning with by and containing the doer of the action which in this case is P. Thus, we can reach the right answer, option (c). Strategy II: If the Subject is passive, mostly, the following part will begin with 'by and contain the doer of the action in the sentence. Example 2: Unsurpassed power (P)/modern society (Q)/in (R)/ women enjoy (S) (a) RQPS                              (b) SRPQ (c) SPRQ                             (d) PSRQ. The subject of the sentence is women so the opening part would be S. Thus, we have to choose between options (a) and (c). The subject in this sentence is active. So, we must find the object which will be the next part. In the given question, the object is unsurpassed power. Thus, the answer is (c). Strategy III: When the subject is active, follow the sequence- SUBJECT - VERB - OBJECT Strategy IV: Preposition is never the last part. If a preposition is given as one of the parts match it with other parts to find out what will follow the preposition. In Example III 'in' could only be followed by Modem society, so the last two parts of the sentence more...

When we read a text, the author does not always tell us everything. The author may leave out details on purpose. He may also depend on the reader's general knowledge to fill in the blanks. Inference: an idea that is suggested by the facts or details in a passage Conclusion: a decision about what may happen or about the result an event may have Making an inference and drawing a conclusion are very similar skills. Each requires the reader to fill in blanks left out by the author. An author may not include information for several reasons: they may think you already know it, it may not seem important to them, or they may want you to find the result. How to make an inference or draw a conclusion
  • Observe all the facts, arguments, and information given by the author
  • Consider what you already know from your own experiences
  • When faced with multiple choice answers, determine whether each is true or false based on the information in the passage
Example The woman waited nervously in line. When the counter was empty, she carefully unloaded her items from her cart. Lines creased her forehead as if to show the calculations ringing up in her head. Finally, the cashier began ringing up the items as the woman clutched her purse. Inference/conclusion: The woman may not have enough money to cover the cost of her groceries.
  • Think about the facts of the passage and what may result from them
  • Think about causes and effects
The writer may only provide a list of effects, so you have to figure out the cause. The child stood on the sidewalk clenching her ice cream cone. Beads of sweat collected on her little nose as she furiously licked at the ice cream dripping down her hand. Inference/conclusion: It must be a hot day because her ice cream is melting, and she is sweating.
  • Try saying "If...then"
If the girl is sweating, then it may be warm outside. Remember
  • Mostly writing suggests more than they says
  • By making inferences, you get more from the story
  • Conclusions may be missing from the things you read, so you have to draw your own
PRACTICE ACTIVITIES Sujata almost wished that she hadn't listened to the radio. She went to the closet and grabbed her umbrella. She would feel silly carrying it to the bus stop on such a sunny morning.
  • Which probably happened?
  • (a) Sujata realised that she had an unnatural fear of falling radio parts. (b) Sujata had promised herself to do something silly that morning. (c) Sujata had heard a weather forecast that predicted rain. (d) Sujata planned to trade her umbrella for a bus ride. "Larry, as your boss, I must say that it's been very interesting working with you," Miss Sharma said "However, it seems that our company's needs and your performance style are not well matched. Therefore it makes mp more...

    ADVERTISEMENT Advertising is bringing a product or service to the attention of potential and current customers. It is focused on one particular product or service. Thus, an advertising plan for one product might be very different from that for another product. Advertising is typically done with signs, brochures, commercials, direct mailings or e-mail messages, personal contact, etc. Advertising is the activity of drawing public attention to a product or service in order to encourage people to buy it.   CREATING AN ADVERTISEMENT It seems very difficult to craft a perfect advertisement to entice potential consumers or influence public opinion. But the right way to make a good advertisement is to keep simple. An advertisement sums up everything that is smart, innovative, and distinguished about your brand, and is almost indispensable in today's economic marketplace.   WRITING THE ADVERTISEMENT Advertisers create ads for an intended audience. They have a purpose behind designing an advertisement and publishing it in a particular way. Advertising affects people in different ways. People today are exposed to a large amount of advertising. A catchy, snappy tagline is the sole of an advertisement. Loud sounding advertisements appeal less to our senses. The immediate purpose of advertisement is to garb the consumer's attention and convince him or her that your product is different from others.   AVOID THE SAME OLD CLICHES Being memorable is the key to good advertisement. Avoid terms like— new and improved, guaranteed, or free gift-is there any other kind?
    • Startle the reader to pay attention because it is especially useful if you have a lot to say. For example long announcement wouldn't turn many heads if it weren't for the unusual, confrontational tagline; if the reader wants to get the joke, she or he has to read more.
    • Know how to walk the line between controversial and entertaining. Pushing the limits of good taste to help your ad grab attention is common practice, but don't go too far — you want your product to be recognized on its own merits, not because it was tied to a tasteless advertisement.
    • Use a persuasive technique. There are tried and true methods that advertisers rely on to make their ads stick.
    These include:
    • Common sense: 'Challenging the consumer to think of a good reason why not to purchase your product or service.
    • Making the consumer laugh, make you more likeable and memorable. This pairs especially well with refreshing honesty. Your Advertise lines should be short.
    • Repetition: Repeating key elements will bring good results.
    • Exigency: Convincing the consumer that time is of the essence. Limited-time only offers, fire sales, and the like are the commonest ways to do this, but again, avoid meaningless phrases that will slip under your customers' radar.
    • Know the customer. Even the cleverest ad won't work if it doesn't appeal to the target audience. Are you looking for a certain age group? Do you want people with a set income level? Or maybe you're looking for a more...

    WHAT IS READING COMPREHENSION? Reading Comprehension is an activity your brain is constantly engaged in. Whatever you do is reading Comprehension for brain, e.g. reading newspaper, watching billboards on roadside, watching TV, talking with a person, listening to music etc. Reading a newspaper is obviously reading comprehension you would have understood. We read the news printed on the paper, we understand what it means, we analyze the news for ourselves, and sometimes we agree or disagree with the opinion expressed in the newspaper article. If it is a report we select the useful portion of news and store it in our memory to be used later. We like or dislike the subject chosen by the writer, sometimes we are made to think or question our beliefs or mindset by some articles, this is data analysis, then we remember what seems important or useful to us in the newspaper and forget much of the news in the paper every day. The same procedure happens even when you are watching hoarding on the roadside. The advertisements are the data for your brain. It is raw information that your brain understands and processes. Remember how many times you say after watching an Ad, "Oh, this is not real", "Oh! Does it happen this way, I didn't know that", "This is a good Ad". All of the above reactions when studied closely are a judgment, fact-collection, opinion formation. You don't remember everything about every Ad, only the part, appealing to you finds a place in your memory. This is Data Selection. Same for watching TV and listening to music, your mind reads information, comprehends it, processes it, selects the useful section and stores it for future, rejects the useless part. So, to make Reading Comprehension easy we can draw a flow chart of the entire process. The entire process of Reading Comprehension could be divided into 7 simple steps. But here is a need for a reckoner. Though reading comprehension is what our brain practices all the time yet we do not always perform very well when attempting a reading comprehension question, why? Because what the brain does is at an ordinary simplistic level and we are unaware of even that. But what is required of an aspiring students is a conscious, skilful, determined effort to master the art of reading comprehension. Let's illustrate all the seven steps involved in Reading Compression describing what we ordinarily do and what are the special concepts a students should keep in mind while attempting the Reading Comprehension section with some useful tips.   STEP – I Reading is the obvious important pre-requisite of the RC section. How well you read, in what manner you read a given passage, would determine the level of your comprehension and consequently the analysis of information. Reading in the right way is very important.   WHAT IS THE RIGHT WAY OF READING? As was mentioned before that all of us are constantly engaged in more...

    The knowledge of Collocations is very important for proper use of English Language. If we are not able to use right collocations, a grammatically correct sentence will stand out awkward. English Collocations fall into the category of Phraseology which means a particular mode of expression, especially one characteristic of a particular speaker or subject area. It is the study of set or fixed expressions, such as idioms, phrasal verbs, and other types of multi-word lexical units (often collectively referred to as phrasemes). In this type of use the component parts of the expression take on a meaning more specific than or otherwise not predictable from the sum of their meanings when used independently. We can say Collocation is the way words are habitually used together to produce a specific meaning. This includes, among others, verbal phrases, verb compounds, noun compounds, compounds with particles and adjective-noun collocates. In addition to producing specific meaning, collocations or their initiatory parts, increase the predictability of the message and anchor it in the context of communication by signaling to the listener or reader that a specific meaning is about to be proved. There are several different types of collocations. They can be:
    • Adjective Collocations
    • Adverbial Collocations
    • Verbal Collocations
    • Genitive Collocations
      Example of seven main types of collocations: 1. adverb + adjective · 
    • Invading that country was an utterly stupid thing to do.
    • We entered a richly decorated room.
    • Are you fully aware of the implications of your action?
    2. adjective + noun
    • The doctor ordered him to take regular exercise.
    • The Titanic sank on its maiden voyage.
    • He was writhing on the ground in excruciating pain.
    3. noun + noun
    • Let's give Mr. Sharma a round of applause.
    • The ceasefire agreement came into effect at 11 am.
    • I'd like to buy two bars of soap, please.
    4. noun + verb ·  
    • The lion started to roar when it heard the dog barking.
    • Snow was falling as our plane took off.
    • The bomb went off when he started the car engine.
    5. verb + noun
    • The prisoner was hanged for committing murder.
    • I always try to do my homework in the morning, after making my bed.
    • He has been asked to give a presentation about his work.
    6. verb + expression with preposition
    • We had to return home because we had run out of money.
    • At first her eyes filled with horror, and then she burst into tears.
    • Their behaviour was enough to drive anybody to crime.
    7. verb + adverb She placed her keys gently on the table and sat down. Sweety whispered softly in Raj's ear. I vaguely remember that it was growing dark when more...

  • Tense is the form taken by a verb to indicate time and continuance or completeness of action. The continuance or completeness of action is denoted by four subcategories. (a) Simple Tense: It is used for habitual or routine actions in the Present Tense, action which is over in the Past Tense & action to happen in the Future Tense. (b) Continuous Tense: The action is incomplete or continuous or going on. (c) Perfect Tense: The action is complete, finished or perfect with respect to a certain point of time. (d) Perfect Continuous Tense: The action is going on continuously over a long period of time and is yet to be finished.
  • The different tenses and the verb forms used in each tense is given below :
  •   3. The simple Present tense is used (A) To express a habitual action. For example: I get up every day at five o'clock. (B) To express general truths.                                       For example: Fortune favours the brave. (C) In vivid narrative, as substitute for the simple past. For example: Immediately the Sultan hurries to his capital. (D) To indicate a future event that is part of a fixed programme or time table. For example:  The train leaves at 5:20 am. Note: We can also use will leave in place of leaves. (E)  It is used to introduce quotations. For example: Keats says, 'A thing of beauty is a joy forever'. (F) In exclamatory sentences beginning with here and there to express what is actually taking place in the present. For example: Here comes the bus! (G) When two actions of the future are being talked about, one dependent on the other, the former action is represented by present simple and the latter by future simple. For example: We shall go when the child comes back home. 4. The present continuous tense is used (I) For an action going on at the time of speaking. For example: The boys are playing cricket in the ground. (II) For a temporary action that may not be actually happening at the time of speaking but was happening in the recent past and is still happening in recent future. For example: I am reading Sidney Sheldon now a days. (Ill) To express changing or developing situations. For example: India is progressing day by day. (IV) For an action that is planned or arranged to take place in the near future. For example: I am going to cinema tonight. Note: But it is not good to use the present continuous for slightly distant future. So, don't say (a) I am going to cinema next week. Rather, use the future simple. So, it is better if you say (b) I will go to cinema next week. (V) When the reference is to a particularly obstinate habit, the present continuous is used instead of present simple. An adverb like always, continually, constantly is also used. For example: It is no use scolding more...

    VOICES In grammar, the quality of a verb that indicates whether its subject acts (active voice) or is acted upon (passive Voice). Compare the following sentences ·   Ram helps Hari. ·   Hari is helped by Ram. While both sentences express the same meaning, there is a difference in their construction, the difference of Voice. In sentence I, the subject Ram is the doer of the action and thus it is in Active voice, the verb is in the Active Voice. In sentence II, the subject is Hari to whom the action is done and thus the verb is in the Passive Voice allowing are some examples of active and passive voice sentences     Following are the rules for transformation of voice. 1. When changing a passive voice sentence to an Active voice sentence if the agent is absent in the given sentence you can use any vague agents such as someone, they, people etc. e.g., 2. My pen has been stolen. (Passive) 3. Someone has stolen my pen. (Active) 4. I was asked my name. (Passive) 5. They asked me my name. (Active) 6. English is spoken all over the world. (Passive) 7. People speak English all over the world. (Active)     NARRATION Narration refers to a speech. The word narration comes the Latin word 'Narrat? that means relating or telling something to somebody Narration is of two types: (a)  Direct Narration   (b) Indirect Narration   (a) Direct Narration: In Direct Narration, we just quote the exact words of a speaker without making any change in it. Here we use comma quotation for the Reported Speech. Farid said, "I read the Holy Quran everyday" (The Reported Speech) Nancy said to me, "I am beautiful." (The Reporting Verb) Sujata said, "I want a pen." Nancy said to Kona, "I must leave the place now" (The Reported Verb) (b) Indirect Narration: But in the Indirect Narration, we modify the speech of a speaker in our own way in order to report it to other person or people. Here we leave out the comma quotation ("?..") and use 'that' as conjunction and we must change the persons. Farid said that she read the Holy Quran everyday Nancy told me that she was beautiful. Sujata said that she wanted a pen. Nancy told Kona that she had to leave the place then. Note: The use of 'that' as conjunction after the Reporting Verb in the Reported Speech is optional.   NECESSARY CHANGES IN TENSES                 Note: 'Past Perfect Tense 'and Past Perfect Continuous Tast Tense in the Reported Speech do not undergo any change with the exception of persons.   NECESSARY CHANGES IN WORDS   He said, "I went to the theatre last night." He said that he had gone to the theatre the night before. He said, "I am more...

    As the name suggests, these questions ask you to choose the appropriate words and complete the sentence. These questions not only test your vocabulary, but also you’re understanding and analytical skills. You have been solving fill in the blank questions sincey our school days. This is why, at first sight, they look pretty simple. But beware, they can often get tricky. FIBs are asked in various exams to test the vocabulary and comprehension skills. If your vocabulary is good, and you know how to judiciously employ words, this section should be quite straightforward to you. But fill in the blanks are sometimes asked in a more complex manner: they test not only your vocabulary, but aIso your grammar. We will look at such questions in more depth later on along with some other types.   TYPES OF FIBs   (A) VOCABULARY BASED These questions will ask you to fill the blank with appropriate words. One or more incomplete sentences will be given to you and your job is to complete those sentences from the given options. These are the most common types of fill in the blank questions and are frequently asked in many exams. Sometimes there can be more than one blank, and in those cases, you will have to pick an option which will have the words that satisfy all the empty blanks. How To Solve (i) Read the entire statement(s), i.e. the complete and the incomplete ones. (ii) Try to understand the context or the subject of the statement. (iii) Analyze what word would logically fit in the statement. (iv) If you are unable to predict what should be there, have a look at all the options given to you, and if it still looks a bit complicated, then fit in all the options to the statement and see which option seems most appropriate. (v) Select the option which is most apt for the given statement. Make sure that option abides the context of the statement. Ensure that the selected option has words that fit all the blanks (in case of multiple blanks)   (B) PARAGRAPH STYLE a short paragraph will be given, which will have multiple blanks. Each blank will be numbered identifying the number of the question. For each blank, options will be provided below the paragraph. This pattern is an extended form of the vocabulary-type question, as in this pattern, a string of statements is given. this type of questions have an added trait that all the sentences are framed on a common theme and hence, if one does not follow the author's drift, the connotation of the words would be difficult to figure out. Your approach to solving both these types would be pretty similar. These questions are framed more so test your ability to really understand what you read, as the entire passage is formed on the same subject. So, most often, if you are good at reading comprehension, you would be able to cruise through this type. How to Solve (1) more...


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