Current Affairs 6th Class

  • Algebra is a branch of mathematics in which Arithmetic is generalised.
  • We use lower case English alphabets called literals to represent quantities instead of particular numbers. Literals are also used for representing unknown quantities.
  • Literals take different values according to the problem. So, they are called variables.
  • Constant: A symbol having a fixed value is called a constant. Usually all numbers are constants. But sometimes, 'c', 'k' etc., are used as symbols to denote constant.
  • Coefficient: In the product of a variable and a constant, each is called the coefficient of the other. Sometimes, letters such as a, b,\[l\], m etc., are used to denote the coefficients. If the coefficient is a number, then it is called the numerical coefficient.
  • Algebraic expression: A combination of constants and variables connected by some or all of the four fundamental operations +, -, x and - is called an algebraic expression.
e.g., 3y – 14  
  • Here, 3 is the coefficient of\['y','y'\] is the variable and -14 is the constant.
  • Terms of an algebraic expression: The different parts of the algebraic expression separated by the sign + or -, are called the terms of the expression.
e.g., \[6-5x+3{{x}^{2}}y\]is an algebraic expression consisting of three terms, namely 6, - 5\[x\] and \[3{{x}^{2}}y\].  
  • Equation: A statement of equality of two algebraic expressions involving one or more variables is called an equation.
e.g., \[3x-5=4x+7,2p+3q-5=16\]etc.  
  • Solution of an equation: The value of the variable, which when substituted in the given equation, makes the two sides [L.H.S. (Left Hand Side) and R.H.S. (Right Hand Side)] of the equation equal is called the solution of the equation.
\[3x+2=14\Rightarrow 3x=14\text{ - }2\text{ }\Rightarrow 3x=12\text{ }\Rightarrow x=l2=4\]\[\therefore \]4 is the solution or root of the given equation.  
  • Trial and error method: This method is used to find the solution of an equation. In this method, we give different values to the variable and check if they satisfy the equation. We continue the process of giving values to the variable until we find a value that satisfies the equation.

Ratio and Proportion        
  • Ratio is a method of comparing two quantities of the same kind by division.
  • The symbol used to represent a ratio is: and is read as 'is to'.
  • A ratio can be expressed as a fraction.
  • A ratio is always expressed in its simplest form.
  • A ratio does not have any unit, it is only a numerical value.
  • A ratio consists of two terms. The first term is called the antecedent and second term is called the consequent.
  • A ratio can be written in its simplest form by dividing the antecedent and consequent by their H.C.F.
  • The antecedent and consequent of a ratio cannot be interchanged. The order of terms in a ratio is important.
  • To express two terms in a ratio they should be in the same units of measurement.
  • When two ratios are equal they are said to be in proportion. The symbol for proportion is:: and is read as 'is as to'.
  • The two terms in the middle of a proportion are called means and the first and last terms are called extremes.
  • If two ratios are to be equal or to be in proportion, their product of means should be equal to the product of extremes.
  • If a : b :: c : d then the statement ad = be is true.
  • If a : b and b: c are in proportion such that b2 = ac then b is called the mean proportional of a : b and b : c.
  • We can get equivalent ratios by multiplying or dividing the antecedent and consequent of a ratio by the same number.
  • Unitary method: The method in which we find the value of one unit first and then the value of required number of units is called the unitary method.

  • A figure has a line symmetry if a line can be drawn dividing the figure into two identical parts. The line is called a line of symmetry.
  • A line segment is symmetrical at its perpendicular bisector.
  • A figure may have no line of symmetry, only one line of symmetry, two lines of symmetry or multiple lines of symmetry.
Figure Number of lines of symmetry
Angle   1
Scalene triangle 0
Isosceles triangle  1
Equilateral triangle 3
Parallelogram 0
Rhombus 2
Isosceles trapezium  1
Circle Infinitely Many
Semicircle 1
Regular pentagon 5
Regular hexagon 6
  • A line symmetry is closely related to mirror reflection. When dealing with mirror reflection, we have to take into account the left right changes in orientation.
  • A figure may have a vertical or a horizontal line of symmetry.
  • Of the digits 0 to 9, only 1, 3 and 8 have a horizontal line of symmetry, 8 has vertical line of symmetry also.
  • Alphabets of English, A to...... Z have different lines of symmetry.
(i) The letter of the English alphabet with no line symmetry are F, G, J, L, N, P, Q, R, S and Z. (ii) The letters A, M, T, U, V, W and Y have only vertical line of symmetry. (iii) The letters B, C, D, E, and K have only horizontal line of symmetry. (iv) The letters H, I and X have both vertical and horizontal lines of symmetry.  

 Practical Geometry      
  • We use the following mathematical instruments to construct geometrical shapes.
(i)   A graduated ruler or scale    (ii) The compasses      (iii) The divider   (iv) Set - squares                 (v) The protractor  
  • Using a ruler and compasses, we can construct the following:
(i) A circle of a given radius. (ii) A line segment of a given length. (iii) A copy of a given line segment. (iv) A perpendicular to a line through a point (a) on the line.                (b) not on the line. (v) The perpendicular bisector of a line segment of given length. (vi) An angle of a given measure. (vii) A copy of a given angle. (viii) The bisector of a given angle. (ix) Some angles of special measures such as (a) \[{{90}^{o}}\]                    (b) \[{{45}^{o}}\]       (c) \[{{60}^{o}}\]                    (d) \[{{30}^{o}}\]      (e) \[{{120}^{o}}\]                   (f)  \[{{135}^{o}}\]  
  • A line has no definite length.
  • An unlimited number of lines can be drawn, passing through a given point.
  • On a single line, there exist infinite number of points.
Only a single line passes through two distinct points 'A' and 'B'.
  • Intersecting Sines: If there is a point P common to two lines I and m, we say that the two lines intersect at the point P and this point P is called the point of intersection of the given lines.
  • Parallel lines: The lines which do not intersect each other and do not have any point in common are called parallel lines.
  • Concurrent lines: When three or more lines pass through a single point, they are called concurrent lines and the point is called the point of concurrence of the given lines.
  • Collinear points: Three or more points in a plane are said to be collinear if they lie on the same line and this line is called the line of collinearity for the given points.
    Points that do not lie on the more...

  Urban Livelihoods   Summary   1.            With the growth in industries and the shrinking of agricultural income, people are migrating from rural areas to urban areas. 2.            About a quarter of India's population is urban as there are many opportunities for jobs here. 3.            People in towns and cities are involved in manufacturing and in selling and service sectors, i.e. in secondary and tertiary occupations and in primary occupation like farming. 4.            Urban people are either self-employed, fixed monthly salaried or daily wage earners.   Introduction Raman, a student of class VI lives in a multi-storeyed building in New Delhi. Every morning, the milkman visits their house to deliver milk and a vendor drops newspaper at their door step. Soon after, Bitti bai arrives. Bitti bai is a domestic help. Both his parents are doctors. Raman gets ready for school and his driver Ramesh drops him by car. Sometimes Raman walks to school. On the way he crosses a market. There are many shops with shopkeepers selling all kinds of wares and services. Often a rickshaw puller approaches Raman to offer him his services. Raman crosses the market road carefully. It is a busy road. Life in a city is busy and fast and everyone is in a hurry?the office-goers, school children, vendors.   MIGRATION-MOVEMENT FOR LIVELIHOOD Many towns and cities grow with time. With the growth of industries and shrinking of agricultural land, millions of people move to cities and towns to seek employment every year. The movement of people from rural areas to urban areas is called migration. Often people are lured to migrate to urban areas as unskilled daily wage earners by the development projects in urban areas. Having moved to the cities, the migrants generally settle in the poor areas of the city streets. These areas?usually lack basic infrastructure facilities?electricity, water and drainage. In course of time these areas develop into slums. Thus, slum dwellers are the urban poor?the daily wage workers, casual labourers, domestic servants, rickshaw pullers, hotel boys, etc. At the same time, highly skilled and educated people also move from one city to another in order to get better opportunities. They are mostly well paid too. Thus, movement is there in skilled and unskilled segment. Sometime high officials are placed in rural areas for looking after their projects or industries there. But mostly people tend to move from rural area to urban area in search of a better life and livelihoods.   Migration of more...

  Rural Livelihoods   Summary   1.            Occupation is of three types: primary occupation, secondary occupation and tertiary occupation. 2.            Farming, animal husbandry and fishing are primary rural occupations. 3.            A farmer grows crops in the fields, manages orchards or vineyards, and is of four types: large farmers, medium farmers, marginal farmers and landless farmers. 4.            Poultry and dairy farmers breed and raise livestock for eggs, meat and milk. 5.            Secondary rural occupations include brick making, masonry, carpentry, and handicraft like pottery, basket making and weaving. 6.            People in tertiary rural occupations include teachers, doctors, rickshaw pullers, drivers, shopkeepers, sweepers, water bearers, toddy tappers, washermen, hair dressers, etc.   Introduction Some people work in offices, some in hospitals or courts, and yet others run businesses of their own. Your parents go to work every day They do this to earn money so that they can feed you well, educate you, and give you all the necessities of life. Means of livelihood are different in rural areas. People do different kinds of jobs to earn money and lead their life.   The means by which you earn money is called livelihood. The method you adopt to earn a living is your occupation. Thus, occupation is the means to earn a livelihood. There are various types of occupations.   Q. What is the occupation of your parent(s)?   TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS The various occupations may be classified into three sectors. These are?Primary Sector, Secondary Sector and Tertiary Sector.   PRIMARY SECTOR The primary sector consists of those activities concerned with the direct extraction of materials from nature. In this sector, people are engaged in agriculture, fishing, dairy farming and poultry farming, mining, forestry, etc. All these occupations are related to obtaining raw materials from the earth directly and hence are primary occupations.   SECONDARY SECTOR The secondary sector includes industries that process, transform and assemble raw materials into products. For example, the cotton textile industry makes cloth from the cotton plant; a bakery makes bread, cakes, pizzas and biscuits from wheat; the steel industry converts iron ore into steel. All manufacturing industries also come in this sector. The secondary sector is dependent on the more...

  Urban Administration   Summary   1.            Urban local administrative units provide basic infrastructure and services in cities. 2.            They are classified into three major categories: Nagar Nigam governing large cities, Nagar Palika governing smaller cities and Nagar Panchayat governing small towns. 3.            The area under a Nagar Nigam which is also called Municipal Corporation and is further divided into Wards, which may be grouped together into Ward Councils. 4.            Each ward elects its representative for the Municipal Corporation. This representative is called Ward Councillor. He looks after the problems related to the ward he represents. 5.            Municipal elections are held every five years. 6.            The Mayor, Deputy Mayor and Municipal Commissioner have the authority to take decisions. 7.            The functions of the municipal bodies relate to public health, welfare, public safety, public infrastructure works and development activities. 8.            The municipal bodies levy different taxes such as property tax, water tax and entertainment tax to collect funds for carrying out their functions.   Introduction 'Urban' means pertaining to city or town. The urban scenario is quite different from the rural one. Unlike villages, cities are large and densely populated. Cities have modern civic amenities like well-developed communication and transport system, water supply, electricity, etc. However, cities are constantly grappling with problems today. Concentration of population in urban areas has resulted in chaos like mushrooming of slums with inhuman surroundings, degradation of the environment leading to air, water and noise pollution, traffic jams, power cuts, crowded markets and spread of diseases like dengue and swine flu etc. Who takes care of such problems and ensures that the city runs smoothly? Whom do we approach when we need help to get rid of the mosquito menace or the overflowing garbage? Here, in this chapter, we will look at the working of the local government in urban areas.   COMPOSITION OF URBAN ADMINISTRATION Cities of India have a local government that provides necessary community services and civic amenities for its people. The urban local governments are of three kinds and organized according to the size of the city: Municipal Corporation or Nagar Nigam, Municipal Council or simply Municipality or Nagar Palika and Town Committee or Nagar Panchayat. A Municipal Corporation or Nagar Nigam administers a city that more...

  Rural Administrations   Summary   1.            Two rural government officials administer a village - the patwari and the police. 2.            The in-charge of the police station of an area is the Station House Officer (SHO). He solves cases of burglary, quarrels, etc., in that area. 3.            The patwari is the village accountant who maintains land records by visiting agricultural lands, preparing land maps, writing records of land ownership and crop grown in every harvest, etc. 4.            The patwari reports to the tehsildar who is the revenue officer at the tehsil level. 5.            The District Collector is the head of the revenue department in a district. 6.            The Hindu Succession Amendment Act (HSAA) which came into force in September 2005 gave the Hindu sons and daughters equal right to ancestral property. Introduction Villages in India are mainly clusters of small huts and most of the people residing here are farmers. Around three-fourth of Indians population live in villages. This is why Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century said, ?The soul of India lives in its villages?. Villagers own pieces of land and grow crops in them. The local government maintains proper records of the size of the lands and their produce. It maintains peace and settles disputes over their land. This is how rural administration works.   1. From the above story what impression do you get of a patwari in a village? 2. When villagers are in trouble, who helps them to resolve their problems? Let us understand the Police and Patwari and their roles to answer the above questions.   ADMINISTRATION IN A VILLAGE Two rural government officials play an important role in administering the villagers during conflicts: the patwari and the police. The patwari is the land record officer, whose job is to visit agricultural lands and maintain record of ownership and yield. The local police solve the quarrels and are in-charge of maintaining law and order in the village.   THE POLICE You have seen how the police helped Ramu, a villager. Villages are divided into areas and put under different police stations. Each police station is responsible for maintenance of law and order of more...

  Panchayati Raj   Summary   1.            Panchayati Raj is the three-tier structure working as the Gram Panchayati at the village level, the Block Samiti at the block level and the Zila Parishad at the district level. 2.            The Panchayati system at village level consists of Gram Panchayat, Gram Sabha and Nyaya Panchayat. 3.            Gram Panchayat is a body of elected representative governing at village level.    4.            The Gram Sabha is the electorate of Gram Panchayat. 5.            The members of the Gram Panchayat are called Panchs and their head is called the Sarpanch. 6.            The Nyaya Panchayat is a system of dispute resolution at village level. 7.            The responsibilities of the Panchayati Raj include implementing development programmes and government schemes and ensuring the welfare of the villagers, and resolve disputes. 8.            The Panchayati Raj has one-third or 33 per cent of its seats reserved for women.   Introduction ?Independence must begin at the bottom. Thus, every village will be a republic or Panchayat having full powers. It follows, therefore, that every village has to be self-sustained and capable of managing its affairs even to the extent of defending itself against the whole world. It will be trained and prepared to perish in the attempt to defend itself against any onslaught from without. Thus, ultimately, it is the individual who is the unit.?  ?Mahatma Gandhi   PANCHAYATI RAJ Panchayati Raj is the first tier or the lowest level of administration in the Indian democracy. The word 'Panchayat' means 'assembly (yat) of five' (panch). Traditionally, the Panchayat was an assembly of five chosen elders of the village community who settled disputes among individuals and villages. Panchayats have been the backbone of the Indian villages.     In 1947, India became free and chose the democratic way of governance. Mahatma Gandhi believed that India's independence must begin from the bottom or at the grass root level. Every village ought to be responsible for its own affairs and governance. He advocated Panchayati Raj as the foundation of India's political system.   He called this political more...

  Key Elements of a Democratic Government   Summary   1.            Democracy is the government run by the people. 2.            There are two types of democracies - direct democracy and representative democracy. Switzerland has a direct democracy. India has a representative democracy. 3.            The main features of a representative democracy are: free and fair elections, Adult Franchise, rule of constitutional law and protection of citizen?s rights.  4.            In India, the general election is held every five years and there is an alternative government available in case the electorate desires a change. 5.            People express their opinion about government policies through media or by organizing rallies and hartals, thus making government accountable to the public. 6.            Equality and Justice are the two elements that make a democracy successful.   Introduction The idea of democracy is not simple. To say it is "the rule by the people? tells very little about it. What we call ?democracy? is a complex idea, and to understand it we must explore a range of ideas that underlie it. So let us read about the elements of democracy in an attempt to understand it better.   First of all we must know that democracy is of two types: direct democracy and representative democracy. Direct democracy is a form of governance in which people collectively make decisions for themselves, rather than having their off airs decided by representatives. Direct democracy is classically termed 'pure democracy?. Switzerland has practised direct democracy for 150 years. However, most of us would find this practice quite\[dauntin{{g}^{1}}\]. Surely it would lead to chaos if it is a big nation. Hence, large nations like India, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and South Africa opt for representative democracy. Here decisions are made by the representatives who are elected by the people. In this chapter, we will read about 'representative democracy', this is what we mean by democracy today and most of the modern-day democracies are representative democracies.   KEY ELEMENTS OF A DEMOCRACY   Key elements of a democracy include:   ? Participation and Accountability ? Resolution of Conflicts ? Equality and Justice   Know a Little More
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