# Current Affairs 6th Class

#### Notes - Sorting Materials into Groups

Sorting Materials into Groups   Synopsis   ·                     The process of the classification of objects based on some known criteria is called grouping or sorting.   ·                     We have a huge variety of objects present around us. Because of this, it is very important to classify objects into groups. If we know the properties of one member of the group, it would be very easy to predict the properties of the other members too. Some of the properties of materials are:   ·                     Appearance The various parameters governing the appearance of materials are colour/texture, roughness, shape, size, etc.   ·                      Lustre Some materials shine when light falls on them. This property is generally observed in objects that are grouped as metals, e.g. gold and silver. They are hard, strong, flexible and good conductors of heat and electricity. They can be drawn into wires (ductile) and sheets (malleable).   ·                     Hardness It is the measure of how resistant a material is to various kinds of shape changes when a force is applied. Hardness can also be measured by the ease with which a material can be compressed or stretched. Materials that can be easily stretched and compressed are called soft materials. Materials which are difficult to compress and stretch are called hard materials.   ·                     Solubility In general, solubility is defined as the ability of a substance to dissolve in water. In the process of dissolving/the substance which is being dissolved is called a solute and the substance in which the solute is dissolved is called a solvent. A mixture of solute and solvent is called a solution, e.g. if we add sugar to water, then, sugar is the solute and water is the solvent. The mixture of sugar and water is called sugar solution. Substances which are not soluble in water are called insoluble substances, e.g., sand, wood. If two liquids mix together completely then they are called misdble liquids, e.g. water and ink. If two liquids do not mix but form separate layers, then they are called immiscible liquids, e.g., water and oil.   ·                     Relative density or Density with respect to water $\text{Relative density =}\frac{\text{Mass of substance}}{\text{Mass of water}},\,\,\,\text{Density=}\frac{Mass}{Volume}$ The density of water at ${{4}^{o}}C$ is more...

#### Notes - Fun with Magnets

Fun With Magnets   Synopsis   ·                     Substances that can attract iron are called magnets.   ·                     Substances can be divided into magnetic and non-magnetic substances.   ·                     Substances that are attracted by a magnet are called magnetic substances. Usually things made up of iron, nickel or cobalt are magnetic.   ·                     Substances that are not attracted by a magnet are called nan-magnetic substances. Paper, plastic and wood are a few examples of non-magnetic substances.   ·                     Magnets are divided into two groups - natural and artificial magnets. Magnetite (lodestone) is a naturally occurring magnet.   ·                     Artificial magnets can be of many shapes and are commonly used in different articles like electric bells, radio, etc.   ·                     The magnetic force or the force of attraction in a magnet is concentrated at the two ends of a magnet. These ends are called poles. They are called the north pole and the south pole.   Properties of magnets (i) There are always two poles in a magnet placed at opposite ends. This holds true even if we break or cut the magnet into smaller pieces. Each piece will have two poles. (ii) When two different magnets are brought closer, like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other. (iii) A magnet, when suspended freely, always comes to rest in a line along the north-south line of that place.   ·                     The bar AB (of iron or steel) to be magnetized is stroked with a bar magnet from one end to the other using the same pole as shown in the figure. This process is repeated for about 50 times.   The end A from where the process starts develops the same polarity as the pole of the magnet stroking and the other end develops the opposite polarity.   ·                     Magnets lose their properties when they are heated, hammered or dropped and if they are not stored properly.   ·                     Magnetism is widely used to more...

#### Notes - Electricity and Circuits

Electricity and Circuits   Synopsis   ·                     Electricity is a form of energy widely used by man.   ·                     The simplest form of a circuit is when the two terminals of a cell are connected to the two terminals of a bulb through a switch.   ·                     In an electric circuit/the direction of current is taken from the positive terminal to the negative terminal of the source.   ·                     When a circuit is complete, current (charges) starts flowing. It stops flowing when the circuit breaks at a point.   ·                     A switch is used to break or complete a circuit.   ·                     Materials that allow electricity to pass through them are called conductors. Most of the metals and impure water are examples of conductors.   ·                     Materials that do not allow electricity to pass through them are called insulators. Dry wood, pure water, air and rubber are examples of insulators.   ·                     To represent an electric circuit certain symbols are being used. A list of few symbols are given below in the table.     more...

#### Notes - Light, Shadows and Reflections

Light, Shadows and Reflection   Synopsis   ?              Objects which emit light energy by themselves are called luminous bodies, e.g., the sun, the stars, and glow worms.   ·                     The bodies which do not have light energy of their own but reflect the light energy falling on them and hence are visible to us are called non-luminous bodies. e.g., the moon, objects around us, books, chairs, buildings, trees, etc.   ?              The moon appears bright due to the reflection of sunlight falling on it.   ?              Transparent bodies are substances through which light is propagated easily, e.g., glass/water/etc.   ?              Translucent bodies are substances through which light is propagated partially, e.g., oil, ground glass, etc.   ?              Opaque bodies are substances through which light is not propagated, e.g., wood, iron, etc.   ?              Light travels in straight lines.   ?              Smooth surfaces like mirrors form images.   ·                     The shadow of an object is formed because of the rectilinear propagation of light. A shadow is the area of darkness formed on the screen, when an opaque body is placed in between the screen and a source of light   ·                     A pin hole camera uses the principle of rectilinear propagation of light. It produces a real image which is much smaller than the object and is inverted (upside down).   ·                     The returning of a light ray passing through an optical medium into the same medium from the surface of the second medium is called the reflection of light.   ?              The surfaces which reflect light are called reflecting surfaces.   ?              Images are different from shadows.

#### Notes - Motion and Measurement of Distances

Motion and Measurement of Distances   Synopsis   ?                     Different modes of transport are used to go from one place to another.   ·                     In ancient times, people used the length of a foot, the width of a finger, the distance of a step as units of measurement. This caused variation and inaccuracy and a need to develop a uniform system of measurement arose.   ?                     Now, the International System of Units (S.I. unit) is followed all over the world.   ·                     A unit is a standardized quantity of a physical property, used as a factor to express quantities of that property.   ·                     A standard unit is the measurement value which remains the same even when it is measured by anybody at any place.   ·                     The standard units of length are millimetre (mm), centimetre (cm), metre (m) and kilometer (km).   ·                     The following is the relationship between the units. $10\text{ }mm=1\text{ }cm$ $100\,\,cm=1\text{ }m$ $1000\text{ }m=1\text{ }km$     ·                     The correct technique of measuring length is the eye being directly in line with the other end of the object as shown in the adjacent figure.   ·                     A thread or string and a ruler are used for measuring the length of a curved line and the circumference of a ball.   Types of motion   ?                     Motion in a straight line is called rectilinear motion.   ·                     A man walking and the motion of a cycle, a bus and that of a car on a straight path are all in translatory motion.   ·                     If the motions of points or parts of an object are along a circular path instead of a straight line path/then the motion of the body is said to be in rotatory motion.   ?                     more...

#### Notes - Fibre to Fabric

Fibre to Fabric   Synopsis   ·                     The thin strands of thread which are used to make yarns are called fibres.   ·                     Yarn is made by twisting the fibres.   ·                     Fibres are of two types - natural and synthetic.   ·                     Natural fibres are obtained either from plants or animals. e.g., cotton, jute, coconut, flax, silk, wool, etc.   ·                     Synthetic fibres are man-made fibres, which are made by using chemicals. e.g., polyester, acrylic, nylon, etc.   ·                     Separating seeds from cotton bolls is called ginning.   ·                     Yarn is spun from cotton fibre using takli or charkha.   ·                     Process of spinning yarn into a fabric is called weaving.   ·                     Jute fibre is made by immersing jute stem in water for a few days.   ·                     Woollen fabric is made by knitting. It is the criss-cross laying of yarns tightly using weaving machines or knitting rods. For example, a sweater is made of a fabric (wool) made of a single yarn (thread).   ·                     Woollen fibres are obtained from the fleece or fur of animals. Silk fibres are more...

#### Food

Food   Food Food is a substance eaten by the living organisms in order to remain alive. Fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, milk, etc. are the examples of food.   Sources of Food Plants: Foods like cereals, pulses, fruits, vegetables, etc. are obtained from the plants. Animals: Food like meat, milk, eggs, honey, etc. are obtained from animals.   Producers and Consumers All living organisms has been broadly classified into two groups: producers and consumers.   Producers: All the green plants make their own food, therefore, green plants are called producers.                                               Consumers: Animals consume the food prepared by green plants, therefore, animals are called consumers.   Types of Consumers Consumers have been classified in the following groups on the basis of their food habits:   Herbivores The animals that eat only plants or plant products, are called herbivores. Cow, buffalo, goat, elephant, horse, rabbit, camel, etc. are the examples of herbivores animals.   Carnivores The animals that eat only other animals are called carnivores. Tiger, lion, cheetah, wolf, snake, etc. are the examples of carnivores animals. Omnivores The animals that eat both plants and animals are called omnivores. Man, bear, dog, crow etc. are the examples of omnivores animals.     Scavengers The animals that eat dead and decaying bodies of other animals are called scavengers. Vulture, hyena, etc. are the examples of scavengers.     Decomposers These are organisms such as bacteria and fungi that break down the dead remains of plants and animals.     Parasites The animals that live in or on the other animals for their survival are called parasites. For example, mosquitoes, flees, leeches, etc.     Components of Food The food that we eat is composed of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water, and roughage.     Functions and Sources of different components of food are given below:
 Circuit components Symbols Cell Battery Tap key Resistor
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#### Fibre to Fabric

Fibre to Fabric   Fibre to Fabric We use clothes for making variety of things like shirts, pants, skirts, sarees, uniforms, bed sheets, blankets, curtains, table cloths, towels, school bags, gunny bags, etc. So clothes are very important for us. In this chapter we will study about different types of fibres.   Clothes: Clothes are fabrics which are made up of yarns and in turn yarns are made up of fibres.   Fibres: Fibres are very thin, thread-like strand from which clothes are made up of.   Yarns: Yarns are made up of fibres. Fibres are turned into long twisted thread by the process of spinning called yarns.   Fabrics: Yarns are woven together to make fabrics. Then fabrics are used to prepare different types of clothes like shirts, pants, bags, etc.   Types of Fibres There are two types of fibres: natural fibres and synthetic fibres.   Natural Fibres The fibres which are obtained from natural sources are called natural fibres. Cotton, wool, silk, flax, and jute are the examples of natural fibres.   Cotton We obtain cotton fibres from cotton plants. Seeds of cotton plants are covered with white, soft cotton fibres. Cotton fibres are separated from seeds by hands or machines. The preparation of clothes or fabrics from cotton wools or cotton fibres involves mainly three processes which are as follows:   Ginning: The process of separating cotton wool from the cotton seeds is called ginning.   Spinning: The cotton fibres from cotton wool are drawn out and twisted to make yarns. This process is called spinning.   Weaving: In the process of weaving two distinct sets of yarns are interlaced at right angles to form a cloth. Cotton is mainly used to make clothes as it is soft and comfortable to wear. Cotton clothes let air in and can absorb sweat, therefore, very useful specially in hot and humid weather.   Wool Wool fibres are obtained from the hair of animals like sheep, goat, rabbit, yak and camel. Wool is cut off from the sheep with a thin layer of skin. The process is known as shearing. After shearing the wool is sent to the mills. Where it is cleaned, combed and spun to make fibre. This fibre is then woven or knitted to make wool clothes. Wool is used for knitting sweaters, shawls and other wool clothes. Wool is a fluffy material and can retain air inside it, therefore, woolen clothes are very useful in winter season.   Silk Silk fibres are obtained from silk worms. Caterpillars of silkworms cover themself from silk fibres called cocoon. The cocoon is boiled in water to separate the silk fibres from the silkworms. The process is known as reeling. Further the obtained silk fibres twisted to obtain silk yarns then silk yarns are woven to make silk clothes. The rearing of silkworm for the production of silk fibres is called sericulture.   Jute Jute fibres are obtained from more...

#### Grouping Materials and their Separation

Grouping Materials and their Separation   Sorting Materials into Groups All the objects that we see around us are made up of matter called materials. Like, animals, insects, birds, plants, trees, houses, machines, tools, tables, chairs, clothes, etc. are objects which are made up of matter. To understand the process of classification, first we have to know the basis of classification.   Basis of Classification The characteristics or properties, which are taken as the base for the classification of given objects, are called basis of classification. There are a number of characteristics which are taken as the basis for classification. Like 'living and non-living', 'natural and artificial’, 'solid, liquid and gas', ' shape', 'colour', etc. Note: You can also classify the materials by selecting the characteristics as per your own choice.   Properties of Matter Now let us understand some properties of matter.   Appearance Some objects have shiny appearance called lustre whereas some materials have dull appearance. For example, gold, silver, copper have shiny appearance whereas paper, wood, rubber have dull appearance.   Hardness and Softness The materials can be classified on the basis of hardness and softness. Candle, wax, rubber are the examples of soft materials whereas iron, diamond, glass are the examples of hard materials.   Solubility Some materials are soluble in water whereas others are not. Sugar, common salt, washing soda, lemon juice are soluble in water whereas glass, plastic, iron, mustard oil, coconut oil are not soluble in water.   Density Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance. The substances which sink in the water have higher density than water and the substances which float on the water have lower density than water. Substances like iron, copper, aluminium, silver, gold and glass have higher density than water whereas wood, plastic, ice, oil and petrol have lower density than water.   Transparency All the materials have been classified into three groups on the basis of transparency.
• Transparent: The materials through which light can pass are called transparent materials. For example, glass, water, air, alcohol, etc.
• Translucent: The materials through which light can pass partially are called translucent materials. For example. Butter paper, ground-glass, muddy water, etc.
• Opaque: The materials through which light cannot pass are called opaque materials.
For example, metals, stones, books, woods, etc.   Pure Substances The substances which are made up of only one kind of atoms or molecules are called pure substances. For example gold, silver, copper, etc.   Mixture When two or more than two different substances are mixed up together a mixture is formed. For example, air is a mixture of many gases like nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and some other gases.   Constituents of a Mixture The different substances which are present in a mixture are called constituents of the mixture. For example, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and many other gases which are present in the air are constituents of air.

#### Changes Arorund Us

Changes Around Us   Changes Around Us We observe changes around us all the time. Changes may occur in shape, size, mass, density, colour, position, temperature, structure or in composition of a substance. So we can define a change as: ‘Transformation in one or more than one physical or chemical properties of a substance is called change’.   Types of Changes Types of changes on the basis of either the changes can be reversed to bring back the original substance or not:   Reversible Change A change which can be reversed to form the 'original substance' is called reversible change. For example, melting of ice, freezing of water, dissolution of salt in water, increase in temperature of a metal rod, etc.   Irreversible Changes A change which cannot be reversed to form the 'original substance' called irreversible change. For example, burning of wood, ripening of fruit, turning milk sour, etc. Types of changes on the basis of either a new substance is formed or not:   Physical Change The change, in which molecules of a substance do not undergo any change or no new substances are formed, are called physical changes. For example, melting of ice, freezing of water, evaporation of water, dissolution of salt in water.   Chemical Change The change, in which molecules of substance undergo change or new substances are formed, are called chemical changes. For example, burning of paper, rusting of iron, spoliation of food, etc. Types of changes on the basis of heat absorbed or evolved:   Exothermic The change in which heat is released. For example, burning of wood.   Endothermic The change in which heat is absorbed. For example, melting of ice.

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 Classification Name of the Nutrient Source Function