Living Organisms and their Habitats
There are a large number of plants in our surroundings. Plants are living things which can make their own food. They are vital for the survival of animals including us. Let's study about the plants in some detail.
Classification of Plants on the Basis of Bearing Flowers
All the plants has been divided into two groups on the basis that either they bear flower or not.
Flowering Plants: The plants, which bear flowers, are called flowering plants. For example, rose, mango, sunflower, grass, lemon, tulsi, peepal, etc.
Non-Flowering Plants: The plants, which do not bear flowers, are called non-flowering plants. For example, ferns, mosses, algae, fungi, etc.
Classification of Plants on the Basis of Size, Nature of Stem and Life-span
Herbs are small plants which have a soft and delicate stem. They have short life-spat. They live for only one or two season. For example, grass, tomato, wheat, paddy, cabbage etc. Banana plant is a herb.
Shrubs are medium sized plants which have hard but not very thick stem. Their lifespan is for many years but less than that of trees. For example, rose, lemon, jasmine, etc.
Trees are tall and big plants which have hard brown thick stem. Their life-span is for many years. For example, mango, neem, palm, coconut, etc.
Climber plants have long, thin and weak stem so they cannot stand upright. They climb up with the help of a support. For example, pea plants, grape vine, glory lily, jasmine, etc.
Creeper plants also have long, thin, and weak stem. Creeper plants do not have special organ for climbing up so they spread out on the ground. For example, strawberry, pumpkin, cucumber, etc.
Parts of a Plant
Root stem, leaves, flowers and fruits are the main parts of plants.
This part of a plant grows below the ground. Root fixes the plant firmly to the soil. It absorbs water and minerals from the soil which are essential for the photosynthesis.
Types of Roots
There are mainly two types of roots: tap root and fibrous root.
Tip root: It consists of a main root called tap root from which a number of branching
Roots arise called lateral roots. For example, mango, radish, mustard, etc.
Fibrous root: It consists of many thin, fibre like roots arising from the base of the stem. For example, grass, wheat, paddy, maize, etc.
Functions of Stem:
- It holds the plants upright.
- It bears branches, leaves, flowers and fruits.
- It transports water from the root to leaves and food from leaves to root.
It is the thin, broad, flat and green part of plants which is attached to stem. Flat green portion of leaf is called more...