Current Affairs 6th Class

  Identification through Definitions and Example   In this lesson, we will try to identify the object/person/anything by its definition or by certain examples. Below are mentioned some example to develop your understanding.   ·                     A person residing in a country of which he is not a citizen. Non-resident ·                     Happening every year                                                                              Annual ·                     Living in water                                                                                        Aquatic ·                     One who does not believe in God                                                              Atheist               ·                     An assembly of hearers                                                                            Audience ·                     The science of plant life                                                                           Botany ·                     A list of the names of books                                                                     Catalogue                                  ·                     One hundred years                                                                                  Century ·                     A letter claimed by nobody                                                                      Dead letter ·                     A book which tells what   various words mean                                            Dictionary ·                     Fit to be eaten Edible       ·                     One who is fit to be elected                                                                      Eligible ·                     That which causes death  Fatal ·                     An imaginary serpent with Many heads                                                      Hydra ·                     Contrary to law                                                                                      Illegal ·                     That which cannot be Moved                                                                   Immovable ·                     That which cannot be heard                                                                     Inaudible ·                     That which cannot be seen                                                                       Invisible ·                     A place containing books for reading or reference                                         Library ·                     To carry away a person forcibly                                                                Kidnap ·                     A lady who attends sick persons or infants                                                  Nurse ·                     Of evil reputation                                                                                    Notorious ·                     A child whose parents are dead                                                                 Orphan ·                     One who is liked by the People                                                                 Popular ·                     A place where birds, animals, etc., are kept                                    Zoo ·                     A woman whose husband is dead                                                  Widow ·                     A rule that is applicable to all                                                                   Universal ·                     Privilege, enjoyed by cityzens                                                                    Right ·                     An examination of body made after death                                                 Postmortem ·                     That which has no equal                                                                          Unique ·                     One who lives on vegetables only                                                  Vegetarian ·  Distinguish between Facts and Opinion   In this chapter, we try to differentiate facts from opinions and also try to find out whether the given opinions follow the fact or not. Some examples are given below to explain how to distinguish between facts and opinion.   ·                     Example 1   Three sentences are given below. You have to identify which sentence is/are fact/s and which is an opinion.   I:  You may not be loyal to the boss but you can give him an apparent sense of loyalty. II:  Loyalty to the boss is considered important. III: Some people can go to any extent to please their boss.   Select your answer from the given choices. (a) I-Fact, II-Opinion, III-Opinion (b) I-Opinion, II-Fact, III-Fact (c) I-Opinion, II-Fact, III-Opinion (d) I-Fact, II-Opinion, III-Fact (e) None of these   Ans.     (a) Loyalty to the boss is certainly very important. It increases your chance of promotion. You might not be loyal to him but you can show him loyalty which will be gainful to you. Hence statement I is fact and statements II and III are opinions.       ·                     Example 2   In the question one fact (statement) followed by two opinions numbered I and II are given. Consider everything in the statement and also both the opinions to be true, then decide which of the two opinions logically follows the given statement.   Give your answer as: (a) if only opinion I follows (b) if only opinion II follows (c) if neither I nor II follows (d) if both I and II follows                         (e) None of these Fact: He stressed on the need to stop the present examination system and its replacement by other methods which would measure the real merit of the students.   Opinions: I.  Examinations should be abolished. II. The present examination system does not measure the real merit of the student.   Ans.     (b)       ·                     Example 3 In this question one fact is followed by two opinions. Fact: Books without knowledge of life are useless.   Opinions: I: All books contain knowledge of life. II: People should try to gain the knowledge of life. (a) if only opinion I is implicit from the given fact (b) if only opinion II is implicit from the given fact (c) if neither I nor II is implicit from the given fact (d) if either I or II is implicit from the given fact (e) None of these   Ans.     (c)      

  Analogy   Analogy means similarity or a relationship between two or more objects. In questions based on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the alternatives provided. This similarity/relationship may be on the basis of properties, kinds, traits, shapes etc.   Given below are some types of relations to help you understand analogy.     ·                     Instrument and Measurement  
S. No. Instrument Measurement
1.      Scale Length
2.      Seismograph Earthquakes
3.      Thermometer Temperature
4.      Balance Mass
5.      Anemometer Wind Vane
6.      Watch Time
    ·                     Quantity and Unit  
S. No. Quantity Unit
  Classification   Everything on the Earth or in the Universe is not unique, it is identical with some other things in various respects. Here, we are giving examples to develop your understanding about the classification:   1.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Guava                      (b) Cauliflower (c) Malta                        (d) Coconut (e) None of these Ans.     (b) Except cauliflower all three are the names of fruits.   2.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Peacock                    (b) Hen (c) Mare                         (d) Bitch (e) None of these Ans.     (a) Here all the given options represent an animal but peacock represents a male animal while the rest represent a female animal.   3.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Square                      (b) Rectangle (c) Triangle                     (d) Area (e) None of these Ans.     (d) All others are geometrical figures.   4.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Gallon                      (b) Ton (c) Quintal                     (d) Kilogram (e) None of these Ans.     (a) All the remaining are units of weight while ?gallon? is the unit of capacity.   5.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Barometer                 (b) Thermometer (c) Diameter                   (d) Lactometer (e) None of these Ans.     (c) All the remaining things are the instruments of measurement.   6.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Rain                         (b) Fog (c) Smoke                      (d) Mist (e) None of these Ans.     (a) All the other items remain in the atmosphere in the form of minute particles.   7.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Direction                   (b) Compass (c) Needle                      (d) Magnet (e) None of these Ans.     (a) All the other are instruments.   8.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Moon                       (b) Jupiter (c) Mars                         (d) Saturn (e) None of these Ans.     (a) All the rest are planets.   9.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Water                       (b) Flower (c) Leaf                         (d) Branch (e) None of these Ans.     (a) All others are the parts of a tree.   10.          Which one is different from the rest three? (a) Kuchipudi                  (b) Kathak (c) Disco                        (d) Manipuri (e) None of these Ans.     (c) All the others are classical dances.   11.          Which one of the following is different from the rest three? (a) Breathing                  (b) Singing (c) Playing                     (d) Writing (e) None of these Ans.     (a) Only breathing is a natural action.   12.          Which one of the following is different from the rest three? (a) Car                          (b) Chariot (c) Cart                          (d) Sledge (e) None of more...
  Comprehensions Based on Stories   Read the stories given below and answer the questions that follow:   ·                     Example 1   You may have heard the name of Tansen - the greatest musician our country had produced. A singer called Mukandan Mishra and his wife lived in Behat near Gwalior. Tansen was their only child. It is said that he was a naughty child. Often, he ran away to play in the forest, and soon learnt to imitate perfectly the calls of birds and animals. A famous singer named Swami Haridas was once travelling through the forest with his disciples. Tired, the group settled down to rest in a shady grove. Tansen saw them. 'Strangers in the forest! he said to himself. 'It will be fun to frighten them'. He hid behind a tree and roared like a tiger. The little group of travellers scattered in fear but Swami Haridas called them together. "Don't be afraid," he said, 'Tigers are not always dangerous. Let us look for this one.? Suddenly, one of his men saw a small boy hiding behind a tree. ?There is no tiger here, master,? he said, ?Only this naughty boy.?   1.            Who was the father of Tansen? (a) Akbar                       (b) Haridas (c) Birbal                       (d) Mukandan Mishra (e) None of these   2.            Where did Tansen live? (a) Chandigarh               (b) Behat (c) Patna                       (d) Delhi (e) None of these   3.            Who was Tansen? (a) Joker                        (b) Minister (c) Musician                   (d) King (e) None of these   4.            Who was Swami Haridas? (a) Magician                   (b) Singer (c) Musician                   (d) Player (e) None of these   ·                     Example 2   His wife was furious and she dived in to hide herself at the bottom of the river leaving the little ones to pester their father. The crocodile was in a serious dilemma. He loved his wife and was very fond of his friend too. Finally lie decided to be on the side of his wife. She was his life-partner after all. ?I know it?s a sin to betray a friend, but I have no choice,? he said to himself ?I?ll invite the monkey home and hope for the best.? ?My wife wants you over for a meal, dear friend,? said the crocodile when he visited the monkey next time, ?You must come home with me today.? ?With pleasure,? said the monkey, ?I?m no swimmer, but can ride on your back.? They set out. In the middle of the river, where the current was the strongest, the crocodile could no longer hide his intention. ?Sorry, my friend,? he said hesitatingly ?but I have to go under water now. I?ve brought you here to more...

  Comprehensions Based on General Topics   ·            Example 1   Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:   Detoxification is a natural process through which the body gets rid of toxins accumulated by ingesting or inhaling chemicals from household cleaners, food additives, drugs, pollution, cigarette smoke and heavy metals like lead, says naturopath, who is part of Mrityunjay, a health organisation that organises detoxification programmes and other lifestyle-related camps. Detoxification takes place when natural products like fruits, vegetables and water are used to transform toxins (anything that can potentially harm body tissue) to less harmful compounds that are excreted via the natural process. People on a detox switch from their regular diet to a detox one for a period of 7 to 40 days depending on their tolerance levels. The diet can include either or all of these foods: water, buttermilk, fruits, vegetables and herbs.   1.            What are toxins? (a) Anything that can potentially harm body tissue (b) A process in which the body gets rid of pollutants (c) Cigarette smoke (d) Drugs (e) None of these   2.            Name the process by which the body gets rid of toxins? (a) Toxification               (b) Chemical analysis (c) Pollution                   (d) Detoxification (e) None of these   3.            How much time detoxification takes to remove the toxins? (a) 1 to 7 years               (b) 7 to 40 days (c) 3 to 10 years             (d) 5 to 20 years (e) None of these   4.            The naturopath in the given passage is a part of: (a) CRY                         (b) WHO (c) Mrityunjay                 (d) UNO (e) None of these   ·                        Example 2 Saumya Sen wasn't technically my father's younger brother. He was a fellow Bengali from Calcutta who had washed up on the barren shores of my parents' social life in the early seventies, when they lived in a rented apartment in central square and could number their acquaintances on one land. But I had no real uncles in America, and so I was taught to call him Saumya Kaku. Accordingly, he called my father Shaurav Da, always addressing him in the polite form, and he called my mother Boudi, which is how Bengalis are supposed to address an elder brother's wife, instead of using her first name, Kajol. After Saumya Kaku was befriended by my parents, he confessed that on the day we met him he had followed my mother and me for the better part of an afternoon around the streets of Cambridge, where she and I tended to roam after I go out of school.   1.            Who is Saumya Sen? (a) Bengali fellow          (b) Author's grandson (c) Nephew                     (d) Author s father (e) more...

Number System and Its Operations   Numbers are the symbolic representation of counted objects. There are infinite counting numbers from 1. Some arc-divisible by another whereas some are not divisible. Numbers are differentiated according to their divisibility and factors. A numeral system is a writing system for expressing numbers. The most commonly used system of numerals is Hindu-Arabic numeral system. In this chapter, we will learn about various numeral systems, types of numbers and operation on numbers.   Indian or Hindu-Arabic Number System This number system was introduced by Indians, and is therefore, called Indian Number System. In this number system 10 is considered as the base. 10 ones = 10, 10 tens = 1 hundred, 10 hundreds = 1 thousand Hindu - Arabic number system is based on the place value of digits in number   Indian Place Value Chart
crores Ten Lakes Lakes Ten Thousand Thousands Hundred Tens Ones
    2 9 8 7 3 5
  The number two lakh ninety-eight thousand seven hundred and thirty-five is written by placing 2 at the place of "lakhs', 9 at the place of "Ten thousands', 8 at "Thousands', 7 at "Hundreds', 3 at "Tens' and 5 at "Ones',   Place Value If a number contains more than one digit then the place more...

Fractions and Decimals   Fraction Fraction is a method for representing the parts of a whole number. An orange is divided into two equal parts and so the first part of orange is half of the whole orange and represented by  of the orange.   TYPES OF FRACTIONS Proper Fractions A fraction whose numerator is less than denominator is called a proper fraction. are proper fractions.   Improper Fractions A fraction is called improper fraction even if:
  •             It has smaller denominator than numerator
  •             It has equal numerator and denominator  are improper fractions.
  Simplest form of a Fraction A fraction is said to be in the simplest or lowest form if its numerator and denominator have no common factor except 1.   Mixed Fractions Combination of a proper fraction and a whole number is called mixed fraction. Every mixed fraction has a whole and a fractional part.   Like and unlike Fraction When two or more fractions have same denominator then they are called like fractions whereas unlike fractions do not have equal denominators.   Equivalent Fractions Two fractions are said to be equivalent if they are equal to each other. Two equivalent fractions may have a different numerator and a different denominator  
  •             Example:
Convert  into a mixed fraction. (a)                                                              (b)              (c)                                                                 (d) All the above   (e) None of these Answer (a)  
  •              Example:
are:   (a) like fractions                                                  (b) unlike fractions (c) equivalent fractions                                  (d) Mixed fractions (e) None of these Answer (b)   OPERATIONS ON FRACTIONS   Addition of Like Fractions Addition of like fractions is the addition of their numerators and common denominator is the denominator of the resulting fraction. Hence, the sum of like fractions   Subtraction of Like Fractions Subtraction of like fractions is same as its addition except that addition is converted into subtraction. Let two like more...

LCM and HCF   LCM (Least Common Multiple) LCM of two or more numbers is their least common multiple, LCM of 4 and 6 is 12, It means, 12 is the least common multiple of 4 and 6, therefore, 12 is exactly divisible by each of 4 and 6.   LCM by Prime Factorization Method The following steps are used to determine the LCIVI of two or more numbers by prime factorisation method: Step 1: Find the prime factors of each number Step 2: Product of highest power of prime factors is their LCM.   LCM by Division Method The following steps are used to determine the LCM of two or more numbers by division method: Step 1: Numbers are arranged or separated in a row by commas. Step 2: Find the number which divides exactly atleast two of the given numbers. Step 3: Follow step 2 till there are no numbers (atleast two) divisible by any number Step 4: LCM is the product of all divisors and indivisible numbers.  
  •             Example:
Find the least number which is exactly divisible by each of 28 and 42. (a) 64                                                                (b) 84            (c) 52                                                                (d) All of these (e) None of these Answer (b) Explanation: \[28\text{ }=\text{ }2\text{ }\times \text{ }2\text{ }\times \text{ }7,\text{ }42\text{ }=\text{ }2\text{ }\times \text{ }3\text{ }\times \text{ }7\] LCM \[=2\times 2\times 3\times 7=\text{ }84\]   HCF (Highest Common Factor) Highest Common Factor is also called Greatest Common Measure (GCM) or Greatest Common Divisor (GCD). H.C.F of two or more numbers is the greatest number which exactly divides each of the numbers.   HCF by Prime Factorization Method The HCF of two or more numbers is obtained by the following steps: Step 1: Find the prime factors of each of the given number. Step 2: Find the common prime factors from prime factors of all the given numbers. Step 3: The product of the common prime factors is their HCF.   HCF by Continued Division Method The HCF of two or more numbers can also be obtained by continued division method. The greatest number is considered as dividend and smallest number as divisor. Follow the following steps to perform the HCF of the given numbers: Step 1: Divide the greatest number by smallest. Step 2: If remainder is zero, then divisor is the HCF of the given number. Step 3: If remainder is not zero then, divide again by considering divisor as new dividend and remainder as new divisor till remainder becomes zero. Step 4: The HCF of the numbers is last divisor which gives zero remainder.   HCF of more than two Numbers The HCF of more than two numbers is the HCF of resulting HCF of two numbers with third number. Therefore, HCF of more than two numbers is obtained by finding more...

Ratio and Proportion   Ratio Ratio of two quantities is the comparison of the given quantities. Ratio is widely used for comparison of two quantities in such a way that one quantity is how much increased or decreased by the other quantity.   For example, Peter has 20 litres of milk but John has 5 litres, the comparison of the quantities is said to be, Peter has 15 litres more milk than John, but by division of both the quantity, it is said that Peter has, \[\frac{20}{5}\text{ }=\text{ }4\]times of milk than John. It can be expressed in the ratio form as 4: 1.   Note: In the ratio\[a:\text{ }b\text{ }\left( b~\ne 0 \right)\], the quantities a and b are called the terms of the ratio and the first term (ie. a) is called antecedent and the second term (i.e., b) is called consequent.   Simplest form of a Ratio If the common factor of antecedent and consequent in a ratio is 1 then it is called in its simplest form.   Comparison of Ratio Comparison of the given ratios are compared by first converting them into like fractions, for example to compare 5: 6, 8: 13 and 9: 16 first convert them into the fractional form i.e.\[\frac{5}{6},\frac{8}{13},\frac{9}{16}\]   The LCM of denominators of the fractions \[=2\times 3\times 13\times 8=\text{ }624\]   Now, make denominators of every fraction to 624 by multiplying with the same number to both numerator and denominator of each fraction. Hence,\[\frac{5}{6}\times \frac{104}{104}=\frac{520}{624},\frac{8}{13}\times \frac{48}{48}=\frac{384}{624}\] and\[\frac{9}{16}\times \frac{39}{39}=\frac{351}{624}\]. Equivalent Tractions of the given fractions are,\[\frac{520}{624},\frac{384}{624},\frac{351}{624}\]We know that the greater fraction has greater numerator, therefore the ascending order of the fractions are, \[\frac{351}{624}<\frac{384}{624}<\frac{520}{624}\] or \[\frac{9}{16}<\frac{8}{13}<\frac{5}{6}\] or 9 : 6 < 8 : 13 < 5 : 6 thus, the smallest ratio among the given ratio is 9 : 16 and greatest ratio is 5 : 6.   Equivalent Ratio The equivalent ratio of a given ratio is obtained by multiplying or dividing the antecedent and consequent of the ratio by the same number. The equivalent ratio of \[a\,\,\times \,\,b\]is \[a\,\,\times \text{ q }:\text{ }b\text{ }\times \text{ }q\]whereas, a, b, q are natural numbers and q is greater than 1, Hence, the equivalent ratios of 5 : 8 are,  
  •              Example:
Mapped distance between two points on a map is 9 cm. Find the ratio of actual as well as mapped distance if 1 cm = 100 m. (a) 10000 : 1                                                      (b) 375 : 1       (c) 23 : 56                                                          (d) 200 : 1 (e) None of these Answer (a) Explanation: Required ratio \[=\text{ }900\text{ }\times \text{ }100:\text{ }9\text{ }=\text{ }90000:\text{ }9\text{ }=-\text{ }10000:\text{ }1\]  
  •              Example:
Consumption of milk in more...

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