When we move our body parts like mouth, head, arms, hand and finger, etc. Then our body may remain at the same place. But when we walk by using legs, than we move our whole body from one place to another. The ability of a human being to move its body from one place to another, is called locomotion.
The Skeletal System
The human skeleton or skeletal system is made up of 206 bones. A baby has 300 bones in all But as it grows, some of the bones fuse together or join. Before we learn more about bones and the Joints and where they are joined together, let us take a look at the functions of the skeletal system.
The bones of our body act as a framework or give a shape to our body. Without bones, our body could be a shapeless mass, say like the body of a snail. It is the movements of the bones that helps us bend, run, walk and so on.
Twenty-two bones make up the skull. These are the hardest of all the bones in the body. Some of tee form the cranium, or the cover for the brain. All the bones of the skull except the one forming the lower Jaw are fixed firmly, and cannot move. Only the bone of the lower jaw is capable of movement, which helps us to eat and speak.
Most of the bones of the skull are fixed. Only the lower jaw can move.
The spine also called the vertebral column or backbone, the spine consists of 33 small bones known as vertebrae (singular: vertebra). The vertebrae are hollow at the centre and are joined together form a tube, through which runs the spinal cord.
One of the functions of the vertebral column is to protect the spinal cord. The other functions are to hold the body up and help us bend forward, backward, sideways and twist from the waist.
Running through the centre of the chest is the breastbone or sternum. Joined to it are 10 pairs of strong, flexible bones called ribs. The ribs curve around and join the chest vertebrae at the back, to form a protective cover for the lungs and heart, called the ribcage. Another two pairs of ribs are joined only to the backbone. These are called floating ribs. The ribs are attached to the sternum in such a way as to allow the ribcage to expand when we inhale, or breathe in and contract when we exhale, or breathe out.
The Shoulder Bones
In shoulder bone each collar bone (clavicle) is attached to a shoulder blade (scapula) and to the breastbone.
Motion and Measurement of Distances
The quantities like length, mass, time etc. that can be measured are called physical quantities.
Measurement: It is the comparison of an unknown quantity with a certain fixed quantity of the same kind.
Unit of Measurement: A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a physical quantity. For example metre, centimetre, kilometre etc are units of length.
Standard Unit: For the sake of uniformity, scientists all over the world have accepted a system of units called SI system. In the SI System
The unit of length is metre (m).
The unit of mass is kilogram (kg).
The unit of time is second (s).
Other system used are FPS, CGS and MKS.
Multiples and Submultiples of Units
1 centimetre (cm) =10 millimetres
1 decimetre (dm) = 10 centimetres = 100 mm
1 metre (m) = 100 centimetres
1 metre (m) = 1000 millimetres
1 kilometre (km) = 1000 metres
1 gram (g) = 1000 milligrams
1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams
1 kilogram (kg) = 1000000 milligrams
1 quintal = 100 kilograms
1 metric ton = 1000 kilograms
1 minute = 60 seconds
1 hour = 60 minutes
1 day = 24 hours
1 year = days
1 century =100 years
1 millennium = 1000 years
If an object changes its position with respect to time, the body is said to be in motion. If an object does not change its position with respect to time. The object is said to be at rest.
Types of Motion
There are different types of motions. Let us know about them.
Rectilinear Motion: Motion in a straight path. For example, ear moving on straight road.
Circular Motion: Motion in a circular path. For example, toy train moving on a circular path.
Periodic Motion: The motion which repeats itself after a regular interval of time. For example, motion of hands of clock.
Rotational Motion: Spinning of an object about a fixed axis. For example, motion giant wheel and rotation of earth.
Electricity and Magnets
Electricity is a form of energy called electrical energy. We can convert electrical energy into various other forms of energies easily.
The path through which electric current can flow is known as electric circuit. A simple electric circuit is made up of a bulb, wire and an electric cell. An electric cell has two terminals: a positive terminal and a negative terminal. A wire is connected from positive terminal to negative terminal of the cell and the bulb is connected to the wire so that current can flow through bulb.
Closed Circuit: When there is no gap in an electric circuit or the normal path of current has not been interrupted, the circuit is known as closed or complete circuit.
Open Circuit: When there is a gap in an electric circuit or the normal path of current has been interrupted, the circuit is known as an open circuit or incomplete circuit.
Conductors and Insulators
The substances which allow electric current to pass through them are called conductors. For example, copper, gold, silver, aluminium, iron, etc. are good conductors of electricity. The substances which do not allow electric current to pass through them are called insulators For example, wood, plastic, paper, rubber, etc. are insulators.
An electric cell is a device which can generate electric current in a closed circuit. It is small and easily portable so it is very useful for us. There are a number of machines like watches, calculators, toys, cars, etc. in which electrical cell is used to produce electric current. Dry cell, button cell, solar cell are the examples of electric cell.
A dry cell is a cylindrical device in which a number of chemicals are stored. It has a metal cap on one side called positive terminal and a metal sheet at other side called negative terminal. It produces electric current from the chemical stored inside it.
An electric bulb is a device which produces light energy using electrical energy. It consists of a glass bulb fixed on a metal case, a thin wire fixed between the two thick wires called filament of the bulb and the gas filled inside the glass bulb. When electric current passes through the filament, it emits light which makes the bulb glow.
Magnet is a substance which attracts magnetic materials such as iron, nickel, steel and cobalt. Magnets are of different shapes and sizes. For example, U-shaped magnate cylindrical magnet, bar magnet, etc. Each magnet has two poles, southpole and north pole.
Magnetic Materials: The materials which are attracted by a magnet are called magnetic materials. For example, iron, nickel, steel more...
Water is an abiotic component of the environment which is essential for the survival of life on the earth. It is present on the earth in all three states solid, liquid and gas. It covers about 71% of the earth surface.
Importance of Water
It is the water which makes life possible on earth. Without water existence of life was not possible on the earth. Therefore, water is very important for all of us.
Water is essential for the survival of life.
Water provides shelter to the large variety of plants and animals.
Plants use water for preparing food.
Water is essential for germination of seeds and their growth.
Uses of Water
Water is used for different purposes in our day to day life.
Water is used for drinking, bathing, cooking and cleaning clothes.
Water is used for irrigation in agriculture.
Water is used in the industries for the production of various substances.
Water is used for the production of electricity.
States of Water
Water is found on earth in all the three states.
Solid: Snow is the solid state of water. When water is cooled, it is converted into ice. This process is known as freezing or solidification.
Liquid: When ice is heated, it is converted into water. This process is known as melting. Condensation is the process by which water vapor cooled down to convert into water.
Gas: Water vapor is gaseous state of water. When liquid water is heated, it gets convened into water vapor. This process is known as evaporation.
The continuous circulation of water from the earth's surface to atmosphere and from the atmosphere back to the earth is called water cycle.
Due to sunlight water from the different sources converts into water vapor. These water vapors rise up in the atmosphere and condense to water drops forming cloud. Then they return back to the surface of earth in the form of rain.
Sources of Water
Oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, ponds, rainwater and ground water are the sources of water.
Rain Water: Rainwater is the purest form of water. It collects on the earth in the form of surface water and underground water.
Surface Water: Water present on the surface of the earth in the form of oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, ponds and streams is called surface water. Ocean contains almost 97% of water present on the earth. But it is saline therefore it is unfit for drinking.
Underground Water: Some of the rainwater seeps through the soil and gathers in the non-porous rocks below. This water is known as underground water.
Conservation of Water
As we have studied earlier water is very important for us. So we must conserve water whenever it is possible. Some ways more...
Reasoning and Aptitude
Reasoning and logic skills are an integral part of subjects like Mathematics. In this chapter, we will learn various problems related to reasoning and aptitude.
Problems Based on Missing Numbers
In these types of problems, we find out a missing number from a given set of numbers, which is appropriate and follow a certain pattern.
Complete the series given below:
4, 10, 26, 72, 208, 614?
(a) 1815 (b) 1820
(c) 1830 (d) 1836
(e) None of these
Explanation: Here the pattern is given below:
Problems Based on Coding-decoding
In these types of problems, you will learn to code a word by using a certain pattern or rule.
If 'SAMPLE' is coded as TMNOBF then how would you code 'CLIMAX'?
(a) YBJLMD (b) YJBMLD
(c) XJMNLD (d) DBJLMY
(e) None of these
Explanation: Here we have the following pattern.
Problems Based on Puzzle
In these types of problems, the given information is summarized by a table.
Joseph and John are good in hockey and cricket. Ketan and Yash are good in cricket and football. Arjun and Tuffey are good in baseball and volleyball. Ketan and Tapan are good in hockey and baseball.
Based on above information answer the given question.
Who is good in Hockey, Cricket, Football and baseball?
(a) Joseph (b) John
(c) Ketan (d) Yash
(e) None of these
CompositionsLettersLetters are mainly of
three types:Personal Letter: Those
letters which are written to our relatives friends and to known persons. Business
Letter: Those letters which are written to business mass traders and business firms.
Official Letters: Those letters which are written to government officers such
as postmaster, principal, etc.A letter consists of six
parts which are shown below as example.1.Heading2.The salutation or greeting3.The body4.The subscription5.Signature6.AddressA. You
are Kavi Naik residing at A-39, Mohan Nagar, Allahabad. You with your family
have planned a visit to Delhi to meet your brother, Rahul Naik residing at 31,
Sainik Vihar, Delhi. Write a letter to your brother telling him about the tour.To,Rahul Naik31, Sainik
Vihar, Delhi20th May,
2018SUB : TOUR
Rahul,You will be happy to know
that we are coming to Delhi to spend some time with you. Father, mother, sister
and I, all will reach Delhi by 35th May. Please make sure all the necessary
arrangements are made before we reach. Love from all of us. Your
are Ankur Garg studying in R.P.S Public School in DelhL Your family is living in Orissa« Your class
is going to Agra for a picnic. Write a letter to your father requesting him to
grant the permission to go with your class.To,Dear
Father,I am glad to know that you
all are enjoying life there in Orrisa. I have a good news for you that all
students of our class have planned a picnic to Agra. I want to go with them.
The cost of my trip will be paid by the school because I scored highest marks
in the school.I kindly request you to
please allow me to join this trip. Yours
lovinglyAnkur GargC. You are Suman Kumar studying in class VIth
G.B.S.S. School. Write a letter to the principal of your school requesting him
for school uniform from school stock.To,The
Nagar, Delhi - 9226th Aug.
Sir,I am Sumant Kumar, a
student of VIth B of your school. My father is a poor man and he is
hardly able to look after the family. Last year I scored more...
EssayDisaster ManagementManagement is directly
related to planning about future means, what will be the alternate options if
your present plan does not work. Similarly managing the situation for disaster.
Disasters are generally very destructive in nature. It results huge loss to
life and necessary commodities. If it is a case of flood the basic articles
like food, matches, drinking water, medicines become big issues because these
things get washed away with the flood. Crops, animals and houses also suffer a
big loss. To come to normal situation it takes several years. Earthquake or war
with a country pushes the country a decade behind. Earthquake destroys the
buildings, roads, powder plants and loss to life is large in numbers. People
overcome from financial loss but they can not overcome from emotional loss
occurred in these disasters. So, it is the responsibility of Government to take
action to ensure for the basic facilities in case of disasters. And also it is
the responsibility of a common man to take care of all these things.InflationAn indirect attack to
Indian economy- inflation slows down the growth rate of any economy. As
inflation is the flow of money decreases into the market. We know that inflation
is directly proportional to purchasing power of rupees. In the last few months inflation
cracked some new records. It touched around 12% (11.68%) which was really very
high and government was not able to control it. But slowly and gradually it came
down. The inflation is said to be good if it is between 4 to 6%. Inflation
calculation contains so many commodities which are used in day to day life. The
possible factors for the growth of inflation may be American economy, prices of
oil, National Stock Exchange of Europe, production-agriculture and also
political movement in the country. All these mentioned factors decide the
inflation.Mobile: Need, Fashion
NecessityThe symbol of status is now
the means of communication, a common man is now carrying a mobile phone. Even a
low earning person like vegetable vendor, milk man, bangle seller, street
hawker, newspaper vendor is using mobile. Now-a-days handsets are so cheap that
you can purchase at Rs. 501 a new handset. Wherever you are at any time you can
contact anybody and share your thoughts. For businessman, it is nothing without
mobile. Similarly for a doctor, it can save life of someone who needs a doctor urgently.
Earlier mobile was used by only army and police personnel, but in the last few years,
government decided to make it available for all. So that masses could get
benefit from it. But few handsets which are full of facilities like MP3
ringtone, camera, bluetooth, etc., are symbols of status or way of fashion
also.Time MachineTime keeps changing,
everyone know\s this fact but most more...
ParagraphsA paragraph is a number of
sentences grouped together and relating to one topic, or a group of related
sentences that develop a single point.A Car AccidentIt is the mad craze for
speed that is responsible for many motor accidents. Only last year I witnessed
what might have been a fatal accident on the Kashmir road. I was motoring down
from Srinagar, and as I was nearing Kohala. I came upon the wreckage of two cars
on the road. The smash had been caused, by a car coming down, which swept round
a sharp corner at forty miles an hour and crashed into a car coming up. Happily
no one was killed; but several were badly injured, and the two cars were
wrecked. To drive at such a speed down a twisting mountain road is simply to
court disaster.Republic DayIndia became a Sovereign
Republic on 26th January 1950. On this day our new Constitution prepared by
Constitution Committee was introduced. On this day, the government was formed
by the people of India according to the new Constitution. This day reminds us
of the past and the dark period of the Britishers when we were not free. Many
freedom fighters sacrificed their lives for the freedom of India. The efforts
of the patriots forced the British rulers to quit India for ever. We celebrate
this day in a special manner. The President of India takes the salute of the
Jawans of Army, Navy and Air Fierce. The Government buildings are illuminated
at night.Diwali FestivalIndia is called a land of
fairs and festivals. Of all these festivals, Diwali is the most important
religious festival of the Hindus. It is celebrated all over India with great
pomp and show. It generally falls in the end of October or in the beginning of
November. It is celebrated in honour of Rama's return to Ayodhya after fourteen
years of exile. Houses and shops are cleaned and whitewashed for this colourful
festival many days in advance. Sweets, toys and fireworks are in great demand.
Children enjoy themselves heartily They wear new clothes. There is great
feasting. Gifts are exchanged with friends and relatives. At night people
illuminate their houses with earthen lamps, candles or electric bulbs and
Judging Story LogicIn this chapter, we will
learn to make a logical story from the given sentences or incidents in jumbled
form. First two are solved as an example for you.·Example1.Arrange P, Q, R and S in
order to make a sensible story:P: He asked her what was
wrong and she replied, ?I wanted to buy a red rose for my mother. But I only
have seventy-five cents, and a rose costs two dollars.? The man smiled and
said, ?Come on in with me. I'll buy you a rose.?Q: A man stopped at a
flower shop to order some flowers to be wired to his mother who lived two
hundred miles away. As he got out of his car he noticed a young girl sitting on
the curb sobbing.R: She directed him to a
cemetery, where she placed the rose on a freshly dug grave. The man returned to
the flower shop, canceled the wire order, picked up a bouquet and drove the two
hundred miles to his mother's house.S: He bought the little
girl her rose and ordered his own mother's flowers. As they were leaving he
offered the girl a ride home. She said, "Yes, please! You can take me to
my mother."Select the correct option
among the given choices.(a) PRQS
(b) RPQS(c) QPSR
(d) SPQR(e) None
of theseAns. (c)2.Arrange P, Q, R and S in
order to make a sensible story.P: The two frogs ignored
the comments and tried to jump up out of the pit with all their might. The
other frogs kept telling them to stop, that they were as good as dead.Q: He jumped even harder and
finally made it out. When he got out, the other frogs said, ?Did you not hear
us?? The frog explained to them that he was deaf. He thought they were
encouraging him the entire time.R: A group of frogs were
travelling through the woods, and two of them fell into a deep pit. When the
other frogs saw how deep the pit was, they told the two frogs that they were as
good as dead.S: Finally one of the frogs
took heed to what the other frogs were saying and gave up. He fell down and
died. The other frog continued to jump as hard as he could. Once again, the
crowd of frogs yelled at him to stop the pain and just die.Select the correct
option among more...
Judging Logic of Action
In this topic, we will learn to arrange sentences, actions
in a logical order.
Arrange A, B, C and D in logical order to find out the
correct order of actions:
A: Ernest Rutherford was the son of a Scot emigrant in New
Zealand. His parents had 12 children, of whom Ernest was the fourth. His
education was in a state primary school from the age of 15 where children could
get grants of scholarships to secondary schools and to the universities.
B: Rutherford had no intention of following an academic
career. He was not a bookworm. He was good in anything rough-and-tumble and a
keen football player. But he was good at Latin and he had a passion for 'music
and a mechanical bent of mind.
C: At Nelson College, a state boarding school, he was an
outstanding pupil, he sat for a scholarship to Canterbury College and this was
because his masters expected it of him, and he won it.
D: There, Rutherford as a student was fascinated by
Hertz's work on radio weaves and he began to conduct his own experiments in the
clock room of the college, where the students, hung their gowns.
Select the correct answer from the
(a) ABDC (b) DCAB
(c) ABCD (d)
(e) None of these
Arrange A, B, C and D in order to logically to find out
the correct order of actions:
A: There are two ways of avoiding fear. One is by
persuading ourselves that we are immune from disaster, and the other is by the
practice of sheer courage. The latter is difficult, and for everybody it
becomes impossible at a certain point.
B: The former has, therefore, always been more popular.
Primitive magic has the purpose of securing safety, either by injuring enemies
or by protecting oneself by talismans, spells or incantations.
C: Without any essential change, belief in such ways of
avoiding danger survived throughout the many centuries of Babylonian
civilisation, spread from Babylon throughout the Empire of Alexander and was
acquired by the Romans in the course of their absorption of Hellenistic
D: From the Romans it descended to medieval Christendom
and Islam. Science has now lessened the belief in magic, but many people place
more faith in mascots than they are willing to avow, and sorcery, while
condemned by the Church, is still officially a possible sin.
Select the correct answer from the
(a) ABDC (b) ABCD
(c) ACDB (d) BACD
(e) None of these