Current Affairs 6th Class

*     Verb Forms     *      The following are the five forms of verb. Present Tense form                                             :               \[({{V}^{1}})\]  -Go          Come                      Eat Past Tense form                                                   :               \[({{V}^{2}})\] -Went     Came                    Ate Past participle form                                            :               \[({{V}^{3}})\] -Gone      Come                       Eaten Ing form                                                                 :               \[({{V}^{4}})\] -Going      Coming                    Eating Present Tense Third Person Singular form      :               \[({{V}^{5}})\] - Goes    Comes                      Eats       *      The following are the five forms of verb:  
Present \[{{\text{V}}_{\text{1}}}\] Past \[{{\text{V}}_{2}}\] Past P.\[{{\text{V}}_{3}}\] Present Co.\[{{\text{V}}_{4}}\] Present Th. P. Si.\[{{\text{V}}_{5}}\]
Arise        Arose        Arisen       Arising      Arises
Arrive        Arrived      Arrived      Arriving      Arrives
Become      Became     Become      becoming    Becomes
Break Broke Broken Breaking Breaks
Buy Bought Bought more...
*     Kind of Verbs There are three kinds of verbs
  •   Transitive verb
  •   Intransitive verb
  •   Auxiliary verb  
  •   *        Transitive Verb The verb which requires an object after it to complete its sense is called Transitive verb.   Look at the following sentences:
    •  He arrived little early.
    •  Robert provokes me to do the mischief.
    •  The hunter kills the animals brutally.
    •  English has taken the center stage.
    In the sentence given above, verbs "arrived, "provokes", "kills" and "has taken" can't make complete sense. They need the object to make sense. Therefore, they are transitive verb.     *       Intransitive Verb The verb that does not require an object to complete its sense, but makes complete sense by itself is called an Intransitive Verb. Look at the following sentences:
    •   The bell rings.
    •   The flowers blossom.
    •   The fire burns.
    •   The earth moves.
    In the sentence given above, "rings", "blossom", "burns" and "moves" do not need object to complete their sense. They make a complete sense themselves. So these verbs are Intransitive Verbs.     *        Auxiliary Verb The verb which helps the main verb change its form is called Auxiliary or Helping Verb.   Look at the following sentences:
    •   The gardener is watering the plants.
    •   The boy has broken the glass.
    •   I am in a hurry.
    •   These people are laborious.
    In first and second sentences, the words "is" and "has" are helping the verbs "water" and "break" to change their forms. In sentences three and four, the words "am" and "are" themselves are doing the work of a verb. These words are also a kind of verbs. These are Auxiliary or Helping Verbs.   There are three kinds of main verbs, i.e. helping verbs, regular verbs, and irregular verbs.   See some more examples of helping verbs:
    •   The horses are running.
    •   The sun has risen in the sky.
    •   The boat is sailing in the river.
    •   The bird will fly in the air.
    In the above given sentences the words "are", "has", "is" and "will" are helping the verbs "run", "rise", "sail" and "fly" to change their forms. These words are also a kind of verb. These are called Helping Verbs.   Linking Verb: The verb that needs a complement to make a meaningful sentence is called a Linking verb. (A)    Subjective complement The complement describes subject. e.g. The soup is hot. Hot describes the soup (subject). (B)    Objective Complement The complement describes object e.g. They chose Gandhi, their leader. Leader describes Gandhi (object)  

    *   Definition   A verb is a word which shows an action, state of being or possession of a noun or pronoun.                                                                                                    Or The word which says something about a noun or pronoun is called a Verb. (All saying words are verbs)     *     Look at the following sentences:
    •  Subhro had a good opportunity in his hand.
    •  Terrorists attacked the Parliament.
    •  He will proceed as per rule.
    In the sentence given above, the word had, attacked and will proceed are verbs.   Generally verb is divided into two parts. They are the following: 1.  Helping verbs: Is, are, am, was, were, has, had, will, shall, etc. 2.  Main verbs: Go, read, write, learn, sing, walk, talk, etc. Verbs are divided into various kinds as per other criteria as well. See the following:  

    *    Kinds of Pronoun   There are eight kinds of pronoun. They are the following: 1. Personal Pronoun 2. Demonstrative Pronoun 3. Interrogative Pronoun 4. Reflexive Pronoun 5. Possessive Pronoun 6. Distributive Pronoun 7. Indefinite Pronoun 8. Emphatic or Emphasizing Pronoun.       *        Personal Pronoun The pronouns that are used for a person or a thing is called personal pronoun. Personal pronouns are used both as Subject and Object.
    •   I am obliged to you forever.
    •   We have sent him prior notice.
    •   He is a nice person.
    •   She was in extreme hurry.
    •   It was a matter of great concern for all of us.
    In the sentences given above, the words we, you, he, she, they and it are used in the place of nouns. These are personal pronouns.       *       Demonstrative Pronouns A demonstrative pronoun identifies and specifies a noun or a pronoun. There are four demonstrative pronouns. They are: this, that, these, those. "This" and "these" refer to nouns that are nearby in time or space. "That" and "those" refer to nouns that are further away in time or space. "This" and "that" refer to singular nouns; "These" and "those" refer to plural nouns.     *     Look at the following sentences:
    • This fruit tastes delicious. (This is the subject of the sentence.)
    • I don't like this. (This is the direct object of the sentence.)
    • That will continue for an hour. (That is the subject of the sentence.)
    • Steve remembered that. (That is the direct object of the sentence.)
    • These look good. (These is the subject of the sentence.)
    • I'll take these. (These is the direct object of the sentence.)
    • Those belong to me. (Those is the subject of the sentence.)
    • Jack brought those. (Those is the direct object of the sentence.)
    Note: "This", "that", "these", and those can be used as demonstrative adjectives as well as demonstrative pronouns.       *       Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun that is used in order to ask a question. Some of them refer only to people, like "who" and others refer to people and objects, like "what". They do not distinguish between singular and plural, so they have only one form.   example.jpg  
    •  What is your strength?
    •  What are you doing?  
    See the following interrogative pronouns: What, Which, Who, Whose, Whom, Etc. The word (pronoun) what can be used to ask about objects or people.     example.jpg  
    •  What time is it?
    •  What is your name?
    •  What do you want?  
    The word (pronoun) which can be used to ask about objects or people.     more...

    *     Introduction   Pronouns are the words that are used 'in place of a noun. Pronouns are used to avoid the repetition of nouns in a sentence. For example:  he, she it, they etc.  

    *     Types of Sentence as per Structure   Sentences are divided into the following types according to their structure. (i) Simple (ii) Compound (iii) Complex         *        Simple Sentences Simple sentences contain no conjunction i.e., and, but, or, etc.     example.jpg Serena was a brilliant student. He was punctual. It was a tragic incident     *       Compound Sentences Compound sentences contain two statements that are connected by a conjunction i.e., and, but, or, etc.       example.jpg   He wanted to wish him, but he couldn't dare to do so. The players performed exceptionally well, so they were rewarded.     *       Complex Sentences Complex sentences contain a dependent clause and at least one independent clause. The two clauses are connected by a subordinator i.e., which, who, although, despite, if, since, etc.       example.jpg   1.       My daughter, who was late for class arrived shortly after the bell rang. 2.       That's the man who bought our house. 3.       Although it was difficult, the class passed the test with excellent marks.       Summary.jpg  
    • A group of words which makes complete sense is called Sentence.
    • The words in a sentence are placed in their proper order to make complete sense.
    • A sentence always begin with a capital letter.
    • Assertive sentence ends with full stop.
    • Interrogative sentence ends with a Question Mark (?).
    • The subject 'you' is generally hidden in imperative sentence.
    • Exclamation mark (!) is put at the end of exclamatory sentence.
    • A question begins with either Helping Verb (is, am, are, was, were, has, have, had, do, does, did, can, will, shall, may, etc.) or Question word (What, where, how, when, whom, which, why, etc.)  

    *     Kinds of Noun   There are five kinds of noun 1. Proper Noun 2. Common Noun 3. Collective Noun 4. Material Noun 5. Abstract Noun     *       Proper Noun A proper noun is the special word (or name) that we use for a person, place or organization, like John, Marie, London, France or Sony. A name is a noun, but a very special noun - a proper noun.     example.jpg   Steve, Ram, Sachin, Madhu Delhi, Asia, America, India, Mumbai Honda, Maruti Nirulas January, Sunday Mahabharat, Titanic, Ganga, Yamuna etc.     *       Common Noun Definition: A common noun is word which is used as general/common for a group of people, places, things, or ideas.       example.jpg     People: man, girl, boy, mother, father, child, person, teacher, student Animals : cat, dog, fish, ant, snake Things : book, table, chair, phone Places : school, city, building, shop Ideas : love, hate, idea, pride     *     The following is the list of common nouns:
    Kitchen           Bedroom              Bathroom
    Front room        Backyard               Front yard
    Church           Grocery Store           Mall
    Parade          Amusement Park       Restaurant
    Tools              Car                      Library
    Ocean            Forest                 Closet
    Toys             Zoo                   Countries
    Doctor's Office    Veterinarian             Sports
    Buildings         more...
    *     Definition   A word, which is used to denote the name of anything, that is, a person, place, thing or quality, is called a noun. A noun is also called the naming word.     *       See the following sentences: 1. Steve and Smith made a desperate attempt together to win the team game. 2. Gir forest is the natural home of lions in India. 3.  India is a land of festivals   In the sentence given above Steve and Smith are the names of persons, Lion is an animal, Gir forest is the name of a place, India is the name of a country. These names are Nouns. (i)   All naming words are nouns.                         E.g. Names of birds, insects, flowers, fruits, material etc. (ii)  Words denoting feeling of heart and quality or state of human beings are also noun.        E.g. Childhood, Honesty, Poverty, Happiness etc.  

    *      Practice Exercise   Read the given sentences carefully and write their kinds.       How will you carry such a heavy box?   Solution: Interrogative Sentence         He has taken an exclusive interview.   Solution: Assertive Sentence           What a lovely figure!   Solution: Exclamatory Sentence         The extreme weather condition has really made the situation difficult for the players.   Solution: Affirmative Sentence           Question.jpg     Read the following sentences carefully and choose the kind of sentence       USSR was one of the super powers after the Second World War. (A) Statement                                                   (B) Interrogative (C) Imperative                                                   (D) Exclamatory (E) Optative   Answer: (A) Explanation: The sentence states a fact.         AIas! He met an accident. (A) Assertive                                                      (B) Interrogative (C) Imperative                                                   (D) Exclamatory (E) Optative   Answer: (D) Explanation: 'Alas!' shows exclamation.      

    *     Kinds of Sentences   Sentence can be divided into five kinds. 1. Statement                              (or Assertive Sentence) 2. Question                                (or Interrogative Sentence) 3. Command                             (or Imperative Sentence) 4. Exclamation                         (or Exclamatory Sentence) 5. Optative                                 (or Optative Sentence)     *       Look at the following sentences:
  • He was administered by his parents.
  • There is a great impact of Bollywood on Indian people.
  • Why were you raising questions unnecessarily?
  • What was the location of the island that submerged into the sea?
  • So away from here.
  • He said to me, "please lend me some money".
  • Do not touch the wire.
  • Wow! What a beautiful monument this is!
  • What a spectacular scene it was!
  • May you get well soon.
  •     *       The sentences given above have different expressions: Sentences 1 and 2 express statements in a general way. Sentences 3 and 4 express questions. Sentences 5, 6 and 7 express an order, a request or a prohibition. Sentences 8 and 9 express happiness and surprise. Sentence 10 expresses a wish or a desire.     *       Statement   (Assertive sentence or declarative) A sentence that says or states something is called an assertive or declarative sentence. The sentence which says something in general way is called a statement or an assertive sentence.       *      Look at the following sentences:
  • He said to me, "I was busy in my work".
  • Sachin Tendulkar is considered as one of the greatest cricketers in the History of game.
  • The Prime Minister of India is an economist.
  • The advancement of technology has really revolutionized our world.
  •   There are Two Types of Statements
  • Affirmative Statement
  • Negative Statement
  •   *      Affirmative Statement The sentence which affirms something is called Affirmative Statement. Look at the following sentences: 1. He was pleased to hear the good news. 2. Mobile has become an integral part of our life. These sentences state positive facts or affirm something. So these are Affirmative Statements.       *     Negative Statement The sentence which denies something is called Negative Statement. Look at the following sentences: 1. He was not pleased to hear the good news. 2. Mobile has not become an integral part of our life. The sentence given above deny something. So these are Negative Statements.       *      Question A sentence that asks a question is called a question or an interrogative sentence. Look at the following sentences:
  • When will you reach here?
  • Did they miss the golden opportunity?
  • How will you manage to do these all by yourself?
  • Who was more...


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