# Current Affairs 6th Class

#### Working with Word Processing 2013

Working with Word Processing 2013   Introduction Microsoft word 2013 is a word processing program that is used to create professional - looking documents such as reports, resumes, letters, memos and newsletters.   By using Word, it is easy to efficiently create a wide range of business and personal documents, from the simplest letter to the most complex report. Word includes many desktop publishing features that you can use to enhance the appearance of documents so that they are visually appealing and easy to read.   Using MS-Word you can performs that following functions:   v  Create professional looking documents. v  Change selection preferences. v  Customize Auto Correct. v  Learn how well you can write (technically). v  Make comments and suggestions. v  Spelling and Grammar check in a document. v  Inserting picture in a document. v  Inserting table and chart in a document.   Starting MS-Word   To start MS-Word, follow the following steps:   v  Click start button. v  Select All Apps. v  Click Microsoft Office 2013 and select Word 2013. Or v  Type the 'winword', in cortana in 'type here to search' box.   MS-Word Windows 2013     Features of MS-Word 2013   Title bar    This bar is located at the top of the window and displays the name of the document which is active.   Minimize Button   This button is located on the upper right corner of the window. It is the first button of existing three buttons.   Maximize/Restore   This button is also located on the upper right corner of the window. It is the second button of existing three buttons. It basically changes the size of the window.   Document Close Button   This button is located on the upper right corner of the window. It is the third button of existing three buttons. It is basically used for closing the document on window.   Menu Bar    It is the list of main menu choices located below the title bar.   Scroll Bar     It allows scrolling the document up and down or from left to right. There are two types of scroll more...

#### Introduction to MS-Excel 2013

Introduction to MS-Excel 2013   Introduction Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program that is used to record and analyses numerical data. It is designed to perform calculations, analyze and visualize data in a spread-sheet. Alphabetical letters are usually assigned to columns and numbers are usually assigned to rows. The point where a column and a row meet is called a cell. The address of a cell is given by the letter representing the column and the number representing a row.   An Excel 2013 Window:     What is a Workbook? A workbook is a collection of worksheets. Excel files are called workbooks. Whenever you start a new project, you will need to create a new workbook. There are several ways to start working with a workbook. You can choose to create a new workbook either with a blank workbook or with a predesigned template.   To create a new blank workbook 1. Select the File tab.     2. Select new, then click blank workbook     3. A new blank workbook will appear   To open an existing workbook In addition to creating new workbooks, you will often need to open a workbook that was previously saved. Listed below are the steps for opening an existing workbook. 1. Select file tab, then click open. 2. Select computer, then click Browser.   3. The open dialog box will appear. Locate and select your workbook, then click open.   To create a new workbook from a template A template is a predefined spreadsheet that can be used to create a new workbook quickly. It saves a lot of time and effort when starting a new project.   Listed below are the steps for creating a new workbook from a template: 1. Click the file tab, then click new, several templates will appear below the blank workbook option.     2. Select a template to review it.   3. A preview of the template will appear, along with additional information on how the template can be used.   4. Click create to use the selected template.   Insert, Delete and Rename Worksheets   Insert Worksheet By default, workbook 2013 contains only one worksheet. You can insert additional worksheets as needed.   v  Click on Home tab under cell group click on Insert sheet. Or v  Use 4- button located on the right side of the sheet tab, to insert new sheet.   Delete Worksheet If you do not need a worksheet, you can delete it from the workbook.   v  Click on the Home tab, under cell group, click on delete sheet. Or v more...

#### Series Completion and Inserting The Missing Character

SERIES   A series is a uniform set of digits, letters, figures etc. In a series, the terms fall according to a certain rule. To complete a series or to identify a missing term, a candidate is required to identify the rule on which the given series has been formed. Let us illustrate readers with the help of examples and its explained answers.     EXAMPLE   1.         Choose the missing term in the given series. 1, 2, 4, 8, 7, 32                  (a) 12                            (b) 16                            (c) 20                            (d) 28   Explanation (b): In the given series, each term except first term is twice its preceding term. Second term $=2\times 1=2$ Third term $=2\times 2=4$ Fourth term $=2\times 4=8$ Fifth term $=\text{ }2\times 8=16$ Sixth term $=\text{ }2\times 16=32$ Thus, required term = 5th term = So, the correct option is (b).       2.         Identify the missing term. 5, 7, 11, 13, ?, 19, 23               (a) 17                            (b) 16                            (c) 15                            (d) 14   Explanation (a): Let us observe the given series in the following way: 5+2=7 7+4= 11 11+2=13 13+4= 17+2=19 19+4=23 Clearly, the pattern is: +2, +4, +2, +4, +2, +4 Thus, the missing term is . So, the correct option is (a).       3.         The following series consists of five figures named problem figures. Select a figure from amongst the figures (a), (b), (c) and (d) which will continue the same series as established by the five problem figures.                 (a)                (b)               (c)            (d)    Explanation (c): In each next figure a new element appears. The upper two elements and the lower two elements interchange their places alternately. Therefore, the correct option is (c).     INSERTING THE MISSING CHARACTER   A pattern is a design or a set of figures and it contains numbers or letters or both. Out of these characters a number/letter is missing. To identify the missing number/letter a candidate is required to decipher the pattern. The following example would be helpful for pattern based problems.     4.         Which number will replace the question mark in pattern below?                           (a) 21                            (b) 23                            (c) 25                            (d) 27   Explanation (c): From fig. (i) : 6 + 4 + 8 = 18 and 18 + 2 = 20 From fig. (ii): 7 + 9 + 8 = 24 and 24 + 2 = 26 more...

#### Analogy and Classification

ANALOGY   Analogy refers similar relationship between two or three numbers or letters or words or figures or things etc.   Relationships: The two numbers/letters/figures may be related in any of the various ways. Some of them are as follows: ·         One number is twice or half the other one. ·         One number is greater than or less than the other number by a number. ·         They are consecutive odd, even or prime numbers. ·         Letters at alternate positions in the English alphabet. ·         Skipping of letters in the English alphabet. ·         Movements or rotation of a figure or different elements of a figure in different directions.     EXAMPLE   1.         12 is to 24 as 24 is to ________.             (a) 8                              (b) 16                            (c) 24                            (d) 48   Explanation (d): The second number on the left of 'as' is double the first number and so the second number on the right of 'as' should be double the first number.  Required number Thus, the correct option is (d).     2.         Which figure will replace the question mark in the second pair on the right of:: in the same way as the first pair on the left of :: ?               (a)                   (b)                (c)                    (d)   Explanation (c): The first figure rotates  CW to obtain the second figure. Hence, the correct option is (c).     CLASSIFICATION   In 'classification', we classify various items into a group on the basis of their common properties. These items may be numbers, letters, figures, things, places etc. In such type of problems, some items are given.   All these items except one are similar in some manner. A candidate is required to identify the odd one out. Let us illustrate problems with the help of examples.     3.         Choose the odd one out.             (a) 10                            (b) 40                            (c) 64                            (d) 81   Explanation (d): Except 81, all other are even numbers. So, the correct option is (d).     more...

#### Coding-Decoding

WHAT IS CODING? Coding is a method of expressing something in a secret way.   WHAT IS DECODING? Decoding is a process to understand a code language.   TYPES OF CODING   1.            Letter Coding: in this type of coding, letters are used in forward or backward or both the directions for making some code language. 2.            Direct Letter Coding: Sometimes letters of a word are directly replaced by other letters. For example :                Word                                               Code               ZOOLOGY                                PMMTMHD               Here, Z, O, L, G and Y are replaced by P, M, T, H and D. Similarly, GOOGLY can be coded as HMMHTD. 3.            Number/Symbol Coding: Sometimes numerals or symbols are assigned to words. 4.            Substitution Coding: Sometimes some particular words are assigned to certain names.     EXAMPLE   If in a certain code language, POPULAR is coded as QPQVMBS, then which word would be coded as GBNPVT? (a) FARMER                   (b) FAMOUS                  (c) FRAMES                   (d) FARMES   Explanation (b): POPULAR is coded in the following way: Similarly, we can obtain the word for which GBNPVT is code. Consider as follows: Thus, the required word is FAMOUS. So, the correct option is (b).

#### Blood Relations

In this section, problems are based on blood relations. The process of solving these problems (puzzles) depends upon the deeply knowledge of blood relations. The common relations are: Father, Mother, Grandparents, Wife, Husband, Son, Daughter, Grandchild, Sister, Brother etc.   Remarks: 1. Relatives on the mother's side are called 'maternal'. For example, mother's brother is called maternal uncle. 2. Relatives on the father's side are called 'paternal'. For example, father's brother is called paternal uncle. 3. Assume a relation as paternal relation, unless stated otherwise.   HOW TO SOLVE PROBLEMS
• To solve problems, find right gender of required relation and eliminate all wrong choices if any. Also find generation gaps to solve quickly..
• You can solve by drawing a generation diagram. For this put lower generation below the upper generation and mention M (or m) and F (or f) within brackets for male and female respectively.
• Note: Someone's gender can not be decided by his/her name.
EXAMPLE     Pointing to a lady in the photograph, Neeloo said, "Her son's father is the son-in-law of my mother." How is Neeloo related to the lady? (a) Aunt                         (b) Sister                        (c) Mother                             (d) Cousin   Explanation (b): Lady's son's father is lady's husband. So, the lady's husband is the son-in-law of Neeloo's mother, i.e. the lady is the daughter of Neeloo's mother. Thus, Neeloo is the lady's sister. Hence, the correct option is (b).

#### Direction Sense Test

Main Directions: There are four main directions viz. East, West, North and South. East and West as well as North and South are opposite to each other as shown below. The sun always rises in the East and sets in the West.   Four Other Directions: There are four other directions which lie in between the four main directions. These are: North-East (N-E), North-West (N-W), South-East (S-E), South-West (S-W) Let us show these four directions with the main four directions.   Two Cyclic Directions: There are two cyclic directions namely clockwise and anticlockwise. The direction of moving as clock's hands is called clockwise direction while its opposite direction is called anticlockwise direction as shown below.     EXAMPLE     If South-East becomes North, North-East becomes West and so on. What will South become? (a) North-East                 (b) North-West                (c) West                          (d) East   Explanation (a): South-East becomes North, it means each direction rotates clockwise through. Therefore, South will become North-East. So, the correct option is (a)

#### Logical Venn Diagrams

WHAT IS VENN DIAGRAM? Venn diagram is a pictorial representation of classes representing items and their common properties. We usually use circles to draw a venn diagram. A venn diagram consists of two or more circles. Circles may or may not have some common regions according as the respective classes have or do not have common properties amongst them. Let us illustrate venn diagrams with the following example.     EXAMPLE     Which of the following diagrams represents the best relation amongst 'Villages', 'India? and 'Moon'? (a)                                         (b)           (c)                                               (d)   Explanation (a): Villages are the parts of India. But moon is separate from these two. So, the correct option is (a).

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