Current Affairs 6th Class

*    Introduction   Letter writing is another form of composition and is meant for communication between the writer and the reader. In a letter we generally express our emotional, social and obligatory feeling to the other person, who is away from us. These days/however, letter writing has not been in much practice due to other quicker means of communication like telephone, e-mail, telegrams etc. But in spite of all such communications writing letters has its own charm and reflects a more personalized touch of the writer for the reader.  

*    Types of Letters     *        Friendly of Personal Letters Such letters are written to close friends, to relatives and other close persons of esteemed regards and respect.     *        Business Letter or Official Letters Such letters are written in connection with the inflow or out flow of business transaction or in offices- from one office to another office or person, expressing the specific requirement of the officer or firm to comply with or to person or ask for information from the other party, office or person. Those are more technical and formal ones. Here we do not express any emotional feelings but straight away communication.     *       Special Letters These are very formal and short letters. Generally used for acknowledgments, invitations, accepting or declining replies. In such letters we neither make any emotional communication nor any technical or descriptive nature.     *       Forms of letters There are certain letter forms that have been established by tradition, custom and experience which should be followed by every letter writer as neglect of it would only show the ignorance and carelessness. Below given are the examples of different types of letters.     1.  Write a letter to your cousin who has failed in the final examination, giving his consolation.   8, Malabar Hills, Chandigarh 1stOct. 2010 My dear Rahul It pains me very much to hear from respected uncle that you have failed at the intermediate Examination this year by a few marks. Really, your failure is something unexpected, but remembers that examination is by chance. Don't be disheartened but on the other hand work hard and I am sure that you will certain get first division this year. Please don't be nervous and my sincere advice is not to lose heart. With deepest sympathy, Yours sincerely, Rajesh.   2.  Write an application to principal for arranging a trip. The principal, Cambridge School Lucknow, Sir, I, on behalf of the students of class VII, beg to approach you for your kind permission and orders to arrange the trip to Nainital in summer vocations. Our dass- teacher, Ms. Reena Bansal and English teacher Ms. Arti Singh have kindly given their consent to accompany us. Nainital is well- developed hill station, where we can have trekking and camping facilities. This excursion will provide us confidence and inter personal relationship. I hope that you will grant this permission. The students will contribute but all the arrangements must be made with your guidance and approval. (class representative)   3.  Letter to friend congratulating him on his success. 18, Carol Bag New Delhi September29, 2010 My dear friend Robert Please accept my heartiest congratulations on your brilliant success at High School examination. My joy knows no bounds when I think that you have topped in the exams. You more...

*    Practice Exercise     Change the following sentences into Passive Voice: John posts the letter. Solution: The letter is posted by John. Mary writes a story. Solution: A story is written by Mary.     Change the following sentences into Active Voice:   This poem was written by Tagore Solution: Tagore wrote this poem. Hindi is spoken all over India. Solution: People speak Hindi all over India.       Question.jpg   Change the following into passive voice.         The doctor treats the patient. (A) The patient is treated by the doctor (B) The patient is being treated by the doctor (C) The patient has treated by the doctor (D) The patient was treated by the doctor (E) None of these     Answer: (A) Explanation: The patient is treated by the doctor Change the following into passive voice.         What have you done? (A) What is done by you? (B) What has been done by you? (C) What have been done by you? (D) What had been done by you? (E) None of these     Answer: (B) Explanation: What has been done by you?  

*     Active to Passive as per Tense     *       Present Tense 1.       Simple Present Tense Active  : Subject + Verb + Object Example : I like tea. Passive : Object + is / am /are + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject Example : Tea is liked by me.     2.       Present Continuous Tense Active  : Subject + is / am / are + verb (ing) + Object. Example : He is writing a story. Passive : Object + is / am / are + being + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject. Example: A story is being written by him.     3.       Present Perfect Tense Active  : Subject + has / have + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + Object Example : Richards has eaten apple. Passive : Object + has / have + been + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject. Example : Apple has been eaten by Richards.     4.       Present Perfect Continuous Tense No Passive.     *       Past Tense 1.       Simple Past Tense Active : Subject + \[{{V}_{2}}\] + Object Example : He wrote a letter. Passive : Object + was / were + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject Example : A letter was written by him.     2.       Past Continuous Tense Active  : Subject + was / were + verb (ing) + Object. Example : They were making noise. Passive : Object + was / were + being + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject Example : Noise was being made by them.     3.       Past Perfect Tense Active  : Subject + had + \[{{V}_{3}}\]+ Object Example : The police had arrested the thieves. Passive : Object + had + been + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject Example : The thieves had been arrested by the police.     4.       Past Perfect Continuous Tense No Passive.     *       Future Tense 1.       Simple Future Tense Active  : Subject + shall / will + verb + object Example : He will pass the exam. Passive : Object + shall / will + be + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject. Example : The exam will be passed by him.     2.       Future Continuous Tense No Passive     3.       Future Perfect Tense Active  : Subject + shall/will + have + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + Object. Example : You will have completed the task. Passive : Object + shall / will + have + been + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + subject. Example : The task will have been completed by him.     4.       Future Perfect Continuous Tense No Passive     *       Modal verbs (Can, Could, May, Might, Must, Should, Would + Main Verb) Active       :           Subject + modal + verb + object. Example   :          Richards can eat apple. Passive     :          Object + modal + be + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject. Example   :          Apple more...

*     Definition   The voice is the form of verb which indicates whether a person or thing does something or something has been done to a person or thing.
  •   You write a letter
  •   A letter is written by you.
In the sentences given above, both the sentences have the similar meaning But in the first example subject works itself whereas in second example the object is used as subject.     *      There are two kinds of voice: (i) Active voice (ii) Passive voice     *         Active Voice Definition: When the subject or person or thing is the doer of an action, the form of the verb is said to be in Active Voice.
  •  The farmer ploughs the field.
  •  The field is ploughed by the farmer.  
  *       Now notice the difference between these two sentences. In first sentence, the form of the verb shows that the subject the farmer, is doing something. It is the doer of the action. In other words, it can also be said the subject is active. So the verb form, "ploughs" is said to be in Active Voice.     *      Passive Voice Definition: When the subject (person or thing) is the receiver of an action, form of the verb is said to be in Passive Voice.
  •  The farmer ploughs the field.
  •  The field is ploughed by the farmer.  
  *       Now notice the difference between these two sentences. In the second sentence, the form of the verb shows that the subject the farmer is the receiver of the action or something is done to the Subject. In other words, it can also be said that the Subject is not Active but Passive. So the Verb form "is ploughed" is said to be in Passive Voice. Therefore, Active voice is a direct way to show an action whereas passive voice is an indirect way to show to show an action.     *      Remember
  •  Voice is that form of Verb which shows whether the subject is doer of the action or receiver of the action.
  •  A Transitive Verb has two Voice:
(i) Active Voice (ii) Passive Voice
  •  Voice change is the change in the structure of a sentence.
  •  There is no change in the meaning of the sentences of Active and Passive Voice.  
  *        Changing of Active Voice into Passive Voice     *       Rules for changing active to passive: (i) The subject changes into object and object changes into subject. Active: Steve learns a lesson. Passive: A lesson is learned by Steve. more...

*     Definite Article 'the'   Definite Article: Definite Article (the) points out a particular person, animal, thing or Place. The is used before a noun beginning with a consonant or a vowel sound. Definite Article 'the': You use the when you know that the listener knows or can work out what particular person/thing you are talking about.     example.jpg "The apple you ate was rotten." "Did you lock the car?" The is used when you have already mentioned the thing you are talking about.     example.jpg   Ashoka was a king. The king was great. We use the to talk about geographical points on the globe.     example.jpg   The North Pole, the equator We also use the before certain nouns when we know there is only one of a particular thing.     example.jpg   The rain, the sun, the wind, the world, the earth, the White House etc. However if you want to describe a particular instance of these you should use a/an.     example.jpg     "I could hear the wind." / "There's a cold wind blowing." "What are your plans for the future?"/ "She has a promising future ahead of her."   The is also used to say that a particular person or thing being mentioned is the best, most famous, etc. In this use, 'the' is usually given strong pronunciation:     example.jpg "Harry's Bar is the place to go." "You don't mean you met the Tony Blair, do you?"       *     The is Also Used Before the Following:
  • A class of noun. For example: The dog is a faithful animal.
  • The superlative Degrees of Adjective. For example: The best
  • The names of national, religion and caste. For example: The Hindu, The Indian.
  • The names of famous buildings For example: The Red Fort.
  • The names of sea, river or valley. For example: The Pacific, The Ganga, The Bay of Bengal
  • The names of few countries. For example: The U.S.A., The UK
  • The names of Religious Book For example: The Bible.
  • The names of heavenly bodies. For example: The sun
  • The names of mountains and peaks. For example: The Alps, the Mt. Everest
  • The names of plain, plateau, deserts. For example: The northern plain, the Deccan plateau, the Thardesert.  
  *     When Articles are not Used 1.      We use no article when we are talking about people or things in general. Carrots are good for you. (carrots in general) The carrots growing in my garden are almost ready to eat. (specific carrots) English people drink more...

*     Introduction   In English language there are three articles. They are: "A", "An" and "The".   These three articles are divided into two parts, as follow: (i) Indefinite Articles - "a" and "an" (ii) Definite Article - the     *        Indefinite Article 'A' and 'An' 'A' is used before a word which starts from consonant or vowel but sounds like a consonant. (All the letters of English alphabet except 'A', 'E', 'l', 'O', 'U')     example.jpg   A book, a pen, a chair, a one rupee note, etc. An is used before a word which starts from vowel or consonant but sounds like vowel.     example.jpg An apple, an egg, an honest man, etc. See the following examples: A one eyed man. Here "A" is used before "one" because "One" sounds like Wone or Vone which is a consonant. A university. Here University sounds like Yuniversity which is a consonant. An M.L.A. Here M.L.A. sounds like 'Am al a' which is a vowel.     *      See some other uses of indefinite articles 1.      We use "a / an" when we use noun/pronoun for the first time is a sentence. He is wearing a suit and a tie. They have a cat. 2.      We use a / an to say what kind of person or thing someone or something is (often with an adjective or to say it belongs to a particular group. You have a nice house. That's a very expensive car! A cat is an animal A bus is a vehicle 3.      We use a/an to talk about someone's job. My wife is an optician. She works as a mechanic.     *       Remember (i) Indefinite Article are not used with uncountable noun. (ii) Article is not used before the name of games. For example: She plays ludo. (iii) Article is not used before some diseases like Cholera, Malaria, fever and typhoid, etc. (iv) Article is not used before the name of festivals. (v) Article is not used before plural Countable Nouns when they indicate a class. (vi) No article is used before the names of language. (vii) No article is used before Proper Noun, Material Noun and Abstract Nouns.  

*     Use of Different Conjunctions     (A) And, As well as: These two conjunctions are used to add one statement to another:     example.jpg (i) The man is poor. He is blind.            The man is poor and blind. (ii) Robin likes tea. Robin likes coffee.             Robin likes tea as well as coffee. (iii) Anima and Twinkle are dancing. (iv) You as well he have lifted the box. (v) Please come and sit beside me. (vi) Garry sells fruits and vegetables.   (B) Or, Either - or, Neither - nor: These conjunctions are used to indicate a choice between one statement and another.     example.jpg (i)  Is he happy? Is he sad?             Is he happy or sad? (ii) I will come. I will send Mohan, if I don't come.              Either i will come or send Mohan. (iii) Steve is not my friend. He is not my brother.               Steve is neither my friend nor my brother.   (C) But, Still, Yet: These conjunctions are used to express contrast between two statements.     example.jpg   (i)   He is intelligent. He does not read.               He is intelligent but he does not read. (ii)  The teacher was angry. He did not scold the boy.                 The teacher was angry still he did not scold the boy, (iii) These books are costly. People buy them.                 These books are costly yet people buy them.   (D)  So, therefore: These conjunctions are used to join two statements where one statement is proved from the other statement.     example.jpg (i) He did not take umbrella. He got wet.             He did not take umbrella so he got wet. (ii) The boy stole bread from the shop. He was arrested by the police.              The boy stole bread from the shop therefore he was arrested by the police.   (E) When, while: These conjunctions are used to join two statements to show time of an action.   example.jpg (i) The cat is away. The mice play.            When the cat is away the mice play. (ii) I met Priya. I was in London.              I met Priya while I was in London.   (F) If, Unless: These conjunctions are used to join two statements to show condition.        example.jpg   (i) You give me money. I will return your pen.           If you give me money. I will return your pen. (ii) You make haste. You cannot reach home in time.             Unless you make more...

*     Introduction   A word that is used to join two words or sentences is known as a Conjunction.
  •   Reema and Rita are friends.
  •   This copy and that book are same.
  •   The elephant is big but the mouse is small.
  •   Amar cannot sit because the chair is dirty.
In the first sentence the word "and" is joining two words "Reema" and "Rita". In the second sentence the word "and" is joining two words "this copy" and 'that book". In the third sentence the word "but" is joining two sentences "the elephant is big and "the mouse is small". In the fourth sentence the word "because" is joining two sentences "Amar cannot sit" and "the chair is dirty". In this way the words "and, "but "and" because" are joining two words or two sentences. These words are called Conjunctions.     *        List of Some Commonly Used Conjunctions And                        But                       Since                        When                    Either-or Although             Because               Till                           While                    Neither-nor As well as            If                             Until                      Unless                  Therefore As                           Or                           Still                         Yet                         Before  

*     Definition   A preposition is a word which comes before a noun or a pronoun and shows its relation to other words in the sentence.     *        See the following examples: 1.   Preposition of time (A) I got up at 9 o'clock. (B) She has been dancing for two hours. (C) She has been swimming since two p.m.   2.   Preposition of manner (A) He earns money by boxing (B) She played with care. (C) He walks on his legs.   3.   Preposition of place (A) An accident took place near the church. (B) A truck ran over a cycle. (C) Stars shine in the sky.   4.    Preposition of direction (A ) The rat ran towards the hole. (B) She went around the temple. (C) A saint came from the East     *        Look at the following usage of prepositions   more...


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Preposition Usage Examples
on day of the work on Monday
in mother/seasons time of the day year after a certain period of the (when?) in august in winter in the morning in 2006 in an hour
at     since for ago for night for weekend a certain point of time (when? ) from a certain point of time (past till now) over a certain period of time (past till now) a certain time in the past at night at the weekend at the past nine since 1980 for 2 years 2 years ago