Current Affairs 6th Class

WHAT IS CODING? Coding is a method of expressing something in a secret way.   WHAT IS DECODING? Decoding is a process to understand a code language.   TYPES OF CODING   1.            Letter Coding: in this type of coding, letters are used in forward or backward or both the directions for making some code language. 2.            Direct Letter Coding: Sometimes letters of a word are directly replaced by other letters. For example :                Word                                               Code               ZOOLOGY                                PMMTMHD               Here, Z, O, L, G and Y are replaced by P, M, T, H and D. Similarly, GOOGLY can be coded as HMMHTD. 3.            Number/Symbol Coding: Sometimes numerals or symbols are assigned to words. 4.            Substitution Coding: Sometimes some particular words are assigned to certain names.     EXAMPLE   If in a certain code language, POPULAR is coded as QPQVMBS, then which word would be coded as GBNPVT? (a) FARMER                   (b) FAMOUS                  (c) FRAMES                   (d) FARMES   Explanation (b): POPULAR is coded in the following way: Similarly, we can obtain the word for which GBNPVT is code. Consider as follows: Thus, the required word is FAMOUS. So, the correct option is (b).  

In this section, problems are based on blood relations. The process of solving these problems (puzzles) depends upon the deeply knowledge of blood relations. The common relations are: Father, Mother, Grandparents, Wife, Husband, Son, Daughter, Grandchild, Sister, Brother etc.   Remarks: 1. Relatives on the mother's side are called 'maternal'. For example, mother's brother is called maternal uncle. 2. Relatives on the father's side are called 'paternal'. For example, father's brother is called paternal uncle. 3. Assume a relation as paternal relation, unless stated otherwise.   HOW TO SOLVE PROBLEMS
  • To solve problems, find right gender of required relation and eliminate all wrong choices if any. Also find generation gaps to solve quickly..
  • You can solve by drawing a generation diagram. For this put lower generation below the upper generation and mention M (or m) and F (or f) within brackets for male and female respectively.
  • Note: Someone's gender can not be decided by his/her name.
  EXAMPLE     Pointing to a lady in the photograph, Neeloo said, "Her son's father is the son-in-law of my mother." How is Neeloo related to the lady? (a) Aunt                         (b) Sister                        (c) Mother                             (d) Cousin   Explanation (b): Lady's son's father is lady's husband. So, the lady's husband is the son-in-law of Neeloo's mother, i.e. the lady is the daughter of Neeloo's mother. Thus, Neeloo is the lady's sister. Hence, the correct option is (b).  

Main Directions: There are four main directions viz. East, West, North and South. East and West as well as North and South are opposite to each other as shown below. The sun always rises in the East and sets in the West.   Four Other Directions: There are four other directions which lie in between the four main directions. These are: North-East (N-E), North-West (N-W), South-East (S-E), South-West (S-W) Let us show these four directions with the main four directions.   Two Cyclic Directions: There are two cyclic directions namely clockwise and anticlockwise. The direction of moving as clock's hands is called clockwise direction while its opposite direction is called anticlockwise direction as shown below.     EXAMPLE     If South-East becomes North, North-East becomes West and so on. What will South become? (a) North-East                 (b) North-West                (c) West                          (d) East   Explanation (a): South-East becomes North, it means each direction rotates clockwise through. Therefore, South will become North-East. So, the correct option is (a)  

WHAT IS VENN DIAGRAM? Venn diagram is a pictorial representation of classes representing items and their common properties. We usually use circles to draw a venn diagram. A venn diagram consists of two or more circles. Circles may or may not have some common regions according as the respective classes have or do not have common properties amongst them. Let us illustrate venn diagrams with the following example.     EXAMPLE     Which of the following diagrams represents the best relation amongst 'Villages', 'India? and 'Moon'? (a)                                         (b)           (c)                                               (d)   Explanation (a): Villages are the parts of India. But moon is separate from these two. So, the correct option is (a).  

  ALPHA - NUMERIC SEQUENCE PUZZLE   Such type of puzzle is a jumbled sequence of numbers and letters. A puzzle is given and a candidate is asked how many times a number/letter follows a certain rule or which number/letter follows a certain rule.     EXAMPLE   1.         How many 4's are there in the following arrangement each of which is immediately preceded by an even number but not immediately followed by 6?              2  4  2  E  D  Q  3  9  2  4  7  M  6  6  T  6  4  1  N  8  4  6             (a) One                          (b) Two                         (c) Three                        (d) Four   Explanation (c): Let us take the given arrangement.                                     \[\] E D Q 3 9 \[\] M 6 6 T\[\]N 8 4 6     NUMBER, RANKING AND TIME SEQUENCE TEST   Number Test: In problems on number Test, a sequence of numbers is given and a question is asked in that way as asked in Alpha-Numeric Sequence Puzzle.                            Ranking Test: In ranking based problems, usually the ranks of one or two persons from the top and from the bottom are mentioned. A candidate is required to compute either total number of persons or rank of a particular person.   2.         If Sahil finds that he is twelfth from the right end in a line of boys and fourth from the left end, then how many boys should be added to the line such that there are 28 boys in the line?              (a) 11                            (b) 13                            (c) 15                            (d) 18   Explanation (b): Number of boys from the right end to Sahil = 12 Number of boys from the left end to Sahil = 4 In the above two statements Sahil is counted twice. So, the actual number of all the boys \[=12+4-1=15\] Now, the required number of additional boys \[=\text{ }28-15=13\]   Time Sequence Test:
  •          To solve time based problems the following information?s are very useful.
  •          In every 1 hour, the hour hand rotates \[30{}^\circ \]and the minute hand rotates\[360{}^\circ \].
  •          The year which is divisible by 4 is called a leap year. E.g. 2012 is a leap year.
  •          A century year which is more...

There are four fundamental operations. These are addition\[\left( + \right)\], subtraction\[\left( - \right)\], multiplication \[\left( \times  \right)\] and division \[\left( \div  \right)\] Whenever two or more of these operations occur simultaneously, we overcome on such complex situation by applying the "BODMAS" rule. This chapter is on the basis of the "BODMAS" rule. Let us explain this rule briefly. B \[\to \] Bracket, O \[\to \] Of, D \[\to \] Division, M \[\to \]Multiplication, A \[\to \] Addition, S \[\to \] Subtraction We solve an expression first for 'bracket' (if available), then for 'of? (if available). This process goes upto subtraction.     EXAMPLE     If 'L stands for \['+',\]M' stands for \['-',\] 'N' stands for \['\times ',\] 'P' stands for' \['\div ',\] then 14 N 10 L 42 P 2 M 8 = ? (a) 141                          (b) 153                          (c) 166                          (d) 183   Explanation (b): Given expression \[=14\times 10+42\div 2-8=153\] Hence, the answer is (b).

In this chapter, problems are based upon numbers of lines, triangles, squares and circles in a complex figure.
  • To count number of lines, add all the numbers of horizontal, vertical and slanting lines.
  • To count the number of triangles, add all the numbers of triangles formed by 1 component, 2 components, 3 components and so on.
  • To count the number of circles, count all the centres of circles. 
  EXAMPLE     How many triangles are there in the following figure? (a) 14                            (b) 12                            (c) 10                            (d) 8   Explanation (b): The figure may be labelled as shown below: The triangles formed of 1 component are ABE, AEF, EFC, CED and BED. The triangles formed of two components are ABF, ACE, BCE and ABD. The triangles formed of three components are BFC and ACD. There is only one triangle ABC formed of five components. Thus, there are 5+4+2+1 =12 triangles in the figure. Hence, the correct option is (b).

Mirror Image Suppose someone stands in front of a plane mirror. If he lifts his left hand, the image in the mirror shows his right hand and vice-versa. The left half of a body becomes right half of its mirror image and right half becomes left half.                                                                                Note: If not mentioned, the mirror is assumed to be placed to vertically right of the object.     EXAMPLE     1.         Choose the correct mirror image of the figure (X).                             (a)                (b)            (c)          (d)    Explanation (d): The right side of the given figure will become the left side of the image.     Water Image The water image of an object is the vertically inverted (upside or downside) image of the object. The position of the water layer is horizontally just below the object.     2.         Which of the following has no change in its water image?              (a) 6E                            (b) 2D                           (c) 3J                            (d) 0l   Explanation (d):              Thus, 0l and its water image are identical. 

  EMBEDDED FIGURES   In such type of problems, a simple figure is given followed by four other figures. Only one figure out of the four figures embeds the given figure. A candidate is required to choose that figure which embeds the given figure.     1.         Choose a figure from the four options in which the figure (X) is exactly embedded as one of its part?               (a)                 (b)                 (c)                 (d)   Explanation (a): The figure (X) is exactly embedded in figure (a). So, the correct option is (a).               FIGURE FORMATION   This section deals us with the following types of problems.   Formation of a Figure from its Segments: In such type of problems, all the parts to form a figure are given. A candidate requires to identify the figure so formed out of the four options.   Choosing a Pattern which has the same components as a given Pattern. In such type of problems, a pattern of several components is given. Only one pattern out of four option patterns contains the same components. A candidate requires to choose such pattern.             2.         Find out which of the figures (a), (b), (c) and (d) can be formed from the pieces given in figure (X).               (a)               (b)                 (c)                             (d)   Explanation (a): The parts of figure in option (a) are in figure (X).   3.         Select that option which has the same components as the given figure (X). (a)                 (b)                 (c)                (d)   Explanation (b): Components of figure (X) and figure (b) are exactly same.     CONSTRUCTION OF SQUARES     Such type of problems are on the basis of the geometrical figures. A candidate is required to identify the figure which can fit into each other to form a square.   4.         Select a figure from the given four options which fits exactly into figure (X) to form a complete square.                   (a) more...

In such type of problems a \[~2\times 2\] or \[3\times 3\] grid is given. This grid has some designs or symbols to form a pattern. But a cell of the grid is left empty. A candidate requires to fill up the cell. Now, one needs to analyse the grid and identify a rule along row-wise or column-wise in the grid.     EXAMPLE     Complete the given pattern. (a)                (b)                (c)                  (d)   Explanation (a): Let us consider horizontally. The second figure is obtained from the first figure by moving the line segment to the opposite side of the square boundary and replacing it with two similar line segments. Also, the element in the lower-left corner gets replaced by two similar elements - one placed in the upper-left and the other placed in the lower-right corner.  


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