Identification through Definitions and Example
In
this lesson, we will try to identify the object/person/anything by its
definition or by certain examples. Below are mentioned some example to develop
your understanding.
·A person residing in a country of which he is not a citizen.
Non-resident
·Happening every year Annual
·Living in water Aquatic
·One who does not believe in God Atheist
·An assembly of hearers Audience
·The science of plant life Botany
·A list of the names of books Catalogue
·One hundred years Century
·A letter claimed by nobody Dead
letter
·A book which tells what various words mean Dictionary
·Fit to be eaten Edible
·One who is fit to be elected Eligible
·That which causes death Fatal
·An imaginary serpent with Many heads Hydra
·Contrary to law Illegal
·That which cannot be Moved Immovable
·That which cannot be heard Inaudible
·That which cannot be seen Invisible
·A place containing books for reading or reference Library
·To carry away a person forcibly Kidnap
·A lady who attends sick persons or infants Nurse
·Of evil reputation Notorious
·A child whose parents are dead Orphan
·One who is liked by the People Popular
·A place where birds, animals, etc., are kept Zoo
·A woman whose husband is dead Widow
·A rule that is applicable to all Universal
·Privilege, enjoyed by cityzens Right
·An examination of body made after death Postmortem
·That which has no equal Unique
·One who lives on vegetables only Vegetarian
·Distinguish between Facts and Opinion
In
this chapter, we try to differentiate facts from opinions and also try to find
out whether the given opinions follow the fact or not. Some examples are given
below to explain how to distinguish between facts and opinion.
·Example 1
Three
sentences are given below. You have to identify which sentence is/are fact/s
and which is an opinion.
I:
You may not be loyal to the boss but you can give him an apparent sense of
loyalty.
II: Loyalty to the boss is considered important.
III:
Some people can go to any extent to please their boss.
Select your answer from the given choices.
(a) I-Fact, II-Opinion, III-Opinion
(b) I-Opinion, II-Fact, III-Fact
(c) I-Opinion, II-Fact, III-Opinion
(d) I-Fact, II-Opinion, III-Fact
(e) None of these
Ans.
(a)
Loyalty
to the boss is certainly very important. It increases your chance of promotion.
You might not be loyal to him but you can show him loyalty which will be
gainful to you. Hence statement I is fact and statements II and III are
opinions.
·Example 2
In
the question one fact (statement) followed by two opinions numbered I and II
are given. Consider everything in the statement and also both the opinions to
be true, then decide which of the two opinions logically follows the given
statement.
Give your answer as:
(a) if only opinion I follows
(b) if only opinion II follows
(c) if neither I nor II follows
(d) if both I and II follows
(e) None of these
Fact:
He stressed on the need to stop the present examination system and its
replacement by other methods which would measure the real merit of the
students.
Opinions:
I. Examinations should be abolished.
II.
The present examination system does not measure the real merit of the student.
Ans.
(b)
·Example 3
In
this question one fact is followed by two opinions.
Fact:
Books without knowledge of life are useless.
Opinions:
I: All books contain knowledge of life.
II: People should try to gain the knowledge of life.
(a) if only opinion I is implicit from the given fact
(b) if only opinion II is implicit from the given fact
(c) if neither I nor II is implicit from the given fact
(d) if either I or II is implicit from the given fact
(e) None of these
Ans. (c)
Analogy
Analogy
means similarity or a relationship between two or more objects. In questions based
on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship
has to be identified from the alternatives provided. This similarity/relationship
may be on the basis of properties, kinds, traits, shapes etc.
Given
below are some types of relations to help you understand analogy.
·Instrument and Measurement
S. No.
Instrument
Measurement
1.
Scale
Length
2.
Seismograph
Earthquakes
3.
Thermometer
Temperature
4.
Balance
Mass
5.
Anemometer
Wind Vane
6.
Watch
Time
·Quantity and Unit
S. No.
Quantity
Unit
Classification
Everything
on the Earth or in the Universe is not unique, it is identical with some other
things in various respects. Here, we are giving examples to develop your understanding
about the classification:
1.Choose the odd one out:
(a) Guava (b) Cauliflower
(c) Malta (d) Coconut
(e) None of these
Ans. (b) Except cauliflower all three are
the names of fruits.
2.Choose the odd one out:
(a) Peacock (b) Hen
(c) Mare (d) Bitch
(e) None of these
Ans. (a) Here all the given options
represent an animal but peacock represents a male animal while the rest
represent a female animal.
3.Choose the odd one out:
(a) Square (b) Rectangle
(c) Triangle (d) Area
(e) None of these
Ans.
(d) All others are geometrical figures.
4.Choose the odd one out:
(a) Gallon (b) Ton
(c) Quintal (d) Kilogram
(e) None of these
Ans. (a) All the remaining are units of
weight while ?gallon? is the unit of capacity.
5.Choose the odd one out:
(a)
Barometer (b) Thermometer
(c)
Diameter (d) Lactometer
(e)
None of these
Ans. (c) All the remaining things are the
instruments of measurement.
6.Choose the odd one out:
(a)
Rain (b) Fog
(c)
Smoke (d) Mist
(e)
None of these
Ans. (a) All the other items remain in
the atmosphere in the form of minute particles.
7.Choose the odd one out:
(a)
Direction (b) Compass
(c)
Needle (d) Magnet
(e)
None of these
Ans. (a)
All the other are instruments.
8.Choose the odd one out:
(a)
Moon (b) Jupiter
(c)
Mars (d) Saturn
(e)
None of these
Ans. (a)
All the rest are planets.
9.Choose the odd one out:
(a)
Water (b) Flower
(c)
Leaf (d) Branch
(e)
None of these
Ans. (a)
All others are the parts of a tree.
10.Which one is different from the rest three?
(a)
Kuchipudi (b) Kathak
(c)
Disco (d) Manipuri
(e)
None of these
Ans. (c)
All the others are classical dances.
11.Which one of the following is different from the rest three?
(a)
Breathing (b) Singing
(c)
Playing (d) Writing
(e)
None of these
Ans. (a)
Only breathing is a natural action.
12.Which one of the following is different from the rest three?
(a)
Car (b) Chariot
(c)
Cart (d) Sledge
(e)
None of more...
Comprehensions Based on Stories
Read
the stories given below and answer the questions that follow:
·Example 1
You
may have heard the name of Tansen - the greatest musician our country had produced.
A singer called Mukandan Mishra and his wife lived in Behat near Gwalior. Tansen
was their only child. It is said that he was a naughty child. Often, he ran
away to play in the forest, and soon learnt to imitate perfectly the calls of
birds and animals. A famous singer named Swami Haridas was once travelling
through the forest with his disciples. Tired, the group settled down to rest in
a shady grove. Tansen saw them. 'Strangers in the forest! he said to himself.
'It will be fun to frighten them'. He hid behind a tree and roared like a
tiger. The little group of travellers scattered in fear but Swami Haridas
called them together. "Don't be afraid," he said, 'Tigers are not
always dangerous. Let us look for this one.? Suddenly, one of his men saw a
small boy hiding behind a tree. ?There is no tiger here, master,? he said,
?Only this naughty boy.?
1.Who was the father of Tansen?
(a) Akbar (b) Haridas
(c) Birbal (d) Mukandan Mishra
(e) None of these
2.Where did Tansen live?
(a) Chandigarh (b) Behat
(c) Patna (d) Delhi
(e) None of these
3.Who was Tansen?
(a) Joker (b) Minister
(c) Musician (d) King
(e) None of these
4.Who was Swami Haridas?
(a) Magician (b) Singer
(c) Musician (d) Player
(e) None of these
·Example 2
His
wife was furious and she dived in to hide herself at the bottom of the river
leaving the little ones to pester their father. The crocodile was in a serious
dilemma. He loved his wife and was very fond of his friend too. Finally lie
decided to be on the side of his wife. She was his life-partner after all. ?I
know it?s a sin to betray a friend, but I have no choice,? he said to himself
?I?ll invite the monkey home and hope for the best.?
?My
wife wants you over for a meal, dear friend,? said the crocodile when he
visited the monkey next time, ?You must come home with me today.?
?With
pleasure,? said the monkey, ?I?m no swimmer, but can ride on your back.? They set
out. In the middle of the river, where the current was the strongest, the
crocodile could no longer hide his intention. ?Sorry, my friend,? he said
hesitatingly ?but I have to go under water now. I?ve brought you here to more...
Comprehensions Based on General Topics·Example 1
Read
the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Detoxification
is a natural process through which the body gets rid of toxins accumulated by
ingesting or inhaling chemicals from household cleaners, food additives, drugs,
pollution, cigarette smoke and heavy metals like lead, says naturopath, who is
part of Mrityunjay, a health organisation that organises detoxification
programmes and other lifestyle-related camps. Detoxification takes place when
natural products like fruits, vegetables and water are used to transform toxins
(anything that can potentially harm body tissue) to less harmful compounds that
are excreted via the natural process. People on a detox switch from their
regular diet to a detox one for a period of 7 to 40 days depending on their
tolerance levels. The diet can include either or all of these foods: water,
buttermilk, fruits, vegetables and herbs.
1.What are toxins?
(a) Anything that can potentially harm body tissue
(b) A process in which the body gets rid
of pollutants
(c) Cigarette smoke
(d) Drugs
(e) None of these
2.Name the process by which the body gets rid of toxins?
(a) Toxification (b) Chemical analysis
(c) Pollution (d) Detoxification
(e) None of these
3.How much time detoxification takes to remove the toxins?
(a) 1 to 7 years (b) 7 to 40 days
(c) 3 to 10 years (d) 5 to 20 years
(e) None of these
4.The naturopath in the given passage is a part of:
(a) CRY
(b) WHO
(c) Mrityunjay
(d) UNO
(e) None of these
·Example 2
Saumya
Sen wasn't technically my father's younger brother. He was a fellow Bengali from
Calcutta who had washed up on the barren shores of my parents' social life in the
early seventies, when they lived in a rented apartment in central square and
could number their acquaintances on one land. But I had no real uncles in
America, and so I was taught to call him Saumya Kaku. Accordingly, he called my
father Shaurav Da, always addressing him in the polite form, and he called my
mother Boudi, which is how Bengalis are supposed to address an elder brother's
wife, instead of using her first name, Kajol. After Saumya Kaku was befriended
by my parents, he confessed that on the day we met him he had followed my
mother and me for the better part of an afternoon around the streets of
Cambridge, where she and I tended to roam after I go out of school.
1.Who is Saumya Sen?
(a) Bengali fellow
(b) Author's grandson
(c) Nephew
(d) Author s father
(e) more...
Number System and Its Operations
Numbers are the symbolic representation of counted objects. There are infinite counting numbers from 1. Some arc-divisible by another whereas some are not divisible. Numbers are differentiated according to their divisibility and factors. A numeral system is a writing system for expressing numbers. The most commonly used system of numerals is Hindu-Arabic numeral system. In this chapter, we will learn about various numeral systems, types of numbers and operation on numbers.
Indian or Hindu-Arabic Number System
This number system was introduced by Indians, and is therefore, called Indian Number System. In this number system 10 is considered as the base.
10 ones = 10, 10 tens = 1 hundred, 10 hundreds = 1 thousand
Hindu - Arabic number system is based on the place value of digits in number
Indian Place Value Chart
crores
Ten Lakes
Lakes
Ten Thousand
Thousands
Hundred
Tens
Ones
2
9
8
7
3
5
The number two lakh ninety-eight thousand seven hundred and thirty-five is written by placing 2 at the place of "lakhs', 9 at the place of "Ten thousands', 8 at "Thousands', 7 at "Hundreds', 3 at "Tens' and 5 at "Ones',
Place Value
If a number contains more than one digit then the place more...
Fractions and Decimals
Fraction
Fraction is a method for representing the parts of a whole number. An orange is divided into two equal parts and so the first part of orange is half of the whole orange and represented by of the orange.
TYPES OF FRACTIONS
Proper Fractions
A fraction whose numerator is less than denominator is called a proper fraction. are proper fractions.
Improper Fractions
A fraction is called improper fraction even if:
It has smaller denominator than numerator
It has equal numerator and denominator are improper fractions.
Simplest form of a Fraction
A fraction is said to be in the simplest or lowest form if its numerator and denominator have no common factor except 1.
Mixed Fractions
Combination of a proper fraction and a whole number is called mixed fraction. Every mixed fraction has a whole and a fractional part.
Like and unlike Fraction
When two or more fractions have same denominator then they are called like fractions whereas unlike fractions do not have equal denominators.
Equivalent Fractions
Two fractions are said to be equivalent if they are equal to each other. Two equivalent fractions may have a different numerator and a different denominator
Example:
Convert into a mixed fraction.
(a) (b)
(c) (d) All the above
(e) None of these
Answer (a)
Example:
are:
(a) like fractions (b) unlike fractions
(c) equivalent fractions (d) Mixed fractions
(e) None of these
Answer (b)
OPERATIONS ON FRACTIONS
Addition of Like Fractions
Addition of like fractions is the addition of their numerators and common denominator is the denominator of the resulting fraction.
Hence, the sum of like fractions
Subtraction of Like Fractions
Subtraction of like fractions is same as its addition except that addition is converted into subtraction.
Let two like more...
LCM and HCF
LCM (Least Common Multiple)
LCM of two or more numbers is their least common multiple, LCM of 4 and 6 is 12, It means, 12 is the least common multiple of 4 and 6, therefore, 12 is exactly divisible by each of 4 and 6.
LCM by Prime Factorization Method
The following steps are used to determine the LCIVI of two or more numbers by prime factorisation method:
Step 1: Find the prime factors of each number
Step 2: Product of highest power of prime factors is their LCM.
LCM by Division Method
The following steps are used to determine the LCM of two or more numbers by division method:
Step 1: Numbers are arranged or separated in a row by commas.
Step 2: Find the number which divides exactly atleast two of the given numbers.
Step 3: Follow step 2 till there are no numbers (atleast two) divisible by any number
Step 4: LCM is the product of all divisors and indivisible numbers.
Example:
Find the least number which is exactly divisible by each of 28 and 42.
(a) 64 (b) 84
(c) 52 (d) All of these
(e) None of these
Answer (b)
Explanation: \[28\text{ }=\text{ }2\text{ }\times \text{ }2\text{ }\times \text{ }7,\text{ }42\text{ }=\text{ }2\text{ }\times \text{ }3\text{ }\times \text{ }7\]
LCM \[=2\times 2\times 3\times 7=\text{ }84\]
HCF (Highest Common Factor)
Highest Common Factor is also called Greatest Common Measure (GCM) or Greatest Common Divisor (GCD). H.C.F of two or more numbers is the greatest number which exactly divides each of the numbers.
HCF by Prime Factorization Method
The HCF of two or more numbers is obtained by the following steps:
Step 1: Find the prime factors of each of the given number.
Step 2: Find the common prime factors from prime factors of all the given numbers.
Step 3: The product of the common prime factors is their HCF.
HCF by Continued Division Method
The HCF of two or more numbers can also be obtained by continued division method. The greatest number is considered as dividend and smallest number as divisor.
Follow the following steps to perform the HCF of the given numbers:
Step 1: Divide the greatest number by smallest.
Step 2: If remainder is zero, then divisor is the HCF of the given number.
Step 3: If remainder is not zero then, divide again by considering divisor as new dividend and remainder as new divisor till remainder becomes zero.
Step 4: The HCF of the numbers is last divisor which gives zero remainder.
HCF of more than two Numbers
The HCF of more than two numbers is the HCF of resulting HCF of two numbers with third number. Therefore, HCF of more than two numbers is obtained by finding more...