# Current Affairs 6th Class

#### History and Briefing on Computer

History and Briefing on Computer   Introduction  A computer is a programmable machine. The two principle characteristics of a computer are:   v  It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner. v  It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions. The history of computer is also referred with its generations. Generation in computer terminology is a change in technology a computer is being used. The evaluation of computer started from 16th century and resulted in the form that we see today.     Types of Computers All the computers that are developed are not alike. They can have different designs and features. Computers can be as big as occupying a large building or as small as a laptop or may be a micro controller in mobile and embedded systems.       Classification of Computers  On the basic of principles of operations, there are three types of computer they are as listed below:       Analog Computers  Analog computers are used to process analog data. Such type of data includes temperature, pressure, speed weight, voltage, depth etc. These quantities are continuous having an infinite variety of values.   Analog computers are the first computers being developed and they provided the basic for the development of the modern digital computers.           Digital Computers Digital computer works with digits to represent numerals, letters or other special symbols. Digital computers operate on inputs which are of ON-OFF type and its output is also in the form of ON-OFF signal. Normally, an ON is represented by 1 and OFF is represented by a 0. A digital computer can be used to process numeric as well as non-numeric data. It can perform arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and also logical operations. Most of the computers available today are digital computers:   The results generated by digital computers are more accurate than the results generated by analog computers. Analog computers are faster then digital. Analog computer, lack memory whereas digital computers store information.           Hybrid Computers  Hybrid computer are combination of digital and analog computers. It combines the best features of both types of computer, i.e. it has the speed of analog and the memory and accuracy of digital computers. Hybrid computers are mainly used in specialized applications where both kinds of data needs to be processed. Therefore, they both help the user to process both continuous and discrete data. For example a petrol pump contains a processor that converts fuel flow measurements into quality and price values.         Based on Configuration  On the basic of configuration of operations, there are four types of computer. Configuration can more...

#### More About Networking and Internet

More About Networking and Internet   A network is a set of inter connected devices, such as computers and printers. These novices are connected with transmission media or communication channel. Using network you can send and receive data from one computer to another computer. You can also-hare printer and scanner with other users.   Internet is the technology that is used to connect different computer systems located in different geographic locations.   The internet interconnects millions of computers, providing a global communication, storage, and computation infrastructure. Moreover, the Internet is currently being integrated with mobile and wireless technology.     The Purpose of Networking   File and Data Sharing It allows files to be shared instantaneously across the network with hundreds of users.   Resource Sharing It allows the sharing of network resources such as printers, dedicated services, input devices and internet connections without being relocated.   Internal Communications It allows organizations to maintain internal communication system. It enables employees to co-ordinate meetings and work activities which intern increases productivity.     Provides Reliability Computer network is a very reliable network. If one of the systems in a network collapse, data can be collected from another system in the same network.   Different Types of Networks Computer networks are classified on the basis of various factors. They include geographical span, inter-connectivity, administration, architecture etc.   The three main types of computer networks are:-   v  LAN v  WAN v  MAN   Local Area Network (LAN)                             This type of network is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area like a home, office, or group of buildings. It is normally used for a single business office or a residential apartment. The major purpose of such inter connectivity is to establish a communication system in order to make the work easier.     LAN provides a useful way of sharing the resources between end users. The resources such as printers, file servers, scanners and internet are easily sharable among other computers.   Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) A Metropolitan Area Network is a network that connects two or more Local Area Network or Campus Area Network together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town, city, or metropolitan area. Multiple routers and switches are connected to create a MAN. It provides high speed internet services throughout the area covered within the network.       Wide Area Network (WAN) WAN is a system of network that covers a large geographical area across the world. WAN is used to connect LANs and other types of networks together, so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations.   more...

#### Exploring Windows 10

Action Item Description
Toggle between tablet and desktop mode.
Turns on battery ? saving features, at the cost of performance.
more...

#### Working with Word Processing 2013

Working with Word Processing 2013   Introduction Microsoft word 2013 is a word processing program that is used to create professional - looking documents such as reports, resumes, letters, memos and newsletters.   By using Word, it is easy to efficiently create a wide range of business and personal documents, from the simplest letter to the most complex report. Word includes many desktop publishing features that you can use to enhance the appearance of documents so that they are visually appealing and easy to read.   Using MS-Word you can performs that following functions:   v  Create professional looking documents. v  Change selection preferences. v  Customize Auto Correct. v  Learn how well you can write (technically). v  Make comments and suggestions. v  Spelling and Grammar check in a document. v  Inserting picture in a document. v  Inserting table and chart in a document.   Starting MS-Word   To start MS-Word, follow the following steps:   v  Click start button. v  Select All Apps. v  Click Microsoft Office 2013 and select Word 2013. Or v  Type the 'winword', in cortana in 'type here to search' box.   MS-Word Windows 2013     Features of MS-Word 2013   Title bar    This bar is located at the top of the window and displays the name of the document which is active.   Minimize Button   This button is located on the upper right corner of the window. It is the first button of existing three buttons.   Maximize/Restore   This button is also located on the upper right corner of the window. It is the second button of existing three buttons. It basically changes the size of the window.   Document Close Button   This button is located on the upper right corner of the window. It is the third button of existing three buttons. It is basically used for closing the document on window.   Menu Bar    It is the list of main menu choices located below the title bar.   Scroll Bar     It allows scrolling the document up and down or from left to right. There are two types of scroll more...

#### Introduction to MS-Excel 2013

Introduction to MS-Excel 2013   Introduction Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program that is used to record and analyses numerical data. It is designed to perform calculations, analyze and visualize data in a spread-sheet. Alphabetical letters are usually assigned to columns and numbers are usually assigned to rows. The point where a column and a row meet is called a cell. The address of a cell is given by the letter representing the column and the number representing a row.   An Excel 2013 Window:     What is a Workbook? A workbook is a collection of worksheets. Excel files are called workbooks. Whenever you start a new project, you will need to create a new workbook. There are several ways to start working with a workbook. You can choose to create a new workbook either with a blank workbook or with a predesigned template.   To create a new blank workbook 1. Select the File tab.     2. Select new, then click blank workbook     3. A new blank workbook will appear   To open an existing workbook In addition to creating new workbooks, you will often need to open a workbook that was previously saved. Listed below are the steps for opening an existing workbook. 1. Select file tab, then click open. 2. Select computer, then click Browser.   3. The open dialog box will appear. Locate and select your workbook, then click open.   To create a new workbook from a template A template is a predefined spreadsheet that can be used to create a new workbook quickly. It saves a lot of time and effort when starting a new project.   Listed below are the steps for creating a new workbook from a template: 1. Click the file tab, then click new, several templates will appear below the blank workbook option.     2. Select a template to review it.   3. A preview of the template will appear, along with additional information on how the template can be used.   4. Click create to use the selected template.   Insert, Delete and Rename Worksheets   Insert Worksheet By default, workbook 2013 contains only one worksheet. You can insert additional worksheets as needed.   v  Click on Home tab under cell group click on Insert sheet. Or v  Use 4- button located on the right side of the sheet tab, to insert new sheet.   Delete Worksheet If you do not need a worksheet, you can delete it from the workbook.   v  Click on the Home tab, under cell group, click on delete sheet. Or v more...

#### Series Completion and Inserting The Missing Character

SERIES   A series is a uniform set of digits, letters, figures etc. In a series, the terms fall according to a certain rule. To complete a series or to identify a missing term, a candidate is required to identify the rule on which the given series has been formed. Let us illustrate readers with the help of examples and its explained answers.     EXAMPLE   1.         Choose the missing term in the given series. 1, 2, 4, 8, 7, 32                  (a) 12                            (b) 16                            (c) 20                            (d) 28   Explanation (b): In the given series, each term except first term is twice its preceding term. Second term $=2\times 1=2$ Third term $=2\times 2=4$ Fourth term $=2\times 4=8$ Fifth term $=\text{ }2\times 8=16$ Sixth term $=\text{ }2\times 16=32$ Thus, required term = 5th term = So, the correct option is (b).       2.         Identify the missing term. 5, 7, 11, 13, ?, 19, 23               (a) 17                            (b) 16                            (c) 15                            (d) 14   Explanation (a): Let us observe the given series in the following way: 5+2=7 7+4= 11 11+2=13 13+4= 17+2=19 19+4=23 Clearly, the pattern is: +2, +4, +2, +4, +2, +4 Thus, the missing term is . So, the correct option is (a).       3.         The following series consists of five figures named problem figures. Select a figure from amongst the figures (a), (b), (c) and (d) which will continue the same series as established by the five problem figures.                 (a)                (b)               (c)            (d)    Explanation (c): In each next figure a new element appears. The upper two elements and the lower two elements interchange their places alternately. Therefore, the correct option is (c).     INSERTING THE MISSING CHARACTER   A pattern is a design or a set of figures and it contains numbers or letters or both. Out of these characters a number/letter is missing. To identify the missing number/letter a candidate is required to decipher the pattern. The following example would be helpful for pattern based problems.     4.         Which number will replace the question mark in pattern below?                           (a) 21                            (b) 23                            (c) 25                            (d) 27   Explanation (c): From fig. (i) : 6 + 4 + 8 = 18 and 18 + 2 = 20 From fig. (ii): 7 + 9 + 8 = 24 and 24 + 2 = 26 more...

#### Analogy and Classification

ANALOGY   Analogy refers similar relationship between two or three numbers or letters or words or figures or things etc.   Relationships: The two numbers/letters/figures may be related in any of the various ways. Some of them are as follows: ·         One number is twice or half the other one. ·         One number is greater than or less than the other number by a number. ·         They are consecutive odd, even or prime numbers. ·         Letters at alternate positions in the English alphabet. ·         Skipping of letters in the English alphabet. ·         Movements or rotation of a figure or different elements of a figure in different directions.     EXAMPLE   1.         12 is to 24 as 24 is to ________.             (a) 8                              (b) 16                            (c) 24                            (d) 48   Explanation (d): The second number on the left of 'as' is double the first number and so the second number on the right of 'as' should be double the first number.  Required number Thus, the correct option is (d).     2.         Which figure will replace the question mark in the second pair on the right of:: in the same way as the first pair on the left of :: ?               (a)                   (b)                (c)                    (d)   Explanation (c): The first figure rotates  CW to obtain the second figure. Hence, the correct option is (c).     CLASSIFICATION   In 'classification', we classify various items into a group on the basis of their common properties. These items may be numbers, letters, figures, things, places etc. In such type of problems, some items are given.   All these items except one are similar in some manner. A candidate is required to identify the odd one out. Let us illustrate problems with the help of examples.     3.         Choose the odd one out.             (a) 10                            (b) 40                            (c) 64                            (d) 81   Explanation (d): Except 81, all other are even numbers. So, the correct option is (d).     more...

#### Coding-Decoding

WHAT IS CODING? Coding is a method of expressing something in a secret way.   WHAT IS DECODING? Decoding is a process to understand a code language.   TYPES OF CODING   1.            Letter Coding: in this type of coding, letters are used in forward or backward or both the directions for making some code language. 2.            Direct Letter Coding: Sometimes letters of a word are directly replaced by other letters. For example :                Word                                               Code               ZOOLOGY                                PMMTMHD               Here, Z, O, L, G and Y are replaced by P, M, T, H and D. Similarly, GOOGLY can be coded as HMMHTD. 3.            Number/Symbol Coding: Sometimes numerals or symbols are assigned to words. 4.            Substitution Coding: Sometimes some particular words are assigned to certain names.     EXAMPLE   If in a certain code language, POPULAR is coded as QPQVMBS, then which word would be coded as GBNPVT? (a) FARMER                   (b) FAMOUS                  (c) FRAMES                   (d) FARMES   Explanation (b): POPULAR is coded in the following way: Similarly, we can obtain the word for which GBNPVT is code. Consider as follows: Thus, the required word is FAMOUS. So, the correct option is (b).

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