Current Affairs 6th Class

  Article   Articles In English language there are three articles. They are: ?A?, ?An? and ?The?. These three articles are divided into two parts:   (i) Indefinite Articles ? ?a? and ?an? (ii) Definite Article - "the"   Indefinite Articles "A" and "An" ?A? is used before a word which starts with a consonant or a vowel which sounds like a consonant.   ·                     Example A book, a pen, a chair, a one rupee note, etc. ?An? is used before a word which starts with a vowel or a consonant which sounds like a vowel.   ·                     Example An apple, an egg, an honest man, etc. See the following examples: A one eyed man Here ?a? is used before ?one? because "one" sounds like Wone or Vone which is a consonant. A university Here University sounds like Yuniversity which is a consonant. An M.L.A. Here M.L.A. sounds like Am al a' which is a vowel.   See some other uses of indefinite articles.   1.            We use ?a/an? when we use noun/pronoun for the first time in a sentence. He is wearing a suit and a tie. They have a cat.   2.            We use ?a/an? to say what kind of person or thing someone or something is (often with an adjective or to say it belongs to a particular group). You have a nice house. That?s a very expensive car! A cat is an animal a bus is a vehicle.   3.            We use ?a/an? to talk about someone's job. My wife is an optician. She works as a mechanic.   Remember   (i) Indefinite Article are not used with uncountable noun. (ii) Article is not used before the name of games. For example: She plays ludo. (iii) Article is not used before some diseases like cholera, malaria, fever and typhoid, etc. (iv) Article is not used before the name of festivals. (v) Article is not used before plural Countable Nouns when they indicate a class. (vi) No article is used before the names of language. (vii) No article is used before Proper Noun, Material Noun and Abstract Nouns.   Definite Article ?The?   Definite Article: Definite Article (the) points out a particular person, animal, thing or place.   1.            ?The? is used before a noun beginning with a consonant or a vowel sound. For example:   ?The apple you more...

  Pronoun   The word which is used in the place of noun is called pronoun.     1.            Personal Pronoun: The pronoun which indicates a person is called personal pronoun. For example: I am going She is eating. Personal Pronoun are used for first, second and third person. Various Forms and Functions of the Personal Pronoun:  
Person Number Gender Subject1 Object2 Passive2
First Singular Common I me my, mine
  Plural '' we us our, ours
Second Singular Common You you   Noun   The name of a person, place or a thing is called noun. For example: Taj Mahal, book, Arun, etc.     1.            Proper Noun: The name given to a particular person, place or thing is a proper noun. For example: Kolkata is a large city. Grant is reading the book.   2.            Common Noun: A noun that gives a common name to person, place, animal or thing is called common noun.     ?              Countable Noun: Common noun which can be counted is called countable noun. For example: Girls are going to the school. There are many flowers on the plant.   ?              Uncountable (Mass) Noun: Common noun which cannot be counted is called uncountable noun. For example: Take a glass of milk. Water is necessary for life.     3.            Collective Noun: A collective noun is the name of a collection of persons or things taken together as a single unit. For example: Our team won the match. Indian army fought bravely.   4.            Material Noun: The noun that is used for the raw substance of which things are made is called material noun. For example: The glass is made up of steel. The jewellery is made up of gold.   5.            Abstract Noun: The noun that is used to describe action, state or quality is called abstract noun. For example: Honesty is the best policy. Laughter is the best medicine.  
  Jumbled Words and Sentences   Jumbled Words A group of letters which makes sense is called a word. In a jumbled word, the letters of the alphabet are not in order. They are in mixed form. You have to arrange these letters to make a meaningful word. Look at the following examples. 1.            IJUNRY             =         INJURY 2.            ERATS              =         TEARS 3.            THIWUTO         =         WITHOUT 4.            KESCTH           =         SKETCH 5.            SPMA               =         SPAM   Sentence   A group of words making a complete sense is called sentence.   There are mainly five kinds of sentences.   1.            Assertive sentence: A sentence that states or declares something is called an assertive or declarative sentence. For example: I go to school by bus.   2.            Interrogative sentence: A sentence that asks a question is called a question or an interrogative sentence. For example: What is your name?   3.            Imperative sentence: A sentence that expresses a command, request, suggestion, order or advice is called an imperative sentence. For example: Keep silence.   4.            Exclamatory sentence: A sentence that expresses some strong feelings or emotions such as joy sorrow, surprise or contempt is called an exclamatory sentence. For example: How beautiful the flower is!   5.            Optative sentence: A sentence which expresses wish, desire or pray is called an optative sentence. For example: May God bless you!   Jumbled Sentences   In these types of questions, you are provided with the first and last parts of a sentence. The remaining sentence is broken into four parts labelled (P), (Q), (R) and (S). You are required to arrange these parts so as to form a complete meaningful sentence. Look at the following examples.   1.            The collector said that the P: supply of water for irrigation Q: dams should receive water R: upto a particular level S: to ensure uninterrupted The proper sequence should be (a) QRSP                       (b) PSQR (c) RQSP                       (d) SPRQ (e) None of these Ans.     (a)   2.            When you P: which one is closest in meaning Q: read the four sentence in your text book and decide R: to the statement more...

  Antonyms and Synonyms   Antonyms: The words which are opposite in meaning of a word. Some antonyms are given as examples.  
S. No. Word Antonyms
1.      TRAGEDY Comedy
2.      STRICT Lenient
3.      OVERT Secret
4.      UNIVERSAL Regional
5.      ALIVE Dead
6.      ANCESTORS Descendants
7.      SYNTHETIC Natural
8.      more...
  Identification through Definitions and Example   In this lesson, we will try to identify the object/person/anything by its definition or by certain examples. Below are mentioned some example to develop your understanding.   ·                     A person residing in a country of which he is not a citizen. Non-resident ·                     Happening every year                                                                              Annual ·                     Living in water                                                                                        Aquatic ·                     One who does not believe in God                                                              Atheist               ·                     An assembly of hearers                                                                            Audience ·                     The science of plant life                                                                           Botany ·                     A list of the names of books                                                                     Catalogue                                  ·                     One hundred years                                                                                  Century ·                     A letter claimed by nobody                                                                      Dead letter ·                     A book which tells what   various words mean                                            Dictionary ·                     Fit to be eaten Edible       ·                     One who is fit to be elected                                                                      Eligible ·                     That which causes death  Fatal ·                     An imaginary serpent with Many heads                                                      Hydra ·                     Contrary to law                                                                                      Illegal ·                     That which cannot be Moved                                                                   Immovable ·                     That which cannot be heard                                                                     Inaudible ·                     That which cannot be seen                                                                       Invisible ·                     A place containing books for reading or reference                                         Library ·                     To carry away a person forcibly                                                                Kidnap ·                     A lady who attends sick persons or infants                                                  Nurse ·                     Of evil reputation                                                                                    Notorious ·                     A child whose parents are dead                                                                 Orphan ·                     One who is liked by the People                                                                 Popular ·                     A place where birds, animals, etc., are kept                                    Zoo ·                     A woman whose husband is dead                                                  Widow ·                     A rule that is applicable to all                                                                   Universal ·                     Privilege, enjoyed by cityzens                                                                    Right ·                     An examination of body made after death                                                 Postmortem ·                     That which has no equal                                                                          Unique ·                     One who lives on vegetables only                                                  Vegetarian ·  Distinguish between Facts and Opinion   In this chapter, we try to differentiate facts from opinions and also try to find out whether the given opinions follow the fact or not. Some examples are given below to explain how to distinguish between facts and opinion.   ·                     Example 1   Three sentences are given below. You have to identify which sentence is/are fact/s and which is an opinion.   I:  You may not be loyal to the boss but you can give him an apparent sense of loyalty. II:  Loyalty to the boss is considered important. III: Some people can go to any extent to please their boss.   Select your answer from the given choices. (a) I-Fact, II-Opinion, III-Opinion (b) I-Opinion, II-Fact, III-Fact (c) I-Opinion, II-Fact, III-Opinion (d) I-Fact, II-Opinion, III-Fact (e) None of these   Ans.     (a) Loyalty to the boss is certainly very important. It increases your chance of promotion. You might not be loyal to him but you can show him loyalty which will be gainful to you. Hence statement I is fact and statements II and III are opinions.       ·                     Example 2   In the question one fact (statement) followed by two opinions numbered I and II are given. Consider everything in the statement and also both the opinions to be true, then decide which of the two opinions logically follows the given statement.   Give your answer as: (a) if only opinion I follows (b) if only opinion II follows (c) if neither I nor II follows (d) if both I and II follows                         (e) None of these Fact: He stressed on the need to stop the present examination system and its replacement by other methods which would measure the real merit of the students.   Opinions: I.  Examinations should be abolished. II. The present examination system does not measure the real merit of the student.   Ans.     (b)       ·                     Example 3 In this question one fact is followed by two opinions. Fact: Books without knowledge of life are useless.   Opinions: I: All books contain knowledge of life. II: People should try to gain the knowledge of life. (a) if only opinion I is implicit from the given fact (b) if only opinion II is implicit from the given fact (c) if neither I nor II is implicit from the given fact (d) if either I or II is implicit from the given fact (e) None of these   Ans.     (c)      

  Analogy   Analogy means similarity or a relationship between two or more objects. In questions based on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the alternatives provided. This similarity/relationship may be on the basis of properties, kinds, traits, shapes etc.   Given below are some types of relations to help you understand analogy.     ·                     Instrument and Measurement  
S. No. Instrument Measurement
1.      Scale Length
2.      Seismograph Earthquakes
3.      Thermometer Temperature
4.      Balance Mass
5.      Anemometer Wind Vane
6.      Watch Time
    ·                     Quantity and Unit  
S. No. Quantity Unit
  Classification   Everything on the Earth or in the Universe is not unique, it is identical with some other things in various respects. Here, we are giving examples to develop your understanding about the classification:   1.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Guava                      (b) Cauliflower (c) Malta                        (d) Coconut (e) None of these Ans.     (b) Except cauliflower all three are the names of fruits.   2.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Peacock                    (b) Hen (c) Mare                         (d) Bitch (e) None of these Ans.     (a) Here all the given options represent an animal but peacock represents a male animal while the rest represent a female animal.   3.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Square                      (b) Rectangle (c) Triangle                     (d) Area (e) None of these Ans.     (d) All others are geometrical figures.   4.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Gallon                      (b) Ton (c) Quintal                     (d) Kilogram (e) None of these Ans.     (a) All the remaining are units of weight while ?gallon? is the unit of capacity.   5.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Barometer                 (b) Thermometer (c) Diameter                   (d) Lactometer (e) None of these Ans.     (c) All the remaining things are the instruments of measurement.   6.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Rain                         (b) Fog (c) Smoke                      (d) Mist (e) None of these Ans.     (a) All the other items remain in the atmosphere in the form of minute particles.   7.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Direction                   (b) Compass (c) Needle                      (d) Magnet (e) None of these Ans.     (a) All the other are instruments.   8.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Moon                       (b) Jupiter (c) Mars                         (d) Saturn (e) None of these Ans.     (a) All the rest are planets.   9.            Choose the odd one out: (a) Water                       (b) Flower (c) Leaf                         (d) Branch (e) None of these Ans.     (a) All others are the parts of a tree.   10.          Which one is different from the rest three? (a) Kuchipudi                  (b) Kathak (c) Disco                        (d) Manipuri (e) None of these Ans.     (c) All the others are classical dances.   11.          Which one of the following is different from the rest three? (a) Breathing                  (b) Singing (c) Playing                     (d) Writing (e) None of these Ans.     (a) Only breathing is a natural action.   12.          Which one of the following is different from the rest three? (a) Car                          (b) Chariot (c) Cart                          (d) Sledge (e) None of more...
  Comprehensions Based on Stories   Read the stories given below and answer the questions that follow:   ·                     Example 1   You may have heard the name of Tansen - the greatest musician our country had produced. A singer called Mukandan Mishra and his wife lived in Behat near Gwalior. Tansen was their only child. It is said that he was a naughty child. Often, he ran away to play in the forest, and soon learnt to imitate perfectly the calls of birds and animals. A famous singer named Swami Haridas was once travelling through the forest with his disciples. Tired, the group settled down to rest in a shady grove. Tansen saw them. 'Strangers in the forest! he said to himself. 'It will be fun to frighten them'. He hid behind a tree and roared like a tiger. The little group of travellers scattered in fear but Swami Haridas called them together. "Don't be afraid," he said, 'Tigers are not always dangerous. Let us look for this one.? Suddenly, one of his men saw a small boy hiding behind a tree. ?There is no tiger here, master,? he said, ?Only this naughty boy.?   1.            Who was the father of Tansen? (a) Akbar                       (b) Haridas (c) Birbal                       (d) Mukandan Mishra (e) None of these   2.            Where did Tansen live? (a) Chandigarh               (b) Behat (c) Patna                       (d) Delhi (e) None of these   3.            Who was Tansen? (a) Joker                        (b) Minister (c) Musician                   (d) King (e) None of these   4.            Who was Swami Haridas? (a) Magician                   (b) Singer (c) Musician                   (d) Player (e) None of these   ·                     Example 2   His wife was furious and she dived in to hide herself at the bottom of the river leaving the little ones to pester their father. The crocodile was in a serious dilemma. He loved his wife and was very fond of his friend too. Finally lie decided to be on the side of his wife. She was his life-partner after all. ?I know it?s a sin to betray a friend, but I have no choice,? he said to himself ?I?ll invite the monkey home and hope for the best.? ?My wife wants you over for a meal, dear friend,? said the crocodile when he visited the monkey next time, ?You must come home with me today.? ?With pleasure,? said the monkey, ?I?m no swimmer, but can ride on your back.? They set out. In the middle of the river, where the current was the strongest, the crocodile could no longer hide his intention. ?Sorry, my friend,? he said hesitatingly ?but I have to go under water now. I?ve brought you here to more...


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